Outline of Logos 11: Comparing India, China and the West - Mostly photos taken during a month in India (lecture by Piero Scaruffi)

Logos 11
Logos 11: 2007
Bibliography
Jadunath Sinha: "History Of Indian Philosophy" (1956)
Haridas Bhattacharyya: "The Cultural Heritage Of India" (1937)
Hermann Goetz: The Art of India (1959)
Hugh-George Rawlinson: A Cultural History of India (1937)
Henri Stierlin: Hindu India (2002)

Theorem
Worst Western misconception about India and China (and Japan etc): that they are all "Eastern" (Eastern philosophy, Eastern religion, Eastern art, etc)
China and India have as much in common as France and Indonesia (different arts, different languages, different institutions, different traditions, different landscape, different economies_)
"The central aim of Eastern mysticism is to experience all phenomena in the world as manifestations of the same ultimate reality" (Fritjof Capra)
Theorem
Dravidian India is the remnant of the third great cradle of world civilization, having survived the Indo-European and Muslim invasions
Three different minds: West, India, China, the Indian mind being best represented today in South Dravidian India

India's identity
A continent, not a country (including Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan) no native name for the whole subcontinent
A battleground for all the major religions (Greek, Hinduism, Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam)
Two main families of languages: Indo-European (e.g. Hindi) in the north and Dravidian (e.g. Tamil, Kannada, Telugu) in the south
India's identity
Landscape
Himalayas in the north
Deserts and steppes in the west
Rain forest in the east
Indus, Ganges and Brahmaputra plains and river deltas
Arab Sea and Gulf of Bengal
Main migration route: from the eastern steppes towards the southern seas
Ancient Civilizations
Indus Valley civilization
Indus Valley civilization
Indo-European culture
Indo-European migrations
Indo-European culture
The Indo-Europeans in India
Fragmented into small kingdoms along the Ganges
Domestication: sheep, goat, cow, dog
Horse-driven chariot
Main entertainment: music (India's most ancient art)
Tripartite society (castes): priests, warriors, farmers
Worship of the Devas ("celestial beings", mostly representing natural phenomena)
Dyaus chief deity, who lives in the sky
Greatest glory: death in battle (cfr Homer)
Indian Languages
Today:
India has 112 mother tongues with at least 10,000 speakers
Indian Languages
Today:
23 Dravidian languages are spoken by 180 million people, mainly in the south (Tamil in Tamil Nadu, Telugu in Andhra Pradesh, Kannada in Karnataka, Malayalam in Kerala)
Indian Languages
Today:
Mandarin: 1051 millions
English 510
Hindi 490
Spanish 425
Arabic 255
Russian 254
Portuguese 218
Bengali 215
Malay 175
French 130

The Dravidian Wall
China's "walls": seas, mountains and steppes (and the Great Wall)
India's "walls": seas, mountains, deserts... and the Dravidian people
Main cultural invasion: Persia
First major invasion from Persia: Indo-Europeans
Second major invasion from Afghanistan: Islam
Neither completely conquered the Dravidian people, who moved to the south

The Dravidian Wall
Dravidian dynasties created their own kingdoms in the south
Their influence and domains extended as far as Indonesia
Evidence that these southern kingdoms traded with the Roman empire
The Dravidians maintained an identity that the invaders were trying to erase

The Dravidian Wall
The European powers (the first powers capable of invading from the sea) tore down the Dravidian wall
The European powers were the first invaders that did not come from northwest
Dravidian Art
The essence of Dravidian art: manic density of detail
Highly metaphorical
Dravidian art is an endless process of decoding/interpretation
Overwhelmingly Hindu (not Islamic or Buddhist)
Every corner of a temple filled with sculptures
A total experience
Sensory overload
Indo-European India
Rig-veda (1500 BC) in Vedic (Indo-European language)
Most popular deities
Gods of heaven: Varuna (god of the cosmic order) is the supreme god, Surya (sun god), etc
Gods of the air: Indra (god of war, most popular god of the Rig Vedas), Rudra, etc
Gods of earth: Agni (the fire god), etc
Three goals of human life: artha (material success), dharma (righteous social behavior), and kama (sensual pleasures)
All Vedas were reserved for male priests of the upper (Brahmin) caste
Indo-European India
Vedism till 6th century BC
Monopoly of the Brahmins
Salvation can be attained only by secret rituals known only to the Brahmins
Indo-European India
Upanishad (600 BC) in Sanskrit (Indo-European language)
The metaphysical counterpart of the Veda
Pessimistic vision of the human condition: life is evil/sorrow
Salvation is liberation (moksha) from the illusory world (maya)
Moksha is achieved when the individual soul (atman) becomes one with the universal soul (brahman)
Reaction of the Ksatriyas against the Brahmins: the Upanishads are not exclusive to the Brahmins
End of the monopoly of the Brahmins over religion
Indo-European India
527 BC: Siddhartha Gautama is enlightened
500 BC: the ascetic prince Mahavira founds Jainism
Indo-European India
Six darshana (schools) of philosophy
Samkhya (5th c BC BC)
Vedanta (5th c BC)
Royal Yoga (2nc c BC)
Nyaya
Vaisesika
Purva-mimamsa
Indo-European India
327 BC: Alexander invades the Indus Valley
304 BC: Chandragupta Maurya gets the Indus Valley
300 BC: the "Ramayama" is composed
259 BC: Mauryan king Ashoka converts to Buddhism
200 BC: the "Mahabarata" is composed
Vedism has become Hinduism
History of India
History of India
A false start: Buddhist and Jain art, not Hindu art
Mauryans protected both Buddhists and Jains
Buddhist ability to create wealthy corporate institutions
Buddhism prevalent over Hinduism in the visual arts till the 5th c AD
History of India
Fundamental difference between Hinduism and Buddhism
No atman: no enduring consciousness, consciousness is a substance not a being
Salvation lies in escape from the illusion of the self: nirvana
"Only suffering exists, but no sufferer is to be found" (from the Visuddhimagga)
No brahman
Very difficult to do the right thing (requires meditation and practice)
Monasteries and universities
Anti-Brahminical
History of India
Jainism
Buddha: the soul of the individual does not exist
Mahavira: everything has a soul (humans, animals, plants, objects)
Ultimate goal: purification, not nirvana, so that no more karma can attach to the soul
Purification leads to perfect knowledge (kevala, similar to moksha)
Also anti-Brahminical
World Religions
Respect for life

World Religions
Respect for unbelievers

Ancient Indian Art
Mostly religious architecture
Ancient secular Indian architecture (palaces) were destroyed
The famous palaces of India are either Muslim or British

Sri Lankan Art
Sri Lanka:
Theravada Buddhism ("Doctrine of the Elders")
Oldest continuously Buddhist country
Tripitaka/Tipitaka assembled in Sri Lanka (1st c AD), written in Pali (Indo-European language)
Sri Lankan Art
Theravada/Hinayana
The Buddha as a supremely enlightened human
Only one Buddha
Very difficult to achieve salvation
Arhat only saves himself
Atheistic
Mahayana
The Buddha as a manifestation of a divine being
Many Buddhas
Easier to achieve salvation
Bodhisattva can save others
Monotheistic
Sri Lankan Art
Sri Lanka:
Rock-cut temples ("caves")
Free-standing architecture
The stupa: funereal tumulus that developed into a cosmic building, both a memorial to a saint and a diagram of the spiritual universe
Balance of round and square shapes
First stupas in India: 5th c BC
Sri Lankan Art
Anuradhapura (3rd c BC - 3rd c AD)
Sri Lankan Art
Anuradhapura (3rd c BC - 3rd c AD)
Sri Lankan Art
Anuradhapura (3rd c BC - 3rd c AD)
Sri Lankan Art
Dambula caves (1st c BC - 18th c)
Sri Lankan Art
Dambula caves (1st c BC - 18th c)
Sunga/Satavahan Art
Sunga map

Sunga Art
Buddhist
The chaitya hall: carving of chambers into living stone to accommodate stupas
Colonnaded aisles
Arched vaults
Curving ribs
Vihara/monastery, originally series of rock-cut cells
Preference for rock-cut "buildings" over free-standing buildings

Sunga Art
Sanchi
Bharhut
Caves
Bhaja caves (1st c BC)
Karla caves (1st c BC)
Ajanta caves (1st c BC)
Udaigiri caves (Jain!)
Sunga Art
Sunga Art
Sunga Art
Sunga Art
Bhaja caves
Sunga Art
Karla caves
Sunga Art
Karla caves
Sunga Art
Ajanta caves
Sunga Art
Udayagiri caves
Sunga/ Satavahan Art
Buddhist and Jain
Very spiritual
Kushan Art
Kushan Art
0-300 AD four empires in Eurasia:
Han (Buddhist and Taoist)
Roman (Christian)
Parthian (Zoroastrian)
Kushan (Buddhist)
Kushan Art
The spice road
Kushan Art
Buddhist architecture
Kanishka's stupa at Peshawar (3rd c AD), about 200m tall
Kushan Art
Gandhara school
Gandhara/Chandahara (northwestern Pakistan and Afghanistan), former Bactrian (Greek) colony
Kushan adopted Buddhism as official religion of the region (1st c AD)
Kushan king Kanishka (2nd c AD) convenes the Buddhist council that marks the schism of Mahayana and Hinayana Buddhism
Gandhara statues of the Kushan period (1st-2nd c AD): first anthropomorphic representation of Buddha
Buddha image derived from Roman imperial statues and Roman religious faces
Kushan Art
Gandhara school
Kushan Art
Nagarjuna (2nd century AD), first great Indian philosopher, Buddhist
Gupta Art
Gupta Art
Decline of Buddhism, rise of Hinduism
Reduced contacts with the West, following Persian-Roman wars
Resurgence of the Brahmin priests
Emphasis on priestly rites, not on metaphysics
Old gods (e.g., Indra) abandoned in favor of the "trimurti": Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva (creation, preservation, destruction)

Gupta Art
Vishnu the Sustainer (benevolent) and Shiva the Destroyer (terrible)
Vishnu and Shiva both of Dravidian origin
Vishnu has many incarnations (avatar): Rama, Krishna...
Shiva's phallus (linga) is the central shrine of temples and the personal shrine of households
Shiva performs a cosmic dance while the world is being destroyed
The Nandi bull is the vahana (vehicle) of Shiva (a Nandi faces the main shrine of every Shiva temple
Gupta Art
New cults:
Shiva's son Skanda (the war god) and elephant-headed Ganesh (5th c AD)
Surya, the sun god
Goddesses (each god is complemented by a female power): Laksmi (Vishnu's wife), Durga (Shiva's wife), and, in general, Shakti (Lakshmi is Vishnu's shakti and Parvati is Shiva's shakti, and she is also Kali and Durga)
Gupta Art
India's classical age
First books (earliest extant: 350 AD)
Revival of Sanskrit
University of Nalanda (students from China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Tibet, Nepal, Sri Lanka)
Literature (Kalidasa, poet and playwright in Sanskrit)
Drama (Nataka, derived from dance)
Six darshana (schools) of philosophy
Gupta Art
Hindu temple architecture
Derived from Buddhist/Jain architecture
Brick and stone temples
Hindu temple: a small cella (central chamber), a shikhara (spire), representing a cave inside Meru
Cave temples evolving into free-standing temples
Architecture = sculpture
Body language of dancing transferred to sculpture and painting, introducing rhythm in the visual arts ("Vishnudharmottaram", earliest manual on art: painting and sculpture derive from dance which derives from music)
Gupta Art
Hindu temple vs Buddhist stupa
Gupta Art
Hindu temple architecture
First international style in Asia, spreading to China, Japan, Central Asia, Southeast Asia
History of India
Chalukya Art
Badami
Aihole
Pattadakal
Chalukya Art
Badami 1 (Shiva)
Chalukya Art
Badami 2 & 3
Chalukya Art
Aihole
Chalukya Art
Pattadakal
Chalukya Art
Pattadakal
Pallava Art
Mamallapuram
Kanchipuram

Pallava Art
Mamallapuram
Pallava Art
Mamallapuram
Pallava Art
Mamallapuram
Pallava Art
Mamallapuram: temples carved in the living rock
Pallava Art
Mamallapuram
Pallava Art
Mamallapuram
Pallava Art
Mamallapuram: a free-standing temple
Sailodbhava Art
Bhubaneswar

Sailodbhava Art
Bhubaneswar

Pallava Art
Kanchipuram

Pallava Art
Kanchipuram

Rastrakuta Art
Ellora: Buddhist, Jain and Hindu rock-cut temples
Elephanta: Hindu caves
Rastrakuta Art
Elephanta caves

Rastrakuta Art
Ellora: Kailasa

Indian Philosophy
Adi Shankara (Kerala, 788AD), first great Hindu philosopher (Vedanta school)
Bhakti
South-Indian bhakti (8th-11th c AD)
Hymns in Tamil by two groups of poets, Nayanars (worshipers of Shiva) and Alvars (Vishnu)
Singing in the language of ordinary people (not sanskrit) and passionately (almost erotically) intense
Sense of unrestrained joy, expressed in music and dance
The god's dancing girls (devadasis, sometimes also prostitutes)
Bhakti poets (writing in vernacular, not sanskrit) belong to any class (not only brahmin)
Bhakti
South-Indian bhakti (8th-11th c AD)
Popular deities for bhakti
Vishnu
Shiva
Devi/ Durga/ Parvati/ Lakshmi/ Saraswati
Ganesha
Surya
Subrahmanya
Bhakti
South-Indian bhakti (8th-11th c AD)
Great walled temple complexes of South India: small cities containing several shrines, bathing tanks, administrative offices, residences of the temple employees, workshops, bazaars, schools, banks, etc.
Bhakti
South-Indian bhakti (8th-11th c AD)
Vimana (pyramidal instead North India's shikhara/ curved tower)
Mandapa (pillared hall)
Gopura (multi-storey tower-gate)
History of India
Pandyan (southern India and Sri Lanka, 0 to 15th c)
Chola (southern India and Indonesia, 0 to 13th c)



Chola Art
Chidambaram: Nataraja temple (9th century)
Thanjavur: Brihadiswara temple (11th century)


Chola Art
Chidambaram

Chola Art
Chidambaram

Chola Art
Chidambaram

Chola Art
Thanjavur


Chola Art
Thanjavur


Chola Art
Thanjavur


Chola Art
Thanjavur


Bhakti Art
Regional variations:
Khajuraho (Chandela dynasty)
Orissa (e.g., Ganga dynasty)
Chandela Art
Khajuraho (10th-11th century)
Ganga Art
Eastern Gangas (1038-1568):
Bhubaneswar (11th century)
Konark (13th century)
Ganga Art
Bhubaneswar


Ganga Art
Bhubaneswar: Rajarani


Ganga Art
Bhubaneswar


Ganga Art
Konark
Ganga Art
Konark
Ganga Art
Konark
Ganga Art
Konark
Ganga Art
Konark
Ganga Art
Konark
Jain Art
Mt Abu (11th-13th century)
History of India
Medieval maps


Hoysala Art
Hoysala temples: star-shaped on jagged platforms and topped by a shikhara
Completely covered with sculptures
Belur: Chennakeshava temple (1117)
Halebid: Hoysaleshvara temple (1150)
Somnatpur: Keshava temple (1268 AD)
Hoysala Art
Belur
asymmetric layout
interior
Hoysala Art
Belur
Hoysala Art
Belur
Hoysala Art
Hoysala Art
Hoysala Art
Halebid
Hoysala Art
Halebid
Hoysala Art
Halebid
Hoysala Art
Somnatpur
dedicated to Vishnu


Hoysala Art
Somnatpur
Hoysala Art
Somnatpur
Hindu Art
Hindu
Little spirituality in Hindu temples (as opposed to Buddhist and Jain temples)
Nothing in Hindu temple makes you think about maya/moksha (in fact, almost the opposite: Hindu art looks like a baroque tribute to what should be maya)
What is missing in Hindu temples (but pervasive in Christian and Muslim and Buddhist ones) is sorrow.
The point of a Hindu temple seems to be to celebrate, not to mourn.
Consistent with the Ramayama and the Mahabarata (that expressed a much more positive/optimistic outlook than the Upanishads) and with the bhakti movement
Joyful devotion
Indian Literature
Sanskrit poetry (11th - 13th c):
Somadeva (Sanskrit, 1035): "Katha Sarit Sagara/ The Ocean of Streams of Story" (1081)
Jayadeva Goswami (Sanskrit, 11##): "Gita Govinda" (11##)
Jnaneshwar/ Jnanadev (Marathi, 12##): "Bhavartha Dipika" (129#)
Sri Lankan Art
Polonnaruva: Vatanage stupa (12th century)
Sri Lankan Art
Buddhist sorrow and spirituality: Polonnaruva
Sri Lankan Art
Polonnaruva: Gol Vihara
History of India
Muslim invasions:
1192-1526: Delhi sultanate
1526-1707: Moghul
Islamic Sorrow and Spirituality
Delhi
Bijapur
Agra
Islamic Sorrow
Delhi
Islamic Sorrow
Bijapur
Islamic Sorrow
Agra

Islamic Sorrow
Bijapur
Muslim Invasion
Muslims change the identity of North India
Muslims destroy many Hindu and Jain temples
South India, that had already resisted the Indo-European penetration, maintains the true "Hindu" identity
History of India
Vijayanagara (1336-1646)


Vijayanagar Art
Shrirangam: Ranganatha (13th-17th c)
Kanchipuram: Ekambareshvara (1506)
Kanchipuram: Devarajaswami (16th c)
Hampi: ruins of ancient capital (16th c)
Madurai: Minakshi Sundareshvara (Nayak, 1659)
Vijayanagar Art
Shrirangam
biggest functioning Hindu temple in the world
dedicated to Vishnu
21 gopuras
a low building with a gold-plated roof instead of the vimana
Vijayanagar Art
Shrirangam
Vijayanagar Art
Kanchipuram: Ekambareshvara (1506)
Vijayanagar Art
Kanchipuram: Devarajaswami (16th century)
Vijayanagar Art
Hampi
Vijayanagar Art
Hampi
Vijayanagar Art
Madurai: Minakshi Sundareshvara (1659)
dedicated to Parvati and Shiva

Vijayanagar Art
Madurai: Minakshi Sundareshvara (1659)
Vijayanagar Art
Madurai: Minakshi Sundareshvara (1659)
Vijayanagar Art
Madurai: Minakshi Sundareshvara (1659)
Vijayanagar Art
Madurai: Minakshi Sundareshvara (1659)
Vijayanagar Art
Madurai: Minakshi Sundareshvara (1659)
Jain Art
Palitana: Shatrunjaya sanctuary (16th c)
Jain Art
Palitana: Shatrunjaya sanctuary (16th c)
Jain Art
Palitana: Shatrunjaya sanctuary (16th c)
Jain Art
Palitana: Shatrunjaya sanctuary (16th c)
Jain Art
Palitana: Shatrunjaya sanctuary (16th c)
Jain Art
Palitana: Shatrunjaya South Ridge
Jain Art
Palitana: Shatrunjaya North Ridge
Jain Art
Palitana: Shatrunjaya North Ridge
Jain Art
Palitana: Shatrunjaya Middle Ridge
Jain Art
Palitana: Shatrunjaya Middle Ridge
Jain Art
Palitana: Shatrunjaya Middle Ridge
Indian Literature
Fiction
Mullah Wajhi (Urdu, 15##): "Sabras/ Sab Ras" (16##)
Poetry
Mahapurusha Srimanta Sankaradeva/ Shankara Deva (Assamese, 1449): "Kirtan" (14##)
Malik Jayasi (Hindi, 1493): "Padmavat" (154#) Meera Bai (Hindi, 1499): "Poems" (1547)
Tulsi Das (Hindi, 1532): "Ramacharitamanasa" (15##)
Eknath Swami (Marathi, 1548): "Ekanathi Bhagavata" (15##)
Abdur Rahim Khankhana (Hindi, 1556): "Poems" (16##)
Premananda Bhatta (Gujarati, 1636): "Poems" (1734)
Vali Mohammed/ Vali Dakhni (Urdu, 1667): "Diwan" (1707)
Theorem
Worst Western misconception about India and China (and Japan etc): that they are all "Eastern" (Eastern philosophy, Eastern religion, Eastern art, etc)
China and India have as much in common as France and Indonesia (different arts, different languages, different institutions, different traditions, different landscape, different economies_)
"The central aim of Eastern mysticism is to experience all phenomena in the world as manifestations of the same ultimate reality" (Fritjof Capra)
Theorem
Dravidian India is the remnant of the third great cradle of world civilization, having survived the Indo-European and Muslim invasions
Three different minds: West, India, China, the Indian mind being best represented today in South Dravidian India

India's Identity
Sensory overload
India's identity
India's identity
India's identity
India's identity
India's identity
India's identity
India's identity
India's identity
India's identity
India's identity
India's identity
Sign against plastic
India's identity
Distant relatives:
Persia (cultural deficit: more imports than exports)
Afghanistan (import: Islam, export: Buddhism)
China (one-way cultural trade, cultural surplus)
Indochina/Indonesia (ditto)
Christian Europe (cultural deficit)
USA (ditto_ so far)
India's identity
Humanities
Vedas
Upanishads
Buddhist scriptures
Narrative poems
Classical Music: improvisation
Architecture (temples, religious)
Sculpture (temples, religious)
Painting (caves, religious)
India's identity
Humanities
Philosophy: six darshana + Buddhism
Samkhya: Atheism, World is real (due to two substances, prakriti and purusha)
Yoga: Theism (Isvara), World is real (prakriti/purusha)
Vedanta: Theism (Brahman), World is not real (only one substance, spirit)

India's identity
Sciences
Invention of the "Arabic" numerals
First treatise on algebra (Aryabhata, 499)
But way behind in Geometry and Astronomy
Nyaya, Vaisesika: Logic
Chess (6th c AD)
...
Modern physicists: Satyendra Bose, Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, Subramaniam Chandrasekar, Amitaba Sen, Abhay Ashtekar
India's identity
20th century
Democracy
Melting Pot
First time in its history that it is divided along linguistic borders
Emigration (not as British slaves)
India's identity
The modern country of India:
Size: 3,287,590 sq km (seventh largest in the world)
Population: 1,095,351,995 (second or first in the world)
Fourth largest economy in the world (purchasing-power parity)
Median age: 24.9 (USA: 35.3)
Population growth rate: 1.38% (USA: 0.91%)
Life expectancy at birth: 64.71 (USA: 77.6)
India's identity
The modern country of India:
Religions:
Hindu 80.5%
Muslim 13.4%
Christian 2.3%
Sikh 1.9%
Buddhist 0.5% (California: 1.6%)

Fourth largest Muslim community:
1. Indonesia 88% of 245M = 215M
2. Pakistan = 166
3. Bangladesh = 148
4. India 13.4% of 1.1B = 147
India's identity
Religions of the world:
Christians 33.03% (of which Roman Catholics 17.33%, Protestants 5.8%, Orthodox 3.42%, Anglicans 1.23%)
Muslims 20.12%
Hindus 13.34%
Buddhists 5.89%
Sikhs 0.39%
Jews 0.23%
India's identity
Impact on the USA
British, Jews, Europeans, Chinese (colonizers and emigrants): science, warfare, family, political institutions, art/literature, spiritual life
Africans (slaves, not emigrants), Hispanic (conquistadores, not colonizers): party, sports, sexual revolution, gangs, music/dance, material life
Indians: ?
India vs China and the West
The Western world: Persia, Jews, Christian world, Islamic world
(Warning: in the 21st century the entire world is rapidly becoming westernized)
India vs China and the West
Worst Western misconception about India and China (and Japan etc): that they are all "Eastern" (Eastern philosophy, Eastern religion, etc)
China and India have as much in common as France and Indonesia (different arts, different languages, different institutions, different traditions, different landscape, different economies_)
India vs China and the West
"The central aim of Eastern mysticism is to experience all phenomena in the world as manifestations of the same ultimate reality" (Fritjof Capra)
This is common to all kinds of mysticism all over the world, from Herakleites (6th c BC) and Parmenides (5th c BC) to the Sufis to the Gnostics (1st c BC) to the Neo-Platonists (3rd c AD) to the Kabbalah (12th c) to the Pantheists (Spinoza, 17th c)
The Upanishads are roughly contemporary with Herakleites and Daoism
Pantheism is one of the most ubiquitous views of the world, in all ages in all parts of the world
Neither Buddhism nor Confucianism nor Shintoism are Pantheistic, nor is China's folk religion
India vs China and the West
West: a continent (in fact, more than one) that was never one nation
China: one nation, not a continent
India: a continent that was at times one nation
India vs China and the West
West: writing for accounting
China: writing for divination
India: writing for?
India vs China and the West
West: multi-ethnic, lots of competition/warfare
China: homogeneous most of the time
India: multi-ethnic but little competition/warfare

India vs China and the West
West: emphasis on war (both science and finance are driven by war)
China: emphasis on social/political (outer) peace (meritocracy, massive public works)
India: emphasis on inner peace

West: violent chaos
China: peaceful order
India: peaceful chaos
India vs China and the West
West: evil is ubiquitous
China: evil does not exist, only inferior races and wrong behavior
India: you "are" your own evil (bad karma)
India vs China and the West
West: monotheist
China: atheist (how to build an efficient society, how to live in harmony with nature)
India: polytheist
India vs China and the West
West: linear time (there is a beginning and there is an end to everything)
China: static time (China always was and always will be the same)
India: cyclic time (Brahma recreates the universe)

West: emphasis on innovation/progress/knowledge
China: emphasis on tradition
India: emphasis on ultimate reality (self-knowledge)
India vs China and the West
Western religion: creation myth at odds with Physics
Chinese religion (Confucius, Daoism, Buddhism): no creation myth
Hindu religion: creation myth surprisingly consistent with Physics

India vs China and the West
West: prophets, oracles, etc (announce the future)
China: sages (revere the past)
India: gurus/ spiritual teachers (advise the present)
India vs China and the West
West: exploration (exploring the world adds knowledge, and there are other places worth knowing)
China: there are no other places worth knowing (exploring the world does not add to knowledge)
India: no exploration (exploring the OUTER world does not add to knowledge)

West: a land of emigrants, explorers and colonizers
China: a land of emigrants
India: not a land of emigrants, explorers or colonizers
India vs China and the West
West: we are all equal
China: we "must" be all equal (optimizes society)
India: we are all different

West: democracy because of Christianity (we are all equal) and communism as well (we are all equal)
China: democracy an alien concept (because freedom weakens society), but communism a natural concept
India: democracy a natural concept because of many cultures on equal footing
India vs China and the West
West: architecture is grandeur (the king is great, the state is great, god is great)
China: architecture is harmony (harmony with nature, mandate from heaven)
India: architecture is joy
India vs China and the West
West: emotional storytelling
China: telling, not storytelling
India: exemplary/didactic story telling
India vs China and the West
West: The individual
China: Society
India: The legend/story
India vs China and the West
West: sex is evil
China: sex is natural ("decency")
India: sex is a performing art
India vs China and the West
West: death is bad
China: death is natural
India: death is birth
India vs China and the West
West: i'll make you want what i sell
China: I'll sell you what you want
India: i'll sell you what i have

India vs China and the West
West: only Western sports matter (win all gold medals in western sports)
China: all sports matter (win all gold medals)
India: only cricket matters (win zero gold medals)
India vs China and the West
Peaks of human civilization
Indian sculpture
Chinese painting
Western architecture

Indian philosophy
Chinese politics
Western science

Indian dance
Chinese ?
Western music
India vs China and the West
West: Individual bullshit
India vs China and the West
China: Government bullshit

India vs China and the West
India: Cowshit
India
You must be the change you wish to see in the world (Mahatma Gandhi)