Outline of Logos 5: The Scientific and Industrial Revolutions (lecture by Piero Scaruffi)

Logos 5: 17 May 2006 The Scientific and Industrial Revolution
Bibliography
Henry Hodges: Technology in the Ancient World (1970)
Jacques Barzun: "From Dawn to Decadence" (2001)
Gerhard Dohrn: "History of the Hour" (1998)
John Steele Gordon: "An Empire Of Wealth" (2004)
John Henry: The Scientific Revolution and the Origins of Modern Science
Frances & Joseph Gies: Cathedral Forge and Waterwheel (1994)
Joel Mokyr: Lever of Riches (1990)
Paul Alkon: Origins of Futuristic Fiction (1987)

Earliest Inventions
Tools (2 million years, Africa, Homo Abilis)
Fire (1.9 million years, Africa, Homo Erectus)
Buildings (400,000 BC, France, Homo Erectus)
Burial (70,000 BC, Neanderthal)
Art (28,000 BC, Austria, Homo Sapiens)
Lamp (17,000 BC, France)
Farming (14,000 BC, Mesopotamia)
Domesticated animals (12,000 BC)
Boat (8,000 BC, Holland/ Norway, but earlier in Oceania)
Earliest Inventions
Weapons (bow, sling, dagger, mace) (8,000 BC)
Pottery (7,900 BC, China)
Weaving (6,500 BC, Palestine)
Musical instruments (5,000 BC, Sumeria)
Wheel (3,500 BC, Mesopotamia)
Sail (3,500 BC, Egypt)
Glass (3,000 BC, Phoenicia)
Sundial (3,000 BC, Egypt)
Earliest Inventions
Bronze (copper + tin) Age
Sumerians 3300 BC
Asia Minor 3100 BC
Greece 3000 BC
India 2500 BC
Sicily 2500 BC
Egypt 2200 BC
Thailand 2100 BC
Britain 1800 BC
China 1800 BC
Japan 0
Pre-Columbian America 1000 AD
Earliest Inventions
Iron Age
Mesopotamia 3200 BC
Egypt 2600 BC
Hittites 1800 BC
Greece 1200 BC
India 1100 BC
Gaul (Celts) 800 BC
Britain 700 BC
China 600 BC
Scandinavia: 100 AD
Japan: 200 AD
Russia: 800 AD
Phoenicia
Navigation
Greece
Greek Philosophy
The universe makes systematic sense, and we can make sense of it (rationality and intelligibility of the world)
Problem of the nature of the world: an original substance must be the source of everything that is in the world today
Problem of change: what is it that does NOT change when we say that something "changed"? What persists so that we can say that "it" changed?
Greece
Thales (7th c BC)
Anaximander (7th c BC):
"Apeiron" generates the world and its elements (it turns successively into wind, steam, water, earth, stone)
Animals evolved from more primitive forms of life, a primeval soup heated by the Sun (proto-evolutionary theory)
The earth is floating in the vacuum (first cosmological model)
Pythagoras (6th c BC)
Greece
Anaxagoras (5th c BC)
Life was dispersed as seeds in the universe and eventually landed on Earth ("panspermia")
The Sun is a hot stone and the Moon is made of Earth
Democritus (5th c BC)
Everything is divisible in atoms
Greece
Aristotel
Syllogism
Natural state is rest
Natural state of the heavens is uniform circular motion
Heavier bodies of a given material fall faster than lighter ones
Greece
Eukleides/ Euclid (b300BC, Alexandria)
Geometry
Postulates (parallel lines)
Archimedes (b287BC)
Mathematics and Mechanics
Principle of the lever
Law of hydrostatics
Physics becomes a separate discipline from Philosophy
Alexandria
Eratosthenes (Alexandria, b276BC)
Calculates the circumference of the Earth
Aristarchus (Alexandria, b270BC)
The Earth is a planet
Planets revolve in circles around the Sun (heliocentric world)
Calculates the distance between the Earth and the Moon
Klaudios Ptolemaios/ Ptolemy of Alexandria (145 AD)
Earth at the center of the universe ("geocentric theory")
Uniform circular motion of the planets in their orbits and of their orbits around the Earth
Alexandria
Mathematics accounts systematically for the motion of the universe
Between Athens and Rome
Time-keeping
Egyptian "outflow" water clocks (325 BC)
Ctesibius of Alexandria (3rd C BC): the inflow water clock
Large-scale water automata
Athens' "Horologion" by Andronikos (1st C BC), comprising both sundials and 24-hour water clocks, indicators for the eight winds and the seasons, and astrological data
Roman Empire
Engineering
Roads
Water automata
China
Han (206 BC - 220 AD)
Paper (105 AD)
Waterwheel (waterpower for grinding grain and casting iron)
Compass
Tang (618 - 907)
World's first escapement (Xian, 725)
Porcelain (7th c)
Gunpowder (9th c)
China
Printing
Woodblock printing (7th c)
First printed book in 770 (one million copies of a Buddhist text)
Tang government's official gazette
Complete 130-volume edition of Confucian classics (953)
Islam
Averroes: two truths, one the approximation of the other
Islam
Astronomy
Thabit ibn Qurra (836)
Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi (903)
Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn Yunus (950)
al-Biruni (973)
Mathematics
Al-Khwarizmi (780): algebra (from India)
Habash al-Hasib (825): sine, cosine, tangent
Umar al-Khayyam (1048): algebraic equations
Sharaf al-Din al-Tusi (1135): algebraic geometry
Medieval Europe
Scholasticism
Reason can prove the Christian revelation
Science must be consistent with religion
Averroes: two truths, one the approximation of the other
Scholastics: only one truth
Philosophy and science of Aristotle
Medieval Europe >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>Age of machines/ The Mill
Horizontal water mill (Egypt, 2nd c. BC)
Vertical water mill (Vetruvius, 1st c. BC)
10th c. AD: mills pervasive for grinding grain, fulling clothes, pressing olives and tanning
Monasteries improve mill technology
The Cistercian monks pioneer water-powered iron mills
William the Conqueror's "Domesday Book" (1086) lists 5,624 mills
End of 12th c: windmill (England, North Sea)
First water-powered paper mill: Fabriano, 1276
Medieval Europe
Age of machines
1126: artesian well (invented by the Carthusians in Artois)
12th c. AD: trebuchet (catapult)
12th c. AD: paper (Spain)
13th c. AD: mechanical clock and planetarium
13th c. AD: spinning wheel (first instance of belt transmission of power)
1285: spectacles (Italy)
12th c: blast furnace (Sweden)
Medieval Europe
Age of machines
Medieval Europe
Age of machines
Horizontal loom of 1250 (manuscript at Trinity College, Cambridge)
Medieval Europe
Age of machines/ Weapons
Milano (12th c) center of military technology (weapons, armors)
Cannon (late 13th c)
Handguns (end of 14th c)
Medieval Europe
Age of machines/ Clocks
Escapement (end of 13th c)
Mechanical clock (13th c - 14th c)
First machine made entirely of metal
Initially to serve the need of astrologers (astronomical clocks) and made by blacksmiths
St Eustorgio (Milano, 1309)
First clockmakers (Jacopo di Dondi, who built the clock for the tower of the Carrara palace at Padua, 1344)
First household clocks: end of 13th c, made by goldsmiths/silversmiths, not by blacksmiths
Medieval Europe
Clocks
Boom of public clocks in Italy (early 14th c)
Mechanical clock in the San Gottardo tower of Milano (1336): first tower clock
Parallel development: the sandglass
Pope Urban V's "portable clock" of 1365: first portable clock, but requires a "clock carrier"
Regulation of working time (Cologne, 1374), town-hall meetings, markets, schools, preaching
Small portable clocks (15th c)
Medieval Europe
Clocks
The clock replaces the natural flow of time (the flow of individual experiences) with an abstract flow of time (the universal flow of clocks)
The clock begins a process of alienation of the individual from its natural environment
Before the invention of the clock, only monasteries valued routine daily behavior
Medieval Europe
Clocks


Medieval Europe
Age of machines
Theophilus Presbyter: "De Diversis Artibus" (13th c), Europe's first technical manual
The art of the painter
The art of the glass worker
The art of the metal worker
Each village acquires its own carpenter and smith
Medieval Europe
Printing press
12xx: paper is "invented" in Spain
124x: movable type metal printing press is invented in Korea
1276: paper mill in Fabriano
1423: Laurens-Janszoon Koster (Netherlands) introduces movable type in Europe
1450: newsletters begin circulating in Europe
1456: Gutenberg "invents" the printing press
By 1501 there are 1000 printing shops in Europe
Medieval Europe
Printing press
After the press
1534: first Frankfurt Book Fair
1545: Venezia introduces author's copyrights
1566: the first newspaper, Notizie Scritte, in Venezia
1571: Pope Paul IV issues Index of Forbidden Books
1599: 10,000,000 books in Europe
End of the Church's monopoly on books (and knowledge)
Medieval Europe
Printing press
First revolution in information technology (first in the chain that would lead to the telegraph, telephone, computer, Internet)
Medieval Europe
The standard model of science
The Earth is at the center of the universe
The heavens are organized around the Earth in concentric revolving spheres
The planets are located in the first sphere
The stars are in the second sphere
The other spheres are for angels
The last sphere is God
Medieval Europe
The standard model of science/ Problems:
Motion of Mars
Why does the arrow keep flying?
Why does the arrow stops flying?
The Scientific Revolution
The age of exploration
The reformation (1517)

The Scientific Revolution
What happened in_?
Italy, Spain and Poland between 4 Oct 1582 and 15 Oct 1582,
France between 9 Dec 1582 and 20 Dec 1582
Hungary between 21 Oct 1587 and 1 Nov 1587
Prussia between 22 Aug 1610 and 2 Sept 1610
Denmark between 18 Feb 1700 and 1 Mar 1700
Britain between 2 Sep 1752 and 14 Sep 1752
Greece between 9 Mar 1924 and 23 Mar 1924
Russia between 31 Jan 1918 and 14 Feb 1918
Turkey between 18 Dec 1926 and 1 Jan 1927
The Scientific Revolution
Science
Main center of scientific research: Italy
Leonardo, Copernicus, Galileo
Accademia dei Lincei, Roma (1603)
Royal Society of Science, London (1662)
French Academy of Science (1666)
The Scientific Revolution
Mikolaj Kopernik/ Nicolaus Copernicus (1530, Poland)
Heliocentric theory
The sun is at rest at the center of the universe
The earth, spinning on its axis once daily, revolves annually around the sun
The planets also circle the sun
The Earth is one of the planets
The greater the radius of a planet's orbit, the greater the time the planet takes to revolve around the sun
The Scientific Revolution
Tycho Brahe (1573, Sweden)
Discovered a nova (a new star)
Aristotelian/Christian view:
The world below the moon is imperfect and dynamic
The world above the moon is perfect and static
Brahe's view:
The world below the moon is not as imperfect as we think
The world above the moon is not as perfect as we think
The Scientific Revolution
Johannes Kepler (1619, Germany)
Laws of planetary motion
Planets move in ellipses (motion is not uniformly circular)
Planets describe equal areas in equal times
The square of a planet's periodic time is proportional to the cube of its mean distance from the sun
Ellipses not circles for astral bodies
The heavens are a machine
The Scientific Revolution
Renaissance Inventions
Microscope (1590s, Dutch)
Telescope (1608, Dutch/Italian)
Thermometer (1611, Italian)
Barometer (1644, Italian)
Pendulum clock (1657, Dutch)
The Scientific Revolution
Science
Very fast: Olaus Roemer determines the speed of light (1678)
Very small: Anton van Leeuwenhock proves the existence of microorganisms
Very far and very big: Galileo (1610) documents the mountains of the Moon and the moons of other planets (Jupiter)
The Scientific Revolution
Francis Bacon (1620)
Truth must be found via objective, unbiased, empirical observation
Induction
Goal of science is to control the world ("how to command nature itself"), i.e. technology
The Scientific Revolution
Galileo Galilei (1632)
A body in free motion does not need any force to continue moving
If a force is applied, then what will change is the acceleration, not the velocity
Linear uniform motion as the natural motion of all objects
Acceleration is due to forces
Acceleration is the same for all falling objects
How to unify horizontal and vertical motion
Relativity: All physical laws are the same for all observers in linear uniform motion relative to each other
The Scientific Revolution
Blaise Pascal (1632)
First mechanical adding machine (1642)
Mathematical theory of probability (1654)
The Scientific Revolution
Ren‚ Descartes (1637)
Mathematics is certain knowledge (what cannot be doubted), from which other certain knowledge can be derived
The scientific method
Rationalism
Mechanicism

The Scientific Revolution
Robert Boyle (1661)
Founding father of Chemistry
Under conditions of constant temperature, the pressure and volume of a gas are inversely proportional.
Atomic theory of matter: matter is made of innumerable elementary particles
The Scientific Revolution
Jacques Guttin: Epigone, histoire du siŠcle futur (1659)
First futuristic book
The Scientific Revolution
Isaac Newton (1687)
The same physical laws apply to the entire universe
Unification of terrestrial and celestial mechanics
Every event is controlled by such physical laws
Such physical laws can be formulated in terms of mathematical equations
Mathematical description of the motion of bodies in space and over time
The Scientific Revolution
Isaac Newton (1687)
Absolute time and space made of ordered instants and points
Force as cause of change of motion (acceleration)
Conservation of energy
Principle of universal gravitation: every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other particle with a force varying inversely as the square of the distance between them and directly proportional to the product of their masses
Action at distance
Force is proportional to mass and acceleration
The Scientific Revolution
Isaac Newton (1687)
Galileo's inertia: the property of a material object to either remain at rest or in a uniform motion in the absence of external forces
Newton's inertia: a fundamental quantitative property of matter (mass)
What is "mass"? Where does it come from? Why is it related to acceleration?
The Industrial Revolution
Coal economy
16th-17th century London
Coal heats homes better than wood
Wood scarce, coal plenty
18th century England
Coal wealth
Shipbuilding technology improved to transport coal to London
Canals built to transport coal
Railroads invented for coal (1825)
The Industrial Revolution
Textiles
1721: Thomas Lombe builds the first factory in the world (for silk)
1733: John Kay invents the flying shuttle (for the manufacture of wool)
1741: Lewis Paul, having invented a mechanical system to spin cotton, opens the first cotton mill
1757: James Watt improves the steam engine
1765: James Hargreaves invents the spinning jenny (for the cotton industry)
1771: Richard Arkwright opens the first factory powered by water power
1779: Samuel Crompton invents the "mule" for the cotton industry, which reduces the cost of spinning by 95% in 20 years
1785: Edmund Cartwright mechanizes weaving (the "power loom")
1787: Robert Peel builds an integrated spinning, weaving and printing factory
The Industrial Revolution
Transportation
1804: Richard Trevithick builds the world's first locomotive
1812: Henry Bell starts the first commercial steamboat service in Glasgow
1819: The "Savannah" completes the first transatlantic crossing by a steamboat
1820: the first iron steamship is built
1830: the world's first commercial railroad opens (George Stephenson's Liverpool-Manchester)
1844: the telegraph
1869: the Suez canal (impassable by sail boats) boosts sales of steamboats
1879: the first steel steamboat crosses the Atlantic
1892: Britain tonnage and seatrade exceeds the rest of the world together
The Industrial Revolution
Britain
Joint-stock company ubiquitous
Glorious revolution (1689)
Stabilizing role of the Bank of England (1694)
Efficient and honest government
Weak hold of the guild system
The Industrial Revolution
Manchester
Water mills + coal mines + Liverpool's port + technology
Middle class ran most of the enterprises
200 years of clock-making (cotton mechanics were clock-makers)
First polytechnic schools
The Industrial Revolution
Steam engine
Boom of factories caused high demand for iron
Iron had to be smelt with coal
The demand of coke increased exponentially to smelt iron
Problem: pumping water out of coal mines
The Industrial Revolution
Steam engine
Before the steam engine:
water wheels (need water)
windmills (need wind)
draft animals (need food, vulnerable to disease and exhaustion)
people (need food, vulnerable to disease and exhaustion)
The steam engine: independent of location, time, weather, people
First major innovation in transformation of energy since the windmill
Biggest impact on daily life since the printing press
The Industrial Revolution
Steam engine
Consequence: high demand for iron to build steam engines

The Industrial Revolution
Transportation
Railways
Steamships
National postal systems
1855: Panama railway
1869: Suez canal
The Industrial Revolution
Transportation
The Railway
Conductors, drivers, engine fireman
Railway stations
Signalmen
Maintenance crews
Telegraph
Engineers
What the Industrial Age knew
International Standards
1582: Gregorian calendar
1744: Celsius degrees
1800: Metric system
1884: Greenwich time
The Chemical Revolution
Joseph Black (1755): carbon dioxide
Henry Cavendish (1766): hydrogen
Joseph Priestly (1774): oxygen
Henry Cavendish (1785): water and air are not elements but compounds (oxygen+hydrogen, oxygen+nitrogen)
Antoine Lavoisier (1777): combustion is a form of oxidation (combination with oxygen)
Antoine Lavoisier (1789): conservation of mass (the quantity of matter is the same at the end as at the beginning of every chemical reaction)
John Dalton (1803): matter is composed of atoms of differing weights
The Chemical Revolution
Daniel Bernoulli (1738)
Macroscopic properties of objects are due to and can be explained by the motion of the particles that constitute them
First kinetic theory of gases
Expressed in probabilistic terms
Sadi Carnot (1824)
Study of heat
Perpetual motion is impossible
1850: Rudolf Clausius discovers entropy

The Electrical Revolution
William Gilbert (1600): coins the term "electricity" (from "elektron", the Greek word for amber: amber becomes charged by rubbing)
Otto von Guericke (1660): the first machine for producing static electricity
Robert Boyle (1675): electric force is transmitted through a vacuum
Stephen Gray (1729): conductors and nonconductors, positive and negative charge
Pieter van Musschenbroek (1745): invents the Leyden jar, a "condenser" that can store static electricity but discharge it only all at once
Benjamin Franklin (1752): lightning is a form of electricity
The Electrical Revolution
Charles Coulomb (1791): law of attraction and repulsion

Alessandro Volta (1800): battery that transforms chemical energy into electricity
The Electrical Revolution
Hans Christian Oersted (1819): a magnetic field surrounds a current-carrying wire
AndreMarie Ampere (1820): electromagnetic reaction (two parallel conductors carrying currents traveling in the same direction attract each other; if traveling in opposite directions, repel each other)
Michael Faraday (1831): electromagnetic induction
Michael Faraday (1830s): dynamo (that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy), electric motor, electric generator
Georg Simon Ohm (1827): the relationship among voltage, current, and resistance V=R*I
The Electrical Revolution
Michael Faraday (1831)
Interaction between bodies is transmitted through a field
Electricity is transmitted through an electrical fields
Magnetism is transmitted through a magnetic field (first observed by Hans Christian Oersted in 1819)
Identity of electricity and magnetism
The Electrical Revolution
Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (1845): laws for the distribution of current in electric circuits (e.g., the sum of the currents into a given node equals the sum of the currents out of that node)
William Weber (1855): the ratio between the electrodynamic and electrostatic units of charge is the same number as the speed of light
The Electrical Revolution
James Maxwell (1873)
Electricity and magnetism are the same phenomenon
Electric bodies radiate invisible waves of energy through space (fields)
The number of coordinates needed to determine a wave is infinite
Mathematical relation between electric and magnetic fields (field equations)
Light is made up of electromagnetic waves

The Electrical Revolution
James Maxwell (1873)
The story of "c"
The ratio between electrostatic and electrodynamic units of charge: a constant c with the dimensions of a speed
c is exactly the vacuum speed of light
Maxwell's conclusion: light must be an electromagnetic wave

The Electrical Revolution
Germany
1847: Werner Von Siemens founds a company to exploit the telegraph
1866: the first practical dynamo is developed by Siemens
1879: Siemens demonstrates the first electric railway
1881: Siemens demonstrates the first electric tram system
1887: Emil Rathenau founds the Algemeine Elektrizitats Gesellschaft, specializing in electrical engineering, whereas Siemens specializes in communication and information
1890: AEG develops the AC motor and generator (first power plants) and alternating current makes it easy to transmit electricity over long distances
The USA
Boom of cotton
Samuel Slater's cotton spinning mill of 1790 in Rhode Island turns cotton into thread
Eli Whitney's cotton gin of 1793 helps the USA become the producer of 70% of the world's cotton by 1850
Francis Cabot Lowell's integrated cotton factory (spinning + weaving) of 1814 in Massachusetts
The USA becomes the second industrial power in the world (two million people employed in manufacturing in 1824)
The USA
Transportation
1790: First turnpike (Philadelphia-Lancaster)
Capital intensive (private investors)
1803-1848: Turnpike from Maryland to Illinois (Congress funded)
1807: First steamboat (Robert Fulton's North River Boat from New York to Albany)
Capital intensive (private investors)
1817: First scheduled passenger ship from New York to Liverpool (Black Ball Line)
Capital intensive (private investors)

The USA
Transportation
1825: Erie Canal (Great Lakes to New York)
Reduced importance of the Mississippi river and of New Orleans for domestic trade
Manhattan's population increases from 123,000 in 1820 to 814,000 in 1860
Capital intensive (New York state)
1829: Cornelius Vanderbilt's first steamboat
Slashes operational costs and reduces fares to made them affordable to the masses
Capital intensive (private investors)
The USA
Transportation
1828: First railroad (Baltimore-Ohio)
1840: 4,500 kms of railroad track
1860: 49,000 kms of railroad track (mostly in the North)
Capital intensive (private investors)
1869: The Union and Central Pacific railroads create the first transcontinental railroad
Capital intensive (USA government)
The USA
Communication
1844: Samuel Morse's telegraph
Used electricity to broadcast information
Shared the route of the railroads
Cut the time to send a message from months to minutes
Made Wall Street "the" stock market of the nation (no more need for others)
Capital intensive (USA government)
1866: Cyrus Field's transatlantic cable
Capital intensive (private investors)
The USA
Communication
Telegraph
Second major revolution in information technology after the printing press
The virtual movement of information replaces the physical movement of people
Transportation and communication get decoupled
The USA
Communication
1835: James Bennett's New York Herald
First mass-market daily newspaper
Rotary press powered by steam (thousands of copies, low price)
Pages on business, weather, sports.
International correspondents (enabled by telegraph)
Advertising
Capital intensive (private investors)

The USA
Gas
1796: Philadelphia pioneers gaslight
1830s: Street lighting in all major eastern cities
1840s: Gaslight common in homes
1840s: Central heating common in homes
People can stay up till late and read
Boom of books, magazines and newspapers

The USA
Oil
1859: First oil well in the world (Edwin Drake)
Scarcity of whale oil for illumination drives search for alternatives
Technology of drilling for salt
Lighting drives the great demand for oil until gasoline-powered cars
1862: John Rockefeller's Standard Oil to refine oil
Mission: low-cost producer of oil (Samuel Andrews's process for the refinement of crude petroleum)
Internal combustion engine (1876)
Capital intensive (private investors)
The USA
Steel
Iron + coke + limestone
Melting point of iron: 1535 C
Bessemer converter for mass-producing steel (1856)

The USA
Agriculture
Vast areas to farm for a small population of colonists
Huge farms outside the village
Need for mechanical tools to help in farming the land
1831: Cyrus McCormick's harvesting machine
Chicago's shipment of wheat increased from 80 bushels in 1839 to 2,000,000 in 1849
1837: John Deere's steel plow
The percentage of agricultural workers steadily declined, while agricultural output steadily increased
Capital intensive (private investors)
The USA
Consumerism
1846: The "Marble Palace", New York (first department store where customers can browse at leisure)
Sets the standard for middle-class lifestyle (furniture, carpeting, china, decoration)
Change the meaning of "necessity"
Turns Christmas into the main engine of retail business
The USA
Consumerism
1816: Frederic Tudor's ice box (insulated with sawdust)
USA exports ice to Brazil, India, China and Indonesia
1851: Isaac Singer's sewing machine
The price for ready-made clothes plunges and makes them affordable for the masses
Second Industrial Revolution
Steel replaces iron
Electricity replaces steam
Machines replace humans
Scientific laboratories at the service of the industry
Global business based on fast transportation and communication
Imperialism
Next Lecture


The Age of the Literal
Decline of the metaphorical/allegorical world
Engineering the Future (Futuristic fiction)
Rediscovering the Past (Archeology)
Age of Specialization
Decline of Religion