Outline of Logos 4: History of Women (lecture by Piero Scaruffi)

Logos 4: 29 March 2006omen in History/ History of Women
Bibliography
Sarah Pomeroy: Goddesses, Whores, Wives, and Slaves - Women in Classical Antiquity (1975)
Margaret Ehrenberg: Women in Prehistory (1989)
Marija Gimbutas: Goddesses and Gods of Old Europe, 6500-3500 B.C. (1974)
M.Lefkowitz and M.Fant: Women's Life in Greece and Rome (1982)
Gay Robins: Women in Ancient Egypt (1993)
Shulamith Shahar: The Fourth Estate - A History of Women in the Middle Ages (1983)
Emilie Amt: Women1s Lives in Medieval Europe (1993)
Georges Duby, Michelle Perrot, etc: Histoire des Femmes en Occident (1992)
Bibliography
Francis Dahlberg: Woman the Gatherer
Elizabeth Wayland Barber: Women's Work - The First 20,000 Years - Women, Cloth and Society in Early Times
Merlin Stone: When God Was a Woman

Women in Pre-history
Venus of Willendorf
Women in Pre-history
Catal Huyuk
Female figurines
Prominence of women in €atal Hyk society and culture
"Women reigned supreme in religion, law and custom" (Marija Gimbutas)


Women in Pre-history
Mother Goddess?
Figurines of Catal Huyuk
Figurines of Jericho
Figurines of Badari, Egypt (4,000 BC)
From the Syrian coast to the Zagros mountains from 3,600BC
Figurines of Niniveh, Mesopotamia
Figurines of the Indus Valley (2,300 BC)
Only major exception: Persia!
Women in Pre-history
The women in ancient communal societies lived together, practicing their religion together as a fundamental way of life
Diet of prehistoric humans: mostly plant food (meat was scavenged). Thus woman the gatherer may have been more important than man the hunter as a food provider
Women's ancient role in cloth-making made them crucial to the survival of humans and to the developing economic system
Women in Pre-history
Ownership
Farming society
Value of labor
An animal is a good
A man is a good
A woman is a good
Society as a whole is a good
Different forms of the same concept: ownership
Domestication of animals
Monandry (one husband only)
Slavery
Religion
Women in Pre-history
Domestication, monandry, religion and slavery emerge at about the same time
Women in Pre-history
Monogamy: both women and men have only one spouse at the time
Monogyny: a man has only one spouse at the time (a woman can have many)
Monandry: a woman has only one spouse at the time (a man can have many)
Polygamy: both men and women) can have many spouses at the time
Polygyny: a man can have many wives at the time
Polyandry: a woman can have many husbands at the time

Polyandry
Polyandry in nature
Mammals: when males of a species are much larger than females, polygyny (many wives) is common
Mammals: when the females are larger than males, polyandry (many husbands) is more likely
The great apes (gorillas, orangutans, chimpanzees) practice polygyny (many wives)
Gibbons are monogamous
Bonobos are polygamous
Birds: 99 of 100 socially monogamous species of birds are polygynous at least
Insects: polyandry is widespread
Polyandry
Polyandry among humans
Tibet
India (Zanskar, Ladakh, Toda of South India, Nairs of Kerala, the Nymba and Pahari of North India)
Sri Lanka, Nepal
China (the Mosuo of Yunnan)
Sub-Saharan Africa
Brazil (the Surui of northwestern Brazil)
Virginity
Origin of virginity
Virginity is the most unnatural state
Symbol of human control of nature
Symbol of human emancipation from the animal kingdom
Symbol of sacrifice
Women in History
Map
Mesopotamia/Egypt
All religions began as matriarchal religions
Adoption of a sedentary lifestyle because of agriculture may have fundamentally reoriented society towards patriarchal organization
The rise of city-states made war more important than fertility
Separation of public life and private life
Administrative and military organization by men
Domestic and agricultural organization by women
Urbanization dramatically precipitated gender inequality
Women in Mesopotamia
Mother goddess: yearly renewal of life, both mother and bride
The goddess Nammu, who had no beginning in time, created the world and all living creatures
Ninhursaga, goddess of birth (Kesh)
Male triad/ divine aristocracy (2500 BC)
Enlil, dwelling in Nippur, becomes the greatest of the gods, and the god who punishes people
Anu: god of the sky, head of pantheon
Enki/Ea: god of irrigation waters (Eridu)
Male divine tyranny (2000 BC)
Marduk, god of Babylon, replacing Enlil
Women in Mesopotamia
Mother goddess
The young male god dies annually and has to be rescued by the old mother goddess every year
Sumeria: Inanna and Dumuzi
Later: Descent of Ishtar to the underworld to "resurrect" Tammuz
Inanna/Ishtar = source of regeneration
Tammuz/Dumuzi (husband of Ishtar) = agent of the regeneration
This event brings about the revival of life in nature (and, later, in humankind)
Women in Mesopotamia
Goddess Inanna/ Ishtar
Women in Mesopotamia
Sumeria (3500-2000 BC)
Women were free to go out to the marketplaces, buy and sell, attend to legal matters for their absent men, own their own property, borrow and lend, and engage in business for themselves
Priestesses and princesses could read and write
Several city-states had a goddess as the chief deity

Women in Mesopotamia
Emergence of female creativity
Poetess
Priestess
Female virginity as the highest form of sacrifice
Women in Mesopotamia
Temple of the goddess Bau: Lagash, 2350 B.C.
The temple was run by chief priestess Shagshag
1000 persons employed year round
Her domestic staff consisted of:
150 slave women: spinners, woolworkers, brewers, millers, and kitchen workers
One female singer, several musicians
6 women who ground grain for feeding pigs
15 cooks
27 other slaves doing menial work
Brewery: 40 men and 6 females
One wet nurse, one nursemaid
One hairdresser
Women in Mesopotamia
Enheduanna (2300 BC)
Daughter of king Sargon of Akkad
High priestess of the Moon-God temple of Ur
First known female poet in history
"I, Enheduanna, the highest priestess. I carried the ritual basket, I chanted your praise.
Now I have been cast out to the place of lepers.
Day comes and the brightness is hidden around me.
Shadows cover the light, drape it in sandstorms.
My beautiful mouth knows only confusion.
Even my sex is dust."
Women in Mesopotamia
Laws in the Hammurabi Code (Babylonia, 18th c BC)
"If a married lady who is dwelling in a man's house sets her face to go out of doors and persists in behaving herself foolishly wasting her house and belittling her husband, they shall convict her." (Law #141)
"If a husband neglects his wife, she shall take her dowry and go back to her father's house." (#142)
Dowry
Women in Mesopotamia
Sammuramat (9th c BC)
Assyrian queen
Sammuramat accompanied her husband into battle, greatly expanded Babylonia's control over neighboring territories, irrigated the flatlands between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, and modernized the capital Babylon
Women in Egypt
Mother goddess (pre-dynastic)
Oldest deities: Horus is associated with the king, Hathor with the queen
Hathor virgin mother of all gods (notably of Re/Ra)
A cow bearing the sun disk between her horns
All subsequent goddesses (e.g., Isis) were aspects of Hathor
Queens and noblewomen wore a menit when officiating rites for Hathor (menit necklace is prominent in Egyptian art)
Women in Egypt
Isis
First mentioned in the 5th dynasty
Sister and wife of Osiris
Isis taught Osiris the secrets of agriculture
Horus becomes the son of Osiris and Isis
Isis resurrected Osiris via Horus
Cult of Isis spread throughout the Hellenistic and Roman world (sanctuaries in Roma and Pompei)

Women in Egypt
Maat
Goddess that personifies cosmic harmony and a model for human behavior
Justice personified by goddess Maat
Chief justice was the high priest of Maat
All judges were also priests of Maat

Women in Egypt
Sexual equality
The throne descended through the female line
Most queens were sisters of the king
Immortality for the queen
Only female professions: priestess and prostitute
Women could and did own property
No dowry
Unless a will stated otherwise, estates were divided equally among all of their children, both sons and daughters
Women in Egypt
Sexual equality
The Egyptians viewed their universe as a complete duality of male and female
Female deity Maat permeates the universe and provides cosmic harmony
Queens portrayed executing prisoners or firing arrows at enemies
Female graves containing weapons are found throughout the three millennia of Egyptian history
Financial independence
Women in Egypt
Women's rights
Inherited their parents's fortune even after marriage
Share equally with their husband any wealth acquired within their marriage
Conduct business on their own
Own and sell property
Represent themselves in court
Leave their wealth to whomever they wish
Adopt children
Keep their own name after their marriage
Work at jobs other than being a housewife
Seek any employment they are qualified for
Women in Egypt
Female pharaohs
Neithikret (c.2148-44 BC), first female ruler of Egypt
Sobeknefru (c.1787-1783 BC), second female ruler
Women in Egypt
Hatshepsut
Queen of Egypt, 15th c. B.C.
Daughter of the god Amon-Re and a woman
Peaceful reign promoting trade and the arts
Her temple at Deir el-Bahri (west of Thebes)
Nefertiti
Queen of Egypt, 14th c. B.C.
Wife of Akhenaton, who worshiped a new religion honoring only one god, Aten
Later rejected this religion, backing her half-brother who re-established the sun-god Amon
Her beauty was immortalized in many sculptures
Women in Persia
Mazdaism (Zoroastrianism)
Angel hierarchy has feminine spirits
Three of the seven Amesha Spentas )"Holy Immortals") who stand next to Ahura Mazda are female
Armaiti (devotion, daughter of Mazda, mother of all humankind)
Ameretat (immortality)
Haurvatat (perfection, life after death)
Women in Syria
Queen Shibtu of Mari (18th c BC), wife of Zimri-Lim
Goddess before 1,400 BC:
The Northwestern Ishtar:
Hittites (1500 BC): El and his wife Ashera
Canaanites (1400 BC - 800BC): Baal and his wife Anat
Jews (800 BC): Yahweh and his wife Asherah


Women in Phoenicia
Trinity (1,200 BC)
the father El/Baal, creator of the universe
the son Baal/Melqart, responsible for the annual cycle of vegetation
the heavenly mother Astarte/Ashera/Baalat, protector of the homes
Women in Judaism
Jews (800 BC): Yahweh and his wife Asherah
Jeremiah (44:15-19, 7:17-18) denounces the people who worship "the Queen of Heaven"
Genesis: God created Eve from a rib of Adam
Genesis: human race fell because of Eve
Almost all prophets are male
The commandments are only for men (e.g. "Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife") as women are mere property ("Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's house, nor your neighbour's wife, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour's")
Women in Judaism
Polygyny tolerated
Solomon had 700 wives and 300 concubines (1 Kings 11:3)
David had many wives and concubines (2 Samuel 5:13)
Nowhere does the Old Testament mandate monogamy
Palestine still polygamous in Roman times
Women in Judaism
Old Testament
Hagar (16th BC), the Egyptian handmaid of Sarah, wife of Abraham
Deborah/Dvora (12th c BC): prophetess "You arose, Deborah, as the mother of Israel"
"The Song of Deborah" is the earliest extant example of Hebrew poetry (and one of the oldest passages of the Old Testament)



Women in Judaism
Virginity
A recurring theme throughout the Old Testament only in foreign translations
bethulah, a woman still living in her father's house (often translated as "a virgin")
`almah, an unmarried young woman (often translated as "a virgin")
The Greek ideal of virginity as possessing a high religious value is foreign to true Jewish thought
Chastity before marriage (e.g., Deuteronomy 22:21)


Women in Crete
A matriarchal religion: the gods were all female
Monotheism?
No fortification, no depiction of warriors
Palace society
Emphasis not on tombs, temples or forts, but on comfort and luxury

Legendary Queens
Old Testament: queen of Sheba
Ethiopia: Makeda, wife of Solomon, mother of Menelik I, first emperor of Ethiopia
Yemen: Bilqis
Plato's Timaeus and Critias
Antinea, queen of Atlantis, matriarchal ruler
Women in India
Pre-Aryan India (2500 BC)
Figurines of the Indus Valley
Mother-goddess worship predating the Aryan migration and the Vedic religion
Pre-Aryan Indus valley culture worshipped primarily female fertility goddesses due to their primary reliance on agriculture
Aryans (nomadic and warriors) focused on male sky deities
South India (mostly non-Aryan) played an important role in the development of goddess worship
Women in India
Rig Veda (Aryan India, 1,500 BC)
None of the goddesses comparable to even second-tier male gods, but some may be the original elements of Devi worship
Prthivi the earth (mother figure related to the male god Dyaus)
Usas the dawn (mother figure who rouses life and sets things in motion)
Aditi mother of the gods (abstract goddess, mentioned nearly eighty times in the Rig-Veda at no time as a consort to any of the gods)
Vac the speech (abstract goddess, she enables one to hear, see, grasp and then express in words the true nature of things)
Women in India
Vedic India
Between the Vedas and the Puranas (5th c AD) little literary material relating to goddess worship
a Buddhist monument at Sanchi (1st BC)
a temple to the goddess Kanya Kumari at the southern tip of India (1st c AD)
Women in India
Devi
Women in India
Polygamy not banned by "hinduism" (Vedas, Manusmrti) but rarely practiced throughout history
Polyandry in the "Mahabharata" (the Pandavas are married to one common wife, Draupadi)
"The mind of woman cannot be disciplined. She has very little intelligence " (Rig Veda 8:33:17)

Women in India
Manusmrti (100 BC)
"Men must make their women dependent day and night, and keep under their own control those who are attached to sensory objects. Her father guards her in childhood, her husband guards her in youth, and her sons guard her in old age. A woman is not fit for independence." -- 9:2-4
"A thirty-year-old man should marry a twelve-year-old girl who charms his heart, and a man of twenty-four an eight-year-old girl" -- 9:94
"A virtuous wife should constantly serve her husband like a god, even if he behaves badly, freely indulges his lust, and is devoid of any good qualities" -- 5:147-164
Women in India
Visnusmrti
"Now the duties of a woman:
To live in harmony with her husband
To show reverence to her mother-in-law, father-in-law, to elders, to divinities, and to guests
...
To remain subject, in her infancy, to her father; in her youth, to her husband; and in her old age, to her sons.
After the death of her husband, to preserve her chastity, or to ascend the pile (funeral pyre) after him" -- Visnusmrti 25:1-17.
Women in India
Mentioned, tolerated and even prescribed by the Vedas:
Child Marriage
Dowry
Bride-Burning (e.g., if the dowry is insufficient, about 5,000 yearly in the 1990s)
No Property
Sati/ Widow-Burning (upon the death of the husband)
No divorce
No re-marriage

Women in China
Nvwa
Nvwa is the ancestor of mankind
She married her brother, emperor Fuxi, and they made many human children
Guanyin Pusa
Guanyin is the only buddha who is worshipped householdly
"If we Chinese pray, generally we only pray to Guanyin Pusa, who is considered our goddess of mercy, in charge of our real happiness".
Women in China
Confucian teachings have enshrined in people's heart for more than two thousand years that women are inferior to men, and women should be subservient to men
Concubines common among rich men
Foot-binding
Witchcraft
Witchcraft
Witches exist in all popular traditions (Europe, Africa, Asia and the Americas)
Egypt and Babylonia: witches (both white and black magic)
Vedic India: witches (yogini) performing black magic (abhichara)
Judaism: witches condemned in the Old Testament (Deuteronomy 18:11-12; Exodus 22:18)
Witchcraft
Witchcraft
Women were traditionally the repository of white magic (folk medicine)
Fear of women's power to do also black magic
Women in Greece
Greek goddesses correspond to the symbolism (lions, snakes, wild animals, birds, stars) of Crete's goddess
Athena
Artemis
Aphrodite
Demeter
Greek male gods do not correspond to the symbolism of the Minoan goddess
The Greek pantheon may be a synthesis of Crete's matriarchal religion and of the Indo-European patriarchal religion
Women in Greece
Goddesses
Aspects of womanhood
Hera, Zeus' wife: wife and mother
Aphrodite, goddess of love: lover
Artemis, daughter of the god Zeus and Leto and the twin sister of the god Apollo: virgin
Demeter, daughter of the Titans Cronus and Rhea
Persephone, daughter of Zeus, father of the gods, and of Demeter, abducted by Hades
Athena, Zeus' favorite child
Women in Greece
Virginity
Virgo: the goddesses who were immune to the temptations of Dionysus
Artemis, virgin goddess of the moon and the hunt
Hestia, virgin goddess of the hearth
Athena, virgin goddess of wisdom
Women in Greece
Mythical women
Pandora, first woman on Earth, created by the god Hephaestus at the request of the god Zeus
Women in Greece
Homer:
Helen
Penelope
Calypso
Nausicaa
Circe
Thetis
Andromache
Women in Greece
Women in literature have more power than women in real life
Half of all extant 5th century plays have powerful women in leading roles
Clytemnestra, Antigone, Iphigenia, Hecuba, Andromache, Medea, Alcestis, Elektra
Remnants of a matriarchal society?
Women in Greece
Sappho
Women in Greece
Throughout Greece
Women are excluded from the Olympic games, but they compete every four years in their own games of Hera
Monogamy

Women in Greece
Athens:
Women cannot own or purchase
No rights outside the household
Every woman had a "kyrios" (guardian): nearest male relative or husband
Land of the father divided among sons only (in case of no sons, the nearest male relative as the guardians of the daughters)
Typical marriage: 12/15 years old bride and 30+ years old bridegroom
Dowry
No wedding ceremony
Women in Greece
Athens (5th c BC)
Only prostitutes, slaves and concubines were allowed to leave the house alone
Women could attend only special religious functions for women
Women could not socialize with men
Women received no education
Women in Greece
Athens (5th c BC)
Stereotype: women have strong emotions and weak minds, thus they need to be protected from themselves and men need to be protected from them
Wives were assumed and expected to be dumb: heteras (call girls and courtesans) were providing the (intellectual, social, sexual) entertainment
"Teaching a woman to read and write? What a terrible thing to do! Like feeding a vile snake on more poison" (Menander)
Men could also use prostitutes, concubines and female slaves
Women in Greece
Athens (5th c BC)
The priestess of Athena is the city's most important religious dignitary
Pythia of Delphi (a virgin from a poor family)
Women in Greece
Sparta: Equality
Spartan women were taught reading and writing, and fighting (were expected to be able to protect themselves)
They could own and control their own property
Not expected to take care of the house or the children
They ran naked in the presence of their male counterparts at athletic events



Women in Greece
Women in art


Women in Rome
Goddesses
Greek pantheon (Juno = Hera, Minerva = Athena, Venus = Aphrodite,_)
Vesta (non-Greek) symbolizes the fire of Rome (her temple is the only one to be round)



Women in Rome
Monogamy
Roman Republic: women had no political rights, just like in Athens
Hortensia, 42BC: leads a revolt by women against tax laws
Slaves are expected to take care of household chores and raising children
Empire: women's literacy is relatively common
Political intrigues by women close to the emperors
Augustan reforms to restore morality
Women in Rome
Roman Republic
A paterfamilias was any man, married or unmarried, with or without children, who did not owe obedience to a paterfamilias of his own (ie., a father, grandfather, etc.)
A mater familias was any married or widowed woman (with or without children)
At marriage, a woman in the Republic went from the authority of her father, or his paterfamilias, to the authority of her husband, or his paterfamilias.
In practice, due to continuous warfare, women enjoyed greater prominence
Women in Rome
Roman Republic
Women virtually absent from religious life
Women forbidden to participate in sacrificial rituals
Vestal Virgins: strictly celibate priestesses of goddess Vesta for 30 years
Normal age for a girl to marry: 14
Female slaves were at the mercy of masters
It was a very serious crime for a woman to have a sexual relationship with a slave, even if he was her own

Women in Rome
Livia
Wife of Augustus and mother of Tiberius (not Augustus' son)
Julia
Daughter of Augustus (his only child)
First married at 14
Wife of wealthy Agrippa (second marriage) and then of Tiberius (Augustus' stepson)
Many affairs
Banished by Augustus to an island
Women in Rome
Agrippina
Wealthy great-granddaughter of Augustus
Niece and wife of Claudius and mother of Nero (not Claudius' son)
Killed by Nero after she helped him become emperor
Women in Rome
Cleopatra
Queen of Egypt, 69-30 B.C.
Highly educated
Julius Caesar's lover (one child)
Mark Anthony's lover (three children)
Women in Rome
Justinian (527 AD)
Age of consent: seven
Incest forbidden
Prostitutes, procuresses, actresses, women working in a tavern and women convicted of adultery were permanently barred from marriage to a freeborn man
Divorce allowed under several conditions
A man could not have a concubine and a wife at the same time
Dowry not mandatory but very common
Sine manu marriage common: power over the woman is not transferred to the husband
Women in Rome
Women in art
Christian Women
Gospels: Virgin Mary (a virgin) and Mary Magdalene (a prostitute)
Christianity: a religion of slaves, both males and females
Martyrdom for both men and women
The earliest Roman nobles to adopt Christianity were women (e.g., Constantine's mother)
No inherent distinction between males and females (unlike Old Testament)
Monotheism, but Virgin Mary and saints also divine
Christian Women
Saints
Perpetua and Felicita (martyred 203 AD)
Apollonia (martyred 249)
Agata (martyred 251)
Agnese (martyred 258)
Cecilia (martyred 3rd c)
Lucia (martyred 304)
Caterina of Alexandria (martyred 310)
Helena, Constantine's mother (4th c)
Monica, Augustine's mother (4th c)
Brigida of Kildare (5th c)
Christian Women
The Church in Rome banned polygamy in order to conform to the Graeco-Roman culture
St Augustine, "Now indeed in our time, and in keeping with Roman custom, it is no longer allowed to take another wife."
Women in the Islamic world
From the Quran:
Men are allowed to marry up to four wives and to sleep with their slave maids and keep as many captive women as they like (4:3)
Women cannot enter a tribunal (2:282)
Mohammed married at least 9 women and up to 25
After a "revelation" from Allah, Mohammed forced Zeinab, his cousin, to divorce her husband Zeid, his adopted son, and then married her
In 624 Mohammed (then 54) was engaged to the six-year old daughter of Abu Bakr and married her when she was nine
Women in the Islamic world
Islamic strategy to subdue women
Role of women embodied in Islam
Make women faithful Muslims
Women in the Islamic world
Rabia Al Dawiyya (717 AD, pre-sufist)
Slave-girl
Extinction of the ego in mystical unity with God
Trust in God, and acceptance of his will ("rida"), is the only attitude that makes sense
Fear of punishment or hope of reward are meaningless
"Sidq": sincerity of love (love God not because of Paradise/Hell but only because of sincere love)
"I am too busy loving God to find any time to hate Satan"
Women in the Islamic world
Walladah Bint Mustakfi (11th c): poetess, daughter of the caliph of Cordoba, Spain
Asma (11th c), wife of Ali al-Sulayhi, founder of Fatimid rule in Yemen
Arwa (11th c), queen of Yemen, daughter-in-law of Asma

Women in the Far East
Empress Wu Zetian, China (Tang dynasty)
Lady Murasaki Shikibu, Japan (Heian period)
Queen Sondok (or Sonduk), Korea (Silla dynasty)
Poetess Li Qingzhao, China (Song dynasty)
Writer Murasaki Shikibu, Japan: "Genji Monogatari" (1010)


Women in India
Mahabharata and the Ramayana (400 BC - 400 AD)
Progressive integration of goddesses into the Hindu pantheon
The goddesses are mythological not metaphysical figures
Mostly wives of the male gods
Women in India
Puranas (400 AD)
Shakti theology
Female mythology mutates into female metaphysics
A single great goddess, who includes within her self other forms of the goddess
Independent of male gods
Subsuming the roles of creator, maintainer and destroyer, normally associated with Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva respectively
The feminine power (shakti) as the energy which empowers the deity
Women in India
Devi-Mahatmya, chapters 81-93 of the Markendeya Purana (6th c AD)
Three stories illustrating the greatness of the goddess
Devi is referred to as both the creator and the destroyer
Devi interacts with Brahma and empowers Vishnu to slay the demons
Devi is formed as a powerful warrior by the combined mental power of Vishnu, Shiva and Brahma to fight a demon
Women in India
Devi
The "Goddess"
The prime mover, who commands the male gods to do the work of creation and destruction
Durga, slayer of demons
Kali, goddess of death
Shakti, the female power
Lakshmi, the wife of Vishnu
Parvati, the wife of Shiva (daughter of the Himalayas)
Uma, the mother
Violent and erotic: Kali, Tara, Bhairavi, Chinamasta
Domestic: Laksmi, Sita, Sarasvati, Tripurasundari
Women in India
Tantrism (10th-14th c AD)
Female-centered sex-worship
Adoration of the lingam-yoni, sign of the male and female principles in conjunction (the god Shiva and the goddess Kali)
Woman possesses more spiritual energy than man
Man can achieve unity with the divinity through sexual union with a woman
Goal: to imitate Shiva, the god in perpetual union with the goddess
Women in the West
Age of cooperation: the wife and the husband work together out of a home-work unit
Age of discrimination: only the husband is allowed to "work" (outside the home) while the wife is restricted to the home
Age of imitation: the wife works like the husband outside the home
Women in Medieval Europe
Medieval dresses
Women in Medieval Europe
Powerful women
Adelaide, empress of Ottonian empire (962)
Zoe, (1045-1055) - empress of Byzanthium
Eleanor of Aquitaine, queen of England and of France, 1122-1202
Anna Comnena, Byzantine historian (12th c)
Shagrat al-Durr, sultan of Egypt (13th c)

Women in Medieval Europe
Powerful women
Dorotea Bocchi takes the chair of medicine at the University of Bologna (1390)
Denmark, Sweden, and Norway are united under Queen Margaret I (1397)
Joan of Arc, leader of the French resistance against the British (1412-31)
Isabella I of Castilla, queen of Spain (1451-1504)
Women in Medieval Europe
Early Medieval times
Sexual ethics based on procreation, not pleasure
Little emphasis on chastity or modesty
Brothels run or authorized by the city hall
Women in Medieval Europe
Changing sexual habits
Bisexuality repressed
Sexual abstinence the chief distinguishing feature of the clergy
Marriage as an indissoluble sacrament of faith
Love separate from marriage
Marriage defines the place of a woman in society
Women in Medieval Europe
The image of woman
Eve is not a saint
Angels are male (in theory sexless)
Very few female saints until 13th c
Women in Medieval Europe
The image of woman
Eve as the ultimate sinner, and all women inherit her sin
Virgin Mary as the ultimate good, the highest possible state of humanity, as close as possible to divine
All women are between Eve and the Virgin Mary
Mary Magdalene as the typical Eve on her way to becoming a Virgin Mary
Nuns as imitations of the Virgin Mary

Women in Medieval Europe
Witches

Women in Medieval Europe
Jobs
Equal opportunity employment
Farming: 50% of chores
Textile: 50% of chores
Handicraft: 50% of chores
Local trade: 50% of chores
Only long-distance commerce was mostly male
Women in Medieval Europe
Jobs
Cooperative home-based workplace
Farming
Weaving, spinning, yarn preparation
Etc
Production and reproduction are complementary
The workplace "is" the home
Women in Medieval Europe
Literacy
Women were as literate as men, perhaps more
Germany:
Hrotsvitha/Rosvita von Gandersheim (93#)
Hildegard of Bingen (1098)
France: Christine de Pisan (1364)
Sweden: Bridget's "Visions" (1373)
Holland: Gertrude van der Oosten's "Het Daghet in den Oosten/ Day Breaketh in the East" (135#) [p]

Women in Medieval Europe
Convent life
Beguines
Cistercians, Franciscans, Dominicans spin off religious orders and convents for women only
1350: more than 3,000 nuns in England
Nuns more cultivated than other women and even of men
The convent is the only place where a woman is allowed to be as erudite and intelligent as a man
Women in Medieval Europe
Love
Idealized (Platonic) love
Spiritual element
Allegorical element
Conventions of love discourse and behavior
Women in Medieval Europe
Amour courtois
How love for God turned into love for the woman (similarity with the transition from gospel music to soul music)
Love of the Virgin Mary
Love-based ethics of the knights
San Franciscan love of the world
Love as the main force of the world
Love as the meaning of life
Note: most often love between knight and mistress, but not between husband and wife
Women in Medieval Europe
Chivalry (12th-14th c)
Courtly love: devotion to a lady (mostly adulterous love)
Knights embrace poetry and music to romance their lady
Heroism and Love
Asceticism and Eroticism
Tournaments as proof of valor and devotion
Women in Medieval Europe
Spiritual love and physical love
Chr‚tien de Troyes' Guinevere
Robin and Marion
Dante's Beatrice
Petrarca's Laura
Boccaccio's Fiammetta
"Decameron" (1353): dedicated to women for the purpose of entertain them because they are being wrongfully neglected
"De Claribus Mulieribus" (1374): a collection of lives of the most famous women from ancient times to Middle Ages (parallel to Petrarch's book on the most illustrious men)
Women in Medieval Europe
Virginity
Most popular woman in the Western world: the Virgin Mary
Most respected women in Western history up until the French revolution: the Christian virgin martyrs
The reproductive role of women symbolizes slavery, while virginity represents freedom
Ancient belief that virgins mediate between the natural and the supernatural
The first feminist heroines were virgins
Women in Medieval Europe
Virginity
Spiritual movements led by women: e.g., Caterina da Siena (14th c)

Women in Medieval Europe
Syphilis (1490s)
Sex = sin
Women in Medieval Europe
Witch Hunts
While Christianity competed with Pagan religion, priests had to compete with witches in supernatural powers
9th c: Saint Boniface curses the belief in witches as pagan superstition; emperor Charlemagne decrees that the burning of witches is illegal
Identification of witchcraft with heresy
Mass persecutions encouraged by the Church
Women in Medieval Europe
Witch Hunts
First mass trial of witches: 1397-1406 at Boltinger (Switzerland)
1428: France
Papal Bull of 1484 "Summis desiderantes"
Heinrich Institoris' "Malleus Maleficarum" (1486), antifeminine ideology linking witchcraft and women
Women in Medieval Europe
Prostitution
Prostitution viewed as a lesser evil than rape or adultery
Prostitution as a bulwark of marriage
Venezia/Venice, 1526: 4,900 prostitutes out of 55,000 people
Firenze and Venezia: red-light districts (Mercato Vecchio and Rialto)
City-controlled brothels: Munich (1433), Strasbourg (1469), Sevilla (1469)
Women in Medieval Europe
Women in male literature
Francois Villon's "Ballades de Dames du Temps Jadis" (146#)
Women in Medieval Europe
Women in painting
Women in Medieval Europe
Women in painting
Women in the Renaissance
16th c
Women in the Renaissance
Powerful women
Caterina Cornaro, queen of Cyprus (in 1468)
Lucrezia Borgia, duchess of Este (in 1501)
Margaret of Austria, regent of the Netherlands (in 1507)
Louise of Savoy, regent of France (in 1515)
Margaret, queen of Navarre (in 1527)

Women in the Renaissance
Powerful women
Caterina de Medici, queen of France, 1547-1589


Mary, queen of Scotland, 1542-1587
Mary Tudor, queen of England, 1553-58 ("Bloody Mary"
Elizabeth I, queen of England, 1558-1603



Women in the Renaissance
Powerful women
Lucrezia Borgia (b 1480)
Isabella d'Este (b 1474)
Marguerite de Valois (b 1553)
Marguerite d'Angouleme de Navarre (b 1492)
Women in the Renaissance
Female education
The printing press and the adoption of vernacular languages spread literacy among women
Women encouraged to read the Bible
Focus of women's education: domestic chores
Household manager (reading/writing/math)
Obedient wife (Bible)
Capable mother (needlework, gardening)
Faithful Christian (the Islamic strategy)
Kitchen chores only for the lower classes
Needlework for women of all classes
Women in the Renaissance
Female education
Schools for women (run by nuns or spinsters)
Ursuline (founded 1535 by Angela Merici)
Boarding schools in England (from 1617) as a secular extension of convent schools
Charitable confraternities (Filles de la Charite', 1633, France; Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge, 1699, England)
Disparity in education among various regions due to the influence of different religious organizations
Elementary schools for both girls and boys (equal numbers in 1672 in Paris Notre Dame) that reduce gender difference
Women in the Renaissance
Jobs for uneducated women
Women from the countryside and the working class were expected to support themselves both when single and when married
Farm chores
Female servants (12% of urban population, single largest working group in urban society)
Textile industry
Mills
80% of country girls in France left their parents' home by the age of 12
Ealing, 1599: 75% of females aged 15 to 19 were living away from their parents as servants

Women in the Renaissance
Jobs for uneducated women
Source of cheap labor for the proto-industrial world (80% of girls aged 6-12 working in Norwich in 1570 compared with only 30% of boys)
Single woman
Women in the Renaissance
Jobs for the uneducated women
Gradual exclusion of women from professional life
Confinement to the domestic sphere
The discovery of the New World emphasizes long-distance commerce, a male activity
Women in the Renaissance
Morality of the Reformation and the Council of Trento (1563)
Sex becomes a crime
Prostitutes persecuted
The sacrament of marriage as a precondition to procreation
Women marry at 22-26 (later than ever in history)
Emphasis on female chastity and modesty
Women in the Renaissance
The birth of femininity
The vestiary revolution: differentiation of male and female clothing
The cosmetic revolution: white skin, blonde hair, red lips and cheeks, black eyebrows
Caterina Sforza's "Esperimenti" (1509), a manual of cosmetics
The behavioral revolution: good manners encoded in Baldassarre Castiglione's "Il Cortegiano" (1528) and similia
Beauty no longer a threat to society, but an attribute
Ugliness, not beauty, associated with vice
Women in the Renaissance
The birth of femininity
"El Costume delle donne" (Anonymous, 1536)
Three long: hair, hands, legs
Three short: teeth, ears, breasts
Three wide: forehead, chest, lips
Three narrow: waist, knees, pelvis
Three large: height, arms, thighs
Three thin: eyebrows, fingers, lips
Three round: neck, arms, breast
Three small: mouth, chin, feet
Three white: teeth, throat, hands
Three red: cheeks, lips, nipples
Three black: eyebrows, eyes, xxx
Women in the Renaissance
Prostitution
After the Reformation (1517) and Counter-reformation criminalization of prostitution
City brothel are closed
France, 1560: brothels illegal
Spain, 1623: brothels illegal
Prostitutes become independent professionals
Mostly from the countryside
By choice
Choice of independence from parents
Birth of a new kind of high-class whore for respectable and powerful men: the courtesan
Women in the Renaissance
Witch hunts
15th c: Witch hunts follow the geographic patterns of heresies
France: religious law (witches burned)
England and colonies: criminal law (witches hanged)
German-speaking world: death penalty for witches (Caroline Law of 1532)
No witch hunts in Italy, Spain, Portugal, Hispanic America
The Salem trials of 1692

Women in the Renaissance
Women in male literature
Fernando de Rojas (Spain): "La Celestina" (1499)
Pietro Aretino (Italy): "I Ragionamenti" (1534), first pornographic work
Jorge de Montemayor (Portugal, 1520): "La Diana" (1559)
Torquato Tasso (Italy, 1544): "Aminta" (1573)
Pierre de Ronsard (France, 1524): "Sonnets pour Helene" (1578)
Thomas Lodge (Britain, 1558): "Rosalynde" (1590)
Edmund Spenser (1552): "The Faerie Queene" (1596)
Women in the Renaissance
Women in male literature
William Shakespeare:
Juliet ("Romeo and Juliet", 1595)
Ophelia ("Hamlet")
Lady Macbeth ("Macbeth")
Desdemona ("Othello")
Beatrice ("Much Ado About Nothing")
Cleopatra ("Anthony and Cleopatra")
"The Merry Wives of Windsor" (1599)
"The Taming of the Shrew"
Women in the Renaissance
Female writers
Marguerite d'Angouleme (France, 1492): "Heptameron" (1559)
Vittoria Colonna (Italy, 1490): "Canzoniere" (1544) [p]
Anna Bijins (Holland, 1496): "Nieuwe Refereynen" (1567) [p]
Teresa de Avila (Spain, 1515): "Castillo de Perfeccion" (1577) [h]
Women in the Renaissance
Women in art
Women in Persia
Safavid 16th c
Women in the 17th Century
17th c
Women in the 17th Century
Powerful women
Christina Wasa, queen of Sweden (1644-54)
Nur Jahan, chief wife of Mughal emperor Jahangir, India (17th c)
Women in the 17th Century
Francois Poullain de la Barre: "De l'‚galit‚ des deux sexes" (1673)
Anna Maria van Schurman, linguist: "Dissertatio de ingenii mulieribus ad doctrinam et meliores litteras aptitudine" (1639)

Women in the 17th Century
The Salons, hosted by noble women
Marquise de Rambouillet
Madame d'Epinay
Madame Necker
Madame de Chatelet
Madame du Deffand
de la Fayette
de Scudery

Women in the 17th century
Women in operas
Jacopo Peri's Euridice (1600)
Claudio Monteverdi's L'Incoronazione di Poppea (1642)
Women in the 17th century
Women in paintings

Women in the 17th century
Female painters
Artemisia Gentileschi (1593)
Women in the 17th Century
Women in male literature
Miguel de Cervantes (Spain): Don Quijote's Dulcinea (1615)
Moliere (France): "Les Precieuses Ridicules" (1659), "L'Ecole des Femmes" (1662), "Les Femmes Savantes" (1672)
JeanBaptiste Racine (1639, France): "Athalie" (1691)

Women in the 17th Century
Female writers
Madeleine de Scudery (France, 1607): "Clelie" (1661)
Marie-Madeleine de Lafayette (France, 1634): "La Princesse de Cleves" (1678)
Catharina Regina von Greiffenberg (Germany, 1633): "Geistliche Sonnette" (1662) [p]
Anna Visscher (Holland, 1583): "De Roemster van den Aemstel/ The Glory of the Aemstel" (1627) [p]
Maria de Zayas y Sotomayor (Spain, 1590): "Novelas Amorosas" (1637)
Juana Ines de la Cruz (Mexico, 1648): "Los Empenos de una Casa" (1683) [t]
Women in the Industrial Age
18th c
Women in the Industrial Age
Powerful women
Anne, Queen of England (1702-14)
Katerina II, Empress of Russia (1729-1796)
Women in the Industrial Age
The birth of female segregation
Work moves from the farm to the ranch, from the backyard to the factory, from the lower floor to the downtown store
The industrialized world of the factory demands full-time wage-earning work away from home
"Protective" legislation enacted to keep women from performing "dangerous" jobs
Production and reproduction are no longer compatible
Separation of household and workplace
Separation of home and work
Women in the Industrial Age
The birth of female segregation
Female work becomes a black market of low-wage jobs
Women restricted to marginal low-paying jobs
Only very poor women work
Women in the Industrial Age
The French revolution
1789 - Women are the first to march on Versailles (5 october 1789)
The power of women: unarmed mediator between the intelligentsia and the commoners, between ideological life and domestic life
A male revolution: "D‚claration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen" (1789)
Olympe de Gouges' "D‚claration des droits de la femme et de la citoyenne" (1791)
Etta Palm" "Soci‚t‚ patriotique de la bienfaisance et des amies de la v‚rit‚" (1791)
Female clubs outlawed in 1793: "It is not possible for women to exercise political rights"
Women in the Industrial Age
Journalists
Eliza Haywood's "Female Spectator" (1744)
Madame de Beaumer's "Journal des Dames" (1762)
Essayists
Olympia de Gouges' "D‚claration des droits de la femme et de la citoyenne" (1791)
Mary Wollstonecraft: "A Vindication of the Rights of Woman" (1792)
Women in the 18th Century
Female writers
Fanny Burney (Britain, 1752): "Evelina" (1778)
Ann Radcliffe (Britain, 1764): "Mysteries of Udolpho" (1794)
Women in the 18th Century
William Alexander: The History of Women From Earliest Antiquity to the Present Time (1782)
In Pre-history the human society was ruled by benign, peaceful matriarchy
This is a sign of barbaric civilizations
Women in the 18th Century
Women in male literature
Samuel Richardson (1689): "Pamela" (1740)
Carlo Goldoni (1707): "La Locandiera" (1753) [t]
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712): "La Nouvelle Heloise" (1761)
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (1729, Germany): "Minna Von Barnhelm" (1763)
Donatien de Sade (1740): "Justine" (1791)
Pierre Laclos (1741): "Les Liaisons Dangereuses" (1782)
Anne Stael, George Sand, Eugene Sue
Friedrich von Schiller (1759, Germany): "Maria Stuart" (1800)
Women in the 18th century
Women in operas
Alessandro Scarlatti's Griselda (1721)
Giovanni Pergolesi's La Serva Padrona (1733)
Niccolo Jommelli's Armida Abbandonata (1770)
Christoph Gluck's Ifigenia in Aulide (1774)
Giovannni Paisiello's Nina pazza per amore (1789)
Wolfgang Mozart's Cosi` Fan Tutte (1790)

Women in the 19th century
19th c
Women in the 19th Century
Powerful women
Victoria, Queen of England, 1837-1901
Women in the 19th Century
Intrepid women
1798 - France's Jeanne Labrosse makes a solo balloon flight
1850 - Amelia Jenks-Bloomer begins publicizing a new style of women's pants or "bloomers"
1890 - New York reporter Nellie Bly becomes the first woman to travel around the world alone
1891 - Mary French Sheldon mounts her first expedition to East Africa
1900 - The first women to compete in the Olympics play in just three sports: tennis, golf, and croquet
1910 - 19-year old Blanche Stuart Scott becomes the first woman to fly a plane solo
Women in the 19th century
Sex
Paolo Mantegazza: "Gli amori degli uomini/ Sexual Relationships of Mankind" (1885)
Patrick Geddes: "The Evolution of Sex" (1889)
Havelock Ellis: "Studies in the Psychology of Sex" (1897)
Otto Weininger: "Sex and Character" (1903)
Iwan Bloch: "Das Sexualleben Unserer Zeit/ The Sexual Life of our Time" (1907)

Women in the 19th century
Sexual Revolution
1863: Karl Heinrich Ulrichs defends the rights of homosexuals in Germany
1870: Victoria Woodhull advocates free love in her "Weekly" magazine
1892: Clelia Mosher's survey of 45 women in the USA proves that women can have orgasms
1897: "La Fronde" feminist newspaper debuts in France
1903: First nudist colony opens in Gemany

Women in the 19th century
Female journals
"La Femme Libre" (1832)
"The Englishwoman's journal" (1859)
"Revolution" (USA, 1868)
"Dokumente der Frauen" (1899)
Women in the 19th century
Feminist treatises
John Stuart Mill: "The Subjection of Women" (1869)
August Bebel: "Die Frau und der Sozialismus" (1883)
Friedrich Engels: "The Origin of Family, Private Property and the State" (1884)
Articles by Anna Kuliscioff (Italy, 1880s)
Charlotte Perkins: "Women and Economics" (1898)
Women in the 19th Century
Charles Fourier (1808)
Freedom of women to emulate men
The progress and prosperity of humankind depends on the degree of women's freedom
Karl Marx (1844)
Marriage and family as a system of property relations in which women are treated as commodities
Wage labor is the first step towards female emancipation
Women in the 19th century
USA feminism
1850: First International Women's Congress
1865: political rights granted to former slaves but not to women
1919: political rights extended to women

Women in the 19th century
Puritanism
1865: The "Salvation Army"
1873: Anthony Comstock founds the Society for the Suppression of Vice
1874: The Woman's Christian Temperance Union is founded
1896 - Pierre de Coubertin bars women from the first modern Olympics in Athens
Women in the 19th century
Women in male literature
Heinrich Kleist (1777, Germany): "Die Marquise von O" (1808)
Honore' de Balzac's "Eugenie Grandet" (1833)
Nathaniel Hawthorne's "The Scarlet Letter" (1850)
Gustave Flaubert's "Madame Bovary" (1857)
Lewis Carroll (Britain, 1832): "Alice in Wonderland" (1865)
Emile Zola's "Therese Raquin" (1867) and "Nana" (1880)
Juan Valera's "Pepita Jimenez" (1874)
Lev Tolstoy's "Anna Karenina" (1877)

Women in the 19th century
Women in male literature
Henry James' "Portait of a Lady" (1879), "What Maisie Knew" (1897), "The Wings of the Dove" (1902), "The Golden Bowl" (1904)
Benito Perez-Galdos' "Fortunata y Jacinta" (1887)
August Strindberg's "Froeken Julie/ Miss Julie" (1888) [t]
Henrik Ibsen's "Et Dukkehjem/ Doll's House" (1879) [t] and "Hedda Gabler" (1890) [t]
Thomas Hardy's "Tess of the D'Urbervilles" (1891)
Theodor Fontane's "Effi Briest" (1895)
Women in the 19th century
Women in operas
Gioacchino Rossini's La Gazza Ladra (1817)
Vincenzo Bellini's Norma (1831)
Gaetano Doninzetti's Lucia di Lammermoor (1835)
Giuseppe Verdi's La Traviata (1853) and Aida (1871)
Richard Wagner's Die Walkuere (1856)
Georges Bizet's Carmen (1875)
Modest Moussorgsky's Khovancina (1886)
Jules Massenet's Manon (1884)
Women in the 19th Century
Female writers
Jane Austen (Britain, 1775): "Pride and Prejudice" (1813)
Cecilia Bohl de Feber/ Fernan Caballero (Spain, 1796): "Gaviota" (1849)
Maria Shelley (Britain, 1797): "Frankenstein" (1818)
Harriet Stowe (USA, 1811): "Uncle Tom's Cabin" (1852)
Charlotte Bronte (Britain, 1816): "Jane Eyre" (1847)
Emily Bronte (Britain, 1818): "Wuthering Heights" (1847)
Narcyza Zmichowska "Gabryella" (Poland, 1819): "Poganka/ The Pagan" (1846)
George Eliot (Britain, 1819): "Middlemarch" (1872)
Bozena Nemcova (Czech, 1820): "Babicka/ Grandmother" (1855)
Women in the 19th Century
Female writers
Emily Dickinson (USA, 1830): "Poems" (1886) [p]
Rosalia de Castro (Spain, 1837): "Cantares Gallegos" (1863) [p]
Eliza Orzeszkowa (Poland, 1842): "Nad Niemnem/ On the Niemen" (1888)
Minna Canth (Finland, 1844): "Papin Perhe/ The Pastor's Family" (1891) [t]
Emilia Pardo-Bazan (Spain, 1851): "Los Pazos de Ulloa" (1886)
Women in the 19th century
Women in paintings

Women in the 19th Century
Female artists
Constance Mayer-Lamartiniere 1775-1821 French Painter
Ann Sanders 1778 British Painter
Anna Claypoole Peale 1791-1878 American Painter
Julia Margaret Cameron 1815-1879 British Photographer
Emma Stebbins 1815-1882 American Sculptor
Henriette Ronner-Knip 1821-1909 Dutch Painter
Kitty Kielland 1843-1914 Norwegian Painter
Edmonia Lewis 1845-1911 African-American Sculptor
Gertrude Kasebier 1852-1934 American Photographer
Louise Breslau 1856-1927 German Painter
Anna Bilinska 1857-1893 Ukrainian Painter
Anna Ancher 1859-1935 Danish Painter
Camille Claudel 1864-1943 French Sculptor
Julia Morgan 1872-1957 American Architect
Women in the 20th century
20th c.

Women in the 20th century
Psychoanalysis
Separation of sex and sexuality (sexuality is universal and omnipresent, regardless of biological sex)
A non-biological sexual life drives ordinary lives
Women in the 20th century
The woman as a consumer
The new mode of production creates a division between producer and consumer, and relegates the woman to the role of the consumer
In the new mode of production life was easier and safer, but confined to the domestic sphere
Eventually women are just a market segment (kitchenware, furniture, cosmetics, appliances)
Men invent them, make them and sell them. Women buy them.
Women in the 20th century
The woman as a service worker
Servant jobs are taken up by former slaves and soon replaced by appliances
Shift from domestic service (50% of female workers in the USA in 1870) to white-collar jobs (38% in 1920)
White-collar jobs appeal also to middle-class urban women, not only country or poor urban girls
White-collar jobs create a new class of single women (most USA female college graduates between 1870 and 1900 lived single lives for several years)
Women in the 20th century
The woman as an "assistant"
The secretary
The flight attendant
The nurse
Women
Suffragettes
Women in the 20th century
Women's liberation
1906: Female suffrage in Finland
1917: Mobilization of women for the war
1919: Millicent Garrett Fawcett's "The Women's Victory"
1923: Egyptian feminist Huda Shaarawi publicly unveils
1930s: Militarization of women in Germany and Soviet Union
Women in the 20th century
Women of the Russian revolution
Working Women's Mutual Assistance Association" (1907)
The first International Conference of Socialist Women (Stuttgart, 1907)
Congress of all Russian women (1908)
Alexandra Kollontai's "The Social Foundations of the Women's Question" (1909)
The second International Conference of Socialist Women (Copenhagen, 1910)
First international women's day (19 march 1911)
"The Woman Worker" (1914), a journal for working class women
Women in the 20th century
Women of the Russian revolution
The revolution begins on 23 february 1917 with a demonstration by women
Women recognized as citizens, with equal rights to men
Maternity leave, equal employment and wages
Abortion legalized (1920)
Women in the 20th Century
Female suffrage
1906 Finland
1913 Norway
1915 Denmark
1918 Austria, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Poland
1919 Netherlands, Sweden
1920 USA
1928 Britain
1930 Turkey
1932 Brazil, Thailand
1934 Cuba
Women in the 20th Century
USA
1916: Jeannette Rankin, first female member of the House of Representatives
1921: Margaret Sanger founds the American Birth Control League (later the Planned Parenthood Federation of America)
1922: Rebecca Ann Latimer Felton, first female USA senator (for two days only)
1931: Jane Addams wins the Nobel Prize for Peace
1933: Frances Perkins, secretary of labor, first USA female cabinet member
1935: Margaret Mead's "Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies"
Women in the 20th century
Women in male literature
Frank Wedekind's "Die Buechse der Pandora" (1904) [t]
Anton Chekhov's "Tri Sestry/ Three Sisters" (1901) [t]
Vladimir Nabokov's "Ada" (1969) and "Lolita" (1955)
Jorge Amado's "Gabriela Cravo e Canela" (1958) and "Dona Flor e seus Dois Maridos" (1966) +
Women in the 20th century
Women in operas
Leos Janacek's Katja Kabanova (1921)
Giacomo Puccini's Madame Butterfly (1904), Turandot (1926) and La Boheme (1896)
Richard Strauss' Salome (1905) and Elektra (1909)
Franz Lehar (Hungary, 1870): The Merry Widow (1905)
Alban Berg (Austria, 1885): Lulu (1935)
Dmitrij Shostakovic's Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk (1934)
Women in the 20th century
Women in paintings
Eduard Manet's "Le Dejeuner sur l'Herbe" (1863) and "Olympia" (1863)
Gustav Klimt's "Adele Blochbauer" (1907), "Fritza Riedler" (1906), "Judith" (1901), "The Virgin" (1913), "The Three Ages of Woman"
Women in the 20th century
Female writers
Anastasia Verbitskaya (Russia, 1861): "Klyuchi Schastya/ Keys Of Happiness" (1913)
Edith Wharton (USA, 1862): "The Age of Innocence" (1920)
Sidonie Colette (France, 1873): "Cheri" (1920)
Gertrude Stein (USA, 1874): "The Making of Americans" (1925)
Hortensia Papadat-Bengescu (Romania, 1876): "Concert din Muzica de Bach" (1927)
Willa Cather (USA, 1876): "Death Comes for the Archbishop" (1927)
Elena Guro (Russia, 1877): "Sharmanka/ Hurdy Gurdy" (1909) [p]
Margarita Kaffka (Hungary, 1880): "Szinek es Evek/ Colors and Years" (1912)
Maria Jotuni (Finland, 1880): "Miehen Kylkiluu/ Man's Rib" (1914) [t]
Rose Macaulay (Britain, 1881): "The Towers of Trebizond" (1956)
Women in the 20th century
Female writers
Katherine Mansfield (New Zealand, 1888): "The Garden Party" (1922)
Marietta Shaginyan (Russia, 1888): "K i K" (1929)
Anna Akhmatova (Russia, 1889): "Poema Bez Geroia/ Poem Without A Hero" (1962) [p]
Lidya Seifullina (Russia, 1889): "Virineja" (1924)
Marja Dabrowska (Poland, 1889): "Noce i Dnie/ Nights and Days" (1934)
Vera Inber (Russia, 1890): "Pulkovo Meridian" (1942) [p]
Marina Tsvetaeva (Russia, 1892): "Poema Kontsa/ Poem of the End" (1924) [p]
Rebecca West (Britain, 1892): "The Fountain Overflows" (1956)
Maria Pawlikowska (Poland, 1891): "Krystalizacje/ Cristallizations" (1937) [p]
Women in the 20th Century
Scientists
Marie Curie, Nobel Prize for Chemistry (1911)
Women in the 20th Century
Stars
Theater
Musical
Music
Cinema
Women in the 20th Century
Theater stars
Sarah Bernhardt
Broadway stars
Josephine Baker
Fanny Brice
Sophie Tucker
Marilyn Miller
Helen Morgan
Judy Garland
Comics
Blondie (1930, Chic Young)
Women in the 20th Century
Singers
Blues
Bessie Smith
Ma Rainey
Jazz
Billie Holiday
Ella Fitzgerald
Sarah Vaughan
Vaudeville
Marie Dressler
Country
Maybelle Carter
Patsy Montana
Women in the 20th Century
Singers
Opera sopranos
Opera contraltos
Women in the 20th Century
Movie stars
Mary Pickford
Lilian Gish
Gloria Swanson
Pola Negri
Louse Brooks
Mae West
Bette Davis
Rita Hayworth
Joan Crawford
Jean Harlow
Marlene Dietrich
Greta Garbo
Women in the 20th Century
Female writers
Selma Lagerloef (Sweden, 1858): "Nils Holgerssons underbara Resa Genom Sverige/ Wonderful Adventures of N.H." (1907)
Edith Wharton (USA, 1862): "The Age of Innocence" (1920)
Flora-Macdonald Mayor (Britain, 1872): "The Rector's Daughter" (1924)
Gertrude Stein (USA, 1874): "The Making of Americans" (1925)
Willa Cather (USA, 1876): "Death Comes for the Archbishop" (1927)
Gertrud von LeFort (Germany, 1876): "Am Tor des Himmels" (1954) +
Rose Macaulay (Britain, 1881): "The Towers of Trebizond" (1956)
Virginia Woolf (Britain, 1882): "To the Lighthouse" (1927)
Sigrid Undset (Norway, 1882): "Kristin Lavransdatter" (1922)
Women in the 20th Century
Female writers
Karen "Isak Dinesen" Blixen (Denmark, 1885): "Gengaeldelsens Veje/ The Angelic Avengers" (1944)
Ina Seidel (Germany, 1885): "Das Wunschkind" (1930)
Hilda Doolittle (USA, 1886): "Helen in Egypt" (1961) [p]
Marianne Moore (USA, 1887): "Observations" (1924) [p]
Edith Sitwell (Britain, 1887): "The Outcasts" (1962) [p]
Katherine Mansfield (New Zealand, 1888): "The Garden Party" (1922)
Gabriela Mistral (Chile, 1889): "Desolacion" (1922) [p]
Moa Martinson (Sweden, 1890): "Mor Gifter Sig/ My Mother Gets Married" (1936)
Agatha Christie (Britain, 1890): "Murder on the Orient Express" (1934)
Nelly Sachs (Germany, 1891): "Und niemand weiss weiter" (1957) [p]
Women in the 20th Century
Female writers
Edith Soedergran (Finland, 1892): "Septemberlyran" (1918) [p]
Juana de Ibarbourou (Uruguay, 1892): "Las Lenguas de Diamante" (1918) [p]
Djuna Barnes (USA, 1892): "Nightwood" (1936)
Ivy Compton-Burnett (Britain, 1892): "Men and Wives" (1931)
Rebecca West (Britain, 1892): "The Fountain Overflows" (1956)
Sylvia-Townsend Warner (Britain, 1893): "Lolly Willowes" (1926)
Rosa Chacel (Spain, 1898): "Memorias de Leticia Valle" (1945)
Elizabeth Bowen (Ireland, 1899): "The Death of the Heart" (1938)
Elisabeth Langgaesser (Germany, 1899): "Das unausloeschliche Siegel" (1946)
Anna Kavan (Britain, 1901): "The House of Sleep" (1947)
Cecilia Meireles (Brazil, 1901): "Retrato Natural" (1949) [p]
Zora Hurston (USA, 1901): "Their Eyes Were Watching God" (1937)
Julia Strachey (Britain, 1901): "Cheerful Weather for the Wedding" (1932)
Women in the 20th Century
Female writers
Marieluise Kaschnitz (Germany, 1901): "Totentanz und Gedichte zur Zeit" (1947) [p]
Maria Polydouri (Greece, 1902): "The Trilles that Faint" (1928) [p]
Christina Stead (Australia, 1902): "The Man Who Loved Chidren" (1940)
Nathalie Sarraute (France, 1902): "Portrait d'un Inconnu" (1949)
Marguerite Yourcenar (France, 1903): "Memoires d'Hadrien" (1951)
Anais Nin (USA, 1903): "Ladders to Fire" (1946)
Molly Keane (Ireland, 1905): "Good Behavior" (1981)
Lilian Hellman (USA, 1905): "The Little Foxes" (1939) [t]
Ernestina de Champourcin (Spain, 1905): "Cantico Inutil" (1936) [p]
Vera Panova (Russia, 1905): "Viremena Goda/ Span of the Year" (1953)
Women in the 20th Century
Soap opera (radio)
The soap opera continued the tradition of women's domestic fiction of the nineteenth century
Irna Phillips, first specialist of soap operas: Today's Children (1932), The Guiding Light (1937), Woman in White (1938)
Romance novels
Post-war Society
?

Post-war Society
Female suffrage
1941 Indonesia
1944 France
1945 Italy, Japan
1946 Romania, Yugoslavia
1947 Argentina, Pakistan, Venezuela, China
1948 Burma, Israel, South Korea
1949 Chile, China, India
Post-war Society
Women's condition in the 1950s
Child rearing becomes a medical discipline
The woman becomes a sexual object (pornography)
The woman as a consumer (products such as appliances and cosmetics and fashion target women)
Housekeeping becomes a profession (not just a "role")
Abortion mostly illegal (Iceland 1935)
Post-war Society
Sexual Revolution
1948: Alfred Kinsey's "Sexual Behavior of the Human Male"
1948: John Rock fertilizes a human egg in a test tube
1953: the magazine "Playboy"
1960: Gregory Pincus invents the birth control pill
1973: abortion is legalized in the USA (France 1975, West Germany 1976, Italy 1978)
Post-war Society
Feminism
1949: Simone de Beauvoir's "Le Deuxieme Sexe"
1949: Argentinian Eva Per˘n founds the Peronista Feminist Party
1963: Betty Friedan's "The Feminine Mystique"
1964: Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination on the bases of sex
1966: William Howell Masters and Virginia Johnson's "Human Sexual Response"
1966: National Organization for Women (NOW)
Post-war Society
Female achievements
1955: Rosa Parks
1961: "Women Strike for Peace" ("End the Arms Race, Not the Human Race")
1963: Valentina Tereshkova, first female astronaut
1962: Rachel Carson's ecologist "Silent Spring"
1968: Ishimure Michiko' ecologist "Kukai jodo/ Sea of Suffering"
Post-war Society
Movie stars
Katherine Hepburn
Doris Day
Marilyn Monroe
Natalie Wood
Jane Fonda
Sophia Loren
Ingrid Bergman
Catherine Deneuve
Brigitte Bardot
Jeanne Moreau
Post-war Society
Comics
Barbarella (1962, Jean-Claude Forest)
Modesty Blaise (1962, Peter O'donnell/Jim Holdaway)
Mafalda (1964, Quino)
Valentina (1965, Guido Crepax)
No Nausicaa (1982, Hayao Miyazaki)
Post-war Society
Singers
Gospel/soul
Mahalia Jackson
Aretha Franklin
Jazz
Abbey Lincoln
Patty Waters
Jeanne Lee
Pop
Peggy Lee
Andrew Sisters
Yma Sumac
Post-war Society
Singers
Country
Kitty Wells
Patsy Cline
Loretta Lynn
Tammy Wynette
Dolly Parton
Wanda Jackson
Teen idols
Girl Groups

Post-war Society
Singers
Edith Piaf
Juliette Greco
Francoise Hardy
Joan Baez
Marianne Faithful
Janis Joplin
Joni Mitchell
Joan Jett
Post-war Society
Soap opera (tv)
Charlie's Angels
Telenovela
Post-war Society
Feminism
1970: Germaine Greer's "The Female Eunuch"
1971: journalist Gloria Steinem founds the first first feminist magazine, "Ms Magazine"
1978: more women than men enter college in the USA
1981: Andrea Dworkin's "Pornography - Men Possessing Women"
1982: Carol Gilligan's difference femminism
1982: Madonna
1989: Riot grrrrls in Seattle
Post-war Society
Punk & Disco

Post-war Society
Supermodels
Lisa Fonssagrives (1930s-1950s)
Twiggy (1960s)
Veruschka (1960s)
Janice Dickinson (1970s)
Naomi Campbell (1980s)
Claudia Schiffer
Cindy Crawford
Heidi Klum (1990s)



Post-war Politics
Heads of states
Age of Indira Gandhi
Sri Lanka: Sirimavo Bandaranaike (1960)
India: Indira Gandhi (1966)
Israel: Golda Meir (1969)
Argentina: Isabel Peron (1974)
Post-war Politics
Heads of states
Age of Margaret Thatcher
Britain: Margaret Thatcher (1979)
Dominica: Mary-Eugenia Charles (1980)
Iceland: VigdĦs Finnbogad˘ttir (1980)
Philippines: Corazon Aquino (1986)
Pakistan: Benazir Bhutto (1988)
Nicaragua: Violeta Chamorro (1990)
Bangladesh: Khaleda Zia (1991)
Post-war Politics
Heads of Hillary Clinton
End of Cold War
Turkey: Tansu €iller (1993)
Bangladesh: Hasina Wajed (1996)
New Zealand: Jenny Shipley (1997),Helen Clark (1999)
Latvia: Vaira Vike-Freiberga (1999)
Panama: Mireya Moscoso (1999)
Finland: Tarja Halonen (2000)

Post-war Politics
Heads of states
Age of Condoleezza Rice
Philippines: Gloria Arroyo (2001)
Senegal: Mame Madior Boye (2001)
Indonesia: Megawati Sukarnoptri (2001)
Germany: Angela Merkel (2005)
Liberia: Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf (2006)
Chile: Michelle Bachelet (2006)
Jamaica: Portia Simpson Miller (2006)
Post-war Politics
Remnants from another age:
Elizabeth I, queen of Great Britain
Lady Di
Mother Teresa
The Western Society
Typical jobs for women
Entertainers (singers, movie stars, comedians)
Supermodels
Nurses
Doctors
Writers
Artists
Activists
Business Administration/ Financial Analysts
Entertainment
Classical instrumentalists
The Western Society
But not_
Architects
Philosophers
Scientists
Engineers
Classical composers
Jazz/rock instrumentalists
Presidents of the USA, Russia or China
The Western Society
No major female_
Painter
Composer
Playwright
Filmmaker
The Western Society
Beauty
The Western Society
Carol Gilligan (1982)
Ethics from the female perspective
Male ethics emphasizes reciprocity, separation, justice
Female ethics emphasizes consensus, connection and empathy (the ethics of care)
Women in Modern China
Liberated by communist revolution
But never a female communist leader
Today
Women are not allowed to take part when men are offering sacrifice to ancestors
"What girls burn is paper, not money"
Program of China's Women Development (1995-2000)
Number of employed women: 330 million, 46.7% of the country's total (40.6% of the professional workforce)

Women in Modern India
Eastern India (Bengal and Assam):
Shakti cult (mother-goddess) predominates (75 % of all the idolatrous population is still Shakti)
Women not required to wear the veil
Shakti cults involve the worship of women, and the acceptance of their supremacy
Dravidian region
More freedom for women than in Aryan India
Polyandry
Tantric form of the Shiva-Shakti cult
Matriarchal customs still prevail
Women in Modern India
"You can tell the condition of a nation by looking at the status of its women" (Jawaharlal Nehru)
Females receive less health care than males
Poor legal protection
Families are far less likely to educate girls than boys
Women work longer hours than men
Dowry-related murders
Female infanticide and sex-selective abortions
http://www.thp.org/reports/indiawom.htm

Women in Modern Africa
Genital mutilation
Women in the Islamic world
Varies wildly
Women in Post-war Society
Female writers
Irina Grekova (Russia, 1907): "Khozyaeva Zhizni/ Masters of Life" (1960)
Carmen Conde (Spain, 1907): "Mujer Sin Eden" (1947) [p]
Dorothy Baker (USA, 1907): "Cassandra at the Wedding" (1962)
Olivia Manning (Britain, 1908): "The Balkan Trilogy" (1965)
Kathleen Raine (Britain, 1908): "Stone and Flower" (1943) [p]
Simone de Beauvoir (France, 1908): "Tous Les Hommes Sont Mortels" (1946)
Lalla Romano (Italy, 1909): "Una Giovinezza Inventata" (1979)
Eudora Welty (USA, 1909): "The Golden Apples" (1949)
Anna Swirszczynska (Poland, 1909): "Jestem Baba/ I'm a Woman" (1972) [p]
Margita Figuli (Slovak, 1909): "Tri Gastanove Kone/ Three Chestnut Horses" (1940)
Women in Post-war Society
Female writers
Olga Berggolts (Russia, 1910): "Leningradskaya Tetrad" (1944) [p]
Elizabeth Bishop (USA, 1911): "Geometry III" (1976) [p]
Alba de Cespedes (Italy, 1911): "Quaderno Proibito" (1952)
Elsa Morante (Italy, 1912): "L'Isola di Arturo" (1957)
Mary McCarthy (USA, 1912): "The Group" (1963)
Elizabeth Taylor (Britain, 1912): "A Game of Hide and Seek" (1951) +
Barbara Pym (Britain, 1913): "Quartet in Autumn" (1977)
Elizabeth Smart (Canada, 1913): "By Grand Central Station I Sat Down and Wept" (1945)
Marguerite Duras (France, 1914): "Moderato Cantabile" (1958)
Margarita Aliger (Russia, 1915): "Zoja" (1943) [p]
Women in Post-war Society
Female writers
Marijan Matkovic (Croatia, 1915): "Igra Oko Smrti/ Death Play" (1955) [t]
Penelope Fitzgerald (Britain, 1916): "Offshore" (1979)
Natalia Ginzburg (Italy, 1916): "Tutti i Nostri Ieri" (1952)
Edith Templeton (Britain, 1916): "Summer in the Country" (1950)
Magda Szabo (Hungary, 1917): "Fresko" (1958)
Muriel Spark (Britain, 1918): "Memento Mori" (1959)
Shirley Jackson (USA, 1919): "The Lottery" (1948)
Doris Lessing (Zimbabwe, 1919): "Martha Quest" (1952)
Carmen Laforet (Spain, 1921): "Nada" (1945)
Elena Quiroga (Spain, 1921): "Algo Pasa en la Calle" (1954)
Erika Burkart (Germany, 1922): "Der dunkle Vogel" (1953) [p]
Augustina Bessa-Luis (Portugal, 1922): "Vale Abraao/ Abraham's Valley" (1991)
Women in Post-war Society
Female writers
Agnes Nemes-Nagy (Hungary, 1922): "Napfordulo/ Solstice" (1967) [p]
Blaga Dimitrova (Bulgaria, 1922): "Do Otre/ A Domani" (1959) [p]
Wislawa Szymborska (Poland, 1923): "Sto Pociech/ Barrel of Laughs" (1967) [p]
Natalia Correia (Portugal, 1923): "Cantico do Pais Emerso" (1961) [p]
Sara Lidman (Sweden, 1923): "Tjaerdalen/ The Tar Pit" (1953)
Nadine Gordimer (South Africa, 1923): "The Burger's Daughter" (1979)
Denise Levertov (USA, 1923): "O Taste and See" (1964) [p]
Janet Frame (New Zealand, 1924): "Scented Gardens For The Blind" (1963)
MariaLuisa Spaziani (Italy, 1924): "L'occhio del ciclone (1970) [p]
Women in Post-war Society
Female writers
Carmen Martin-Gaite (Spain, 1925): "Retahilas" (1974)
Ana-Maria Matute (Spain, 1926): "Primera Memoria" (1959)
Ingeborg Bachmann (Germany, 1926): "Anrufung des Grossen Baeren" (1956) [p]
Alison Lurie (USA, 1926): "Foreign Affairs" (1985)
Fernanda Botelho (Portugal, 1926): "Sherezade y los Otros" (1964) [p]
Elizabeth Jennings (Britain, 1926): "A Way of Looking" (1955) [p]
Ruth-Prawer Jhabvala (Britain, 1927): "Heat and Dust" (1975)
Anita Brookner (Britain, 1928): "Providence" (1982)
Cynthia Ozick (USA, 1928): "The Messiah of Stockholm" (1987)
Brigid Brophy (Britain, 1929): "The Snow Ball" (1964)
Birgitta Trotzig (Sweden, 1929): "Dykungens Dotter/ The Mud King's Daughter" (1985)
Adrienne Rich (USA, 1929): "Snapshots of a Daughter-in-Law" (1963) [p]
Women in Post-war Society
Female writers
Christa Wolf (Germany, 1929): "Kindheitsmuster" (1976)
Jennifer Johnston (Ireland, 1930): "How Many Miles to Babylon" (1974)
Amelia Rosselli (Italy, 1930): "Serie Ospedaliera" (1969) [p]
Hilda Hilst (Brazil, 1930): "Da Morte Odes Minimas" (1980) [p]
Ruth Rendell (Britain, 1930): "The Face of Trespass" (1974)
Elsie Johansson (Sweden, 1931): "Glasfaglarna/ The Glass Birds" (1996)
Shirley Hazzard (Australia, 1931): "The Transit of Venus" (1980)
Alice Munro (Canada, 1931): "Lives of Girls and Women" (1971)
Maria-Gabriela Llansol (Portugal, 1931): "El Libro de las Comunidades" (1978) [p]
Kiki Dimoula (Greece, 1931): "Lethe's Adolescence" (1994) [p]
Edna O'Brien (Ireland, 1932): "The Country Girls Trilogy" (1964)
Sylvia Plath (USA, 1932): "The Bell Jar" (1966)
Women in Post-war Society
Female writers
Kerstin Ekman (Sweden, 1933): "Haexringarna/ Witches' Rings" (1974)
Penelope Lively (Britain, 1933): "Moon Tiger" (1987)
Joan Didion (USA, 1934): "Play It As It Lays" (1970)
Katerina Anghelaki-Rooke (Greece, 1934) "Beings and Things of Their Own " (1985) [p]
Nina Katerli (Russia, 1934): "Polina" (1984)
Edna-Annie Proulx (USA, 1935): "Postcards" (1992)
Monique Wittig (France, 1935): "Le Corps Lesbien" (1973) [p]
Nataliya Gorbanevskaya (Russia, 1936): "Stihi" (1969) [p]
Assia Djebar (France, 1936): "Les Enfants du Nouveau Monde" (1962)
Antonia Byatt (Britain, 1936): "Possession" (1990)
Dacia Maraini (Italy, 1936): "La Lunga Vita Di Marianna Ucria" (1990)
Women in Post-war Society
Female writers
Lelia Coelho Frota (Brazil, 1936): "Menino Deitado em Alfa" (1978) [p]
Nelida Pinon (Brazil, 1937): "Fundador" (1969)
Anita Desai (India, 1937): "Fire on the Mountain" (1977)
Bella Akhmadulina (Russia, 1937): "Struna/ String/ La Corda" (1962) [p]
Liudmila Petrushevskaia (Russia, 1938): "The Time: Night" (1994)
Joyce-Carol Oates (USA, 1938): "A Garden of Earthly Delights" (1967)
Marisa Madieri (Italy, 1938): "Verde Acqua" (1987)
Caryl Churchill (Britain, 1938): "Light Shining in Buckinghamshire" (1976) [t]
Margaret Atwood (Canada, 1939): "The Handmaid's Tale" (1986)
Margaret Drabble (Britain, 1939): "Jerusalm the Golden" (1967)
Julia Nery (Portugal, 1939): "O Consul" (1991)
Women in Post-war Society
Female writers
Angela Carter (Britain, 1940): "Nights at the Circus" (1984)
Dorrit Willumsen (Denmark, 1940): "Marie" (1983)
Teolinda Gersao (Portugal, 1940): "O Silencio" (1981)
Dorrit Willumsen (Denmark, 1940): "Marie" (1983)
Cristina Peri-Rossi (Uruguay, 1941): "Evohe" (1971) [p]
Margriet de Moor (Holland, 1941): "Eerst grijs dan wit dan Blauw/ First Grey Then White Then Blue" (1990)
Cristina Peri-Rossi (Uruguay, 1941): "Evohe" (1971) [p]
Barbara Frischmuth (Germany, 1941): "Die Mystifikationen der Sophie Silber" (1976)
Margriet de Moor (Holland, 1941): "Eerst grijs dan wit dan Blauw/ First Grey Then White Then Blue" (1990)
Cristina Peri-Rossi (Uruguay, 1941): "Evohe" (1971) [p]
Anne Tyler (USA, 1941): "The Breathing Lessons" (1988)
Women in Post-war Society
Female writers
Sissel Lie (Norway, 1942): "Reise Gjennom Brent Sukker/ Journey Through Burnt Sugar" (1992)
Susan Hill (Britain, 1942): "The Bird of Night" (1972)
Janette-Turner Hospital (Australia, 1942): "The Last Magician" (1992)
Toni Morrison (USA, 1942): "The Bluest Eyes" (1970)
Sissel Lie (Norway, 1942): "Reise Gjennom Brent Sukker/ Journey Through Burnt Sugar" (1992)
Otilia-Valeria Coman "Ana Blandiana" (Romania, 1942): "A Treia Taina/ The Third Sacrament" (1969) [p]
Filomena Cabral (Portugal, 1944): "Tarde de mais Mariana" (1985)
Suzanne Brogger (Denmark, 1944): "Creme Fraiche" (1978)
Lidia Jorge (Portugal, 1946): "O Dia dos Prodigios" (1980)
Women in Post-war Society
Female writers
Daniela Hodrova (Czech, 1946): "Podoboj-/ In Both Kinds" (1978)
Lyudmila Ulitskaya (Russia, 1946): "Sonechka/ Little Sonya" (1995)
Margarita Karapanou (Greece, 1946): "O Ipnovatis/ The Sleepwalker" (1986)
Nina Gorlanova (Russia, 1947): "Roman Vospitaniya/ Learning a Lesson" (1996)
Rhea Galanaki (Greece, 1947): "O Vios Tou Ismail Ferik Pasa/ Life of Ismail Ferik Pasha" (1989)
Annika Idstroem (Finland, 1947): "Pelon Maantiede/ The Geography of Fear" (1995)
Marilynne Robinson (USA, 1947): "Housekeeping" (1981)
Florence Anthony/ Ai (USA, 1947): "Vice" (1999) [p]
Svetlana Alexiyevich (Russia, 1948): "Enchanted by Death" (1993)
Gayl Jones (USA, 1949): "Corregidora" (1975)
Women in Post-war Society
Female writers
Jane Smiley (USA, 1950): "A Thousand Acres" (1991)
Cecilie Loveid (Norway, 1951): "Makespisere/ Seagull Eaters" (1984) [t]
Tatyana Tolstaya (Russia, 1951): "Kys/ Slynx" (2000)
Zyranna Zateli (Greece, 1951): "With the Strange Name of Ramanthis Erevus Death Arrived Last" (2002)
Hilary Mantel (Britain, 1952): "Every Day is Mother's Day" (1985)
Alice McDermott (USA, 1953): "Charming Billy" (1998)
Carol-Ann Duffy (Britain, 1955): "Standing Female Nude" (1985) [p]
Inger Edelfeldt (Sweden, 1956): "Det Hemliga Namnet/ The Secret Name" (1999) " (1976)
Alexandra Marinina (Russia, 1957): "Coincidence of Circumstances" (1992)
Women in Post-war Society
Female writers
Olga Slavnikova (Russia, 1957): "A Dragon-fly the Size of a Dog" (1997)
Liliana Bodoc (Argentina, 1958): "Los Dias del Venado" (2000)
Zuzana Brabcova (Czech, 1959): "Daleko od Stromu/ Far from the Tree" (1984)
Yasmina Reza (France, 1959): "Conversations Apres un Enterrement/ Conversations after a Burial" (1987) [t]
Almudena Grandes (Spain, 1960): "Malena es un Nombre de Tango" (1994)
Arundhati Roy (India, 1961): "God of Small Things" (1997)
Luisa Monteiro (Portugal, 1968): "Casa das Areias" (2000)
Edwidge Danticat (Haiti, 1969): "The Farming of the Bones" (1999)
Women in Post-war Society
Female artists
Lots, but few major ones
2006
The world's GDP has been growing consistently for almost two decades
Most of that growth is due to the female contribution
2006
Female liberation has not required a violent uprising
2006
Globalization (the "global village") is a return to the age with no borders/walls/wars in which warriors are less important
Globalization is a return to pre-historical "female" society
More and more female heads of state
Women in the West
Age of cooperation
Age of discrimination
Age of imitation
Age of _?
Summarizing
Rating women's freedom and power:
Prehistoric times 7?
Mesopotamia 5
Ancient Egypt 6
Ancient India 1
Ancient China 4
Ancient Greece 2
Roman Empire 4
Arab Empire 1
Medieval Europe 4
Renaissance Europe 6
Industrial Europe 3
What the world would be like...
Humans and nature
"When women are depressed, they eat or go shopping. Men invade another country. It's a whole different way of thinking." Elayne Boosler
"There is no female Mozart because there is no female Jack the Ripper." Camille Paglia
"If civilization had been left in female hands, we would still be living in grass huts" Camille Paglia
"If you obey all the rules, you miss all the fun." (Katherine Hepburn)
What the world would be like...
Humans and nature
Women live in harmony with nature
Men conquer it
Cooperation and competition

What the world would be like...
Humans and nature
Why only men write histories of women?
What the world would be like...
For a study of women
Genetic differences (female genome vs male genome)
Neural differences (female brain vs male brain)
Evolutionary factors (how the environment shaped the different roles of males and females)
Cultural history (how woman was depicted in male literature and art, how woman was depicted by female literature and art)