Outline of Logos 6: Second Scientific and Industrial Revolution (lecture by Piero Scaruffi)


Logos 6: 31 May 2006 The Second Scientific and Industrial Revolution
Bibliography
John Steele Gordon: "An Empire Of Wealth" (2004)
Gerard Piel: The Age Of Science (2001)
Peter Watson: The Modern Mind (2000)
Roger Penrose:The Emperor's New Mind (1989)

The Biological Revolution
The Biological Revolution
Charles Darwin (1859)
Animals evolved
Evolution=variation+selection
Adaptation
Struggle for survival
Adam Smith's economics transferred to nature
Design without a designer
The Biological Revolution
Charles Darwin (1859)
Natural selection AND Sexual selection (competition for survival AND competition for reproduction)
Sexual selection: males compete for females, females choose males
The Biological Revolution
Gregor Mendel (1865)
Phenotype vs genotype
Units of transmission of traits
The Biological Revolution
Germs
Louis Pasteur (1865): diseases are caused by germs
Robert Koch (1875): anthrax
Robert Koch (1882): tubercolosis
Robert Koch (1882): cholera
Paul Ehrlich (1909): syphilis


The Biological Revolution
Biology
1859: Charles Darwin (Evolution=variation+selection)
1865: Gregor Mendel (Units of transmission of traits)
1906: William Bateson ("Genetics")
1920s: Thomas Hunt Morgan ("chromosomes")
1920s: Population Genetics (Probabilities)
1940s: Modern Synthesis (variation=mutation)
The Thermodynamic Revolution
The Thermodynamic Revolution
Being vs Becoming
Classical Physics: the world as a static and reversible system that undergoes no evolution, whose information is constant in time
Classical physics is the science of being
Thermodynamics describes an evolving world in which irreversible processes occurs
Thermodynamics is the science of becoming
The science of being and the science of becoming describe dual aspects of nature
The Thermodynamic Revolution
Entropy
Clausius' entropy (1850): any transformation of energy has an energetic cost
Heat flows spontaneously from hot to cold bodies, but the opposite never occurs
Scrambled eggs and lumps of sugar
Natural processes generate entropy
Second law of thermodynamics : entropy (of an isolated system) can never decrease
We cannot always replay the history of the universe backwards
Some processes are irreversible
Time's arrow
The Thermodynamic Revolution
Ludwig Boltzmann (1877)
Statistical Mechanics
Many different microscopic states of a system result in the same macroscopic state
Boltzmann's statistical definition of entropy: the entropy of a macrostate is the logarithm of the number of its microstates
E = K * Log(N)
Macrostates that can be implemented only by one microstate are perfectly ordered states
Entropy is a measure of disorder in a system
The Mathematical Revolution
The Mathematical Revolution
George Boole (1854)
Systematic use of symbols eliminates the ambiguities of natural language
Logic becomes as rigorous as Mathematics
"All humans are mortal" translates into "All y are some x" or y=vx, and can be further derived: y-vx=0, "Non-mortal humans do not exist"
The Mathematical Revolution
Charles Babbage: "Difference Engine" (1859), manufactured by Edvard Scheutz

The Mathematical Revolution
Georg Cantor (1879)
Set Theory: emancipates Mathematics from its traditional domain (numbers)
Transfinite numbers
Gottlob Frege (1884)
"Predicate calculus"
Mathematics becomes a branch of Logic
The laws of thought "are" the laws of logic
Russell & Whitehead (1913): Axiomatization of Mathematics
Wittgenstein (1921): Axiomatization of Language
The Mathematical Revolution
David Hilbert (1900)
Entscheidungsproblem: does a general algorithmic procedure for resolving all mathematical problems exist?
The Mathematical Revolution
Logic
Paradoxes
"I am lying"
The class of classes that do not belong to themselves ("the barber who shaves all barbers who do not shave themselves")
The omnipotent god
Kurt Goedel's theorem of incompleteness (1931)
The Mathematical Revolution
What is an algorithm
Alan Turing: definition of algorithm via the Turing machine (1936)
Alonzo Church (1936): definition of algorithm via Lambda calculus
Turing's and Church's conclusion: Hilbert's Entscheidungsproblem is impossible (there is no universal algorithm for deciding whether or not a Turing machine will stop)
Universal Turing Machine
The Electrical Revolution
The Electrical Revolution
1890: AEG develops the AC motor and generator (first power plants) and alternating current makes it easy to transmit electricity over long distances
Impact
Domestic life (appliances)
Entertainment (media)
Office life (office equipment)
The Electrical Revolution
Media
1876: Alexander Bell's telephone
1877: Thomas Edison's phonograph
1886: Kodak's first consumer camera
1892: popular music becomes big business
1895: the Lumiere brothers invent cinema
1901: Guglielmo Marconi conducts the first transatlantic radio transmission
The Electrical Revolution
Media
1926: films with synchronized voice and music are introduced (talking movies)
1927: the juke-box is introduced by Automatic Music Instrument
1927: Philo Farnsworth invents the television in San Francisco
1940: Peter Goldmark invents color television
The Electrical Revolution
Appliances
1886: Josephine Cochrane invents the dishwasher
1902: Willis Carrier invents the air conditioner
1911: General Electric introduces the first commercial refrigerator
1946: Percy Spencer invents the microwave oven

The Electrical Revolution
Office
1868: Christopher Latham Sholes invents the first practical typewriter
1884: James Ritty invents the cash register
1885: William Burroughs develops an adding machine
1890: Herman Hollerith builds an electrical tabulating device (Hollerith renamed IBM in 1924)
1937: Chester Carlson invents the photocopier

The Transport Revolution
The Transport Revolution
Automobile
1885: Daimler and Maybach invent the motorcycle
1886: Karl Benz builds a gasoline-powered car
1913: Ford installs the first assembly line
The Transport Revolution
The automobile in the 1920s
The Transport Revolution
The automobile in the 1930s
The Transport Revolution
The automobile in the 1940s
The Transport Revolution
The North Atlantic transatlantic liners
1929-38: Golden age
Germany's "Bremen" and "Europa", Italy's "Rex", France's "Normandie" (1934), Britain's "Queen Mary" (1936)
Britain-New York: 4 days
The Transport Revolution
The Airplane
1873: baron Friedrich von Harbou of Prussia invents the dirigible
1903: Wilbur and Orville Wright fly the first airplane
1909: Louis Bleriot crosses English Channel in a monoplane
1915: German zeppelins bomb Britain (first air raid)
1915-18: France builds 67,987 planes, Britain 58,144 and Germany 48,537, Italy 20,000 and the USA 15,000

The Transport Revolution
The Airplane
1918: United States Post Office establishes airmail service
1919: Walter Hinton pilots a plane from the USA to Lisbon, the first transatlantic flight (with many stops)
1919: British pilots fly from Newfoundland to Ireland, the first nonstop transatlantic flight (in 16 hours)
1920: Aircraft Travel and Transport inaugurates London-Paris passenger service
1923: John Macready and Oakley Kelly fly a plane nonstop from New York to San Diego, the first transcontinental flight
1924: USA planes fly around the world (in 175 days)
1927: Charles Lindbergh flies New York to Paris
The Psychological Revolution
The Psychological Revolution
Wilhelm-Max Wundt (1874)
Actions have a motive
Motives are mental states, hosted in our minds and controlled by our minds
Motives express an imbalance in the mind, between desire and reality
Action is an attempt to regenerate balance by changing the reality to match our desire
The Psychological Revolution
William James (1890)
The function of mind is to help the body live in an environment
The brain is an organ that evolved because of its usefulness for survival
Consciousness is not a substance, it is a process ("the stream of consciousness")
The Psychological Revolution
Sigmund Freud (1900)
Classical view of dreams: dreams are about the future (oracles)
Freud's view of dreams: dreams are about the past
The mind is divided in conscious (rational motives) and unconscious mind (reservoir of unconscious motives)
Separation of motive and awareness
The Psychological Revolution
Edward Thorndike (1911)
Animals learn based on the outcome of their actions ("law of effect")
The mind is a network
Learning occurs when elements are connected
Behavior is due to the association of stimuli with responses that is generated through those connections
A habit is a chain of "stimulus-response" pairs

The Psychological Revolution
Behaviorism deals with mental terms only to the extent that they are related to behavior
John Watson (1913):
Stimulus-response patterns explain animal behavior
Ivan Pavlov (1926)
Conditioned reflexes
Burrhus Skinner (1938)
Therapy is not about releasing repressed impulses but about conditioning brains in order to correct disordered behavior

The Psychological Revolution
Gestalt Psychology
An individual stimulus does not cause an individual response
Form is the elementary unit of perception: we do not construct a perception by analyzing a myriad data, we perceive the form as a whole
Max Wertheimer (1912)
Perception is more than the sum of the things perceived
Form is the elementary unit of perception
Wolfgang Kohler (1925)
Problem-solving as sudden insight
Restructuring of the field of perception
The Psychological Revolution
Gestalt Psychology
Karl Lashley (1930)
Functions are not localized but distributed around the brain
Every brain region partakes (to some extent) in all brain processes
The brain as a whole is "fault tolerant"
Memory as an electromagnetic field and a specific memory as a wave within that field
The Psychological Revolution
Jean Piaget (1923)
The mind grows, just like the body grows
Progress from simple mental arrangements to complex ones (from literal to abstract)
Not by gradual evolution but by sudden rearrangements of mental operations
Cognitive growth = transition from a stage in which the dominant factor is perception, which is irreversible, to a stage in which the dominant is abstract thought, which is reversible
The Psychological Revolution
Cognitive Psychology
Richard Semon (1904): the "engram"
Otto Selz (1920s): schema
Fredrick Bartlett (1932): Reconstructive memory
Edward Tolman (1932): "cognitive map"
Donald Broadbent (1957): "short-term memory" and "long-term memory"
The Cosmological Revolution
The Cosmological Revolution
Georg Riemann (1854)
General class of geometries, that comprises the classical Euclidean geometry as a special case
Spaces with any number of dimensions
Space can be curved instead of flat
The Cosmological Revolution
Ernst Mach (1886)
Newton's inertia: a fundamental property of matter
Mach's inertia: a local property that arises from the global distribution of matter in the universe
All motion is "relative" motion (relative to all other masses)
The Cosmological Revolution
Henri Poincare` (1892)
The speed of light is the maximum speed
Non-Euclidean geometries have the same logical and mathematical legitimacy as Euclidean geometry
The Cosmological Revolution
Hendrik Lorentz (1892)
Unify Newton's equations for the dynamics of bodies and Maxwell's equations for the dynamics of electromagnetic waves in one set of equations (Lorentz transformations)
Contraction of bodies

The Cosmological Revolution
Albert Einstein (1905)
Special relativity:
Laws of nature must be the same in all frames of reference that are "inertial"
The speed of light is the same in all directions
The Cosmological Revolution
Special Relativity
Consequences:
The length of an object and the duration of an event are relative to the observer
All quantities must have four dimensions, a time component and a space component (e.g., energy-momentum)
Equivalence of mass and energy (E=mc2)
Nothing can travel faster than light
Time does not flow (no more than space does), it is just a dimension
The Cosmological Revolution
General Relativity (1917)
Relativity for systems accelerated with respect to one another
Principle of Equivalence: Forces produced by gravity are in every way equivalent to forces produced by acceleration
All forces (gravitational or not) are due to acceleration
Newton's hypothesis that every object attracts every other object is unnecessary
The Cosmological Revolution
General Relativity
Masses curve spacetime
Spacetime's curvature determines the motion of masses.
Einstein's law of gravity: Every object, which is not subject to external forces, moves along a geodesic of spacetime (the shortest route between two points on a warped surface), its "world line"
Spacetime "is" the gravitational field
It is spacetime that is curved, not the trajectory
The Cosmological Revolution
General Relativity
Time too is warped
Clocks slow down in a gravitational field
Light too travels in a warped spacetime
Light is deflected by a gravitational field
The Cosmological Revolution
Albert Einstein
Cosmological constant to counterbalance the effect of gravity, so as to retain a static universe

The Cosmological Revolution
Physics
1920: Arthur Eddington suggests that nuclear fusion fuels the sun
1929: Edwin Hubble discovers that the universe is expanding
1936: Fritz Zwicky compiles a catalogue of 10,000 clusters each made of thousands of galaxies
Astronomical observations reveal a turbulent universe made of millions of galaxies and punctuated by violent events
The Subatomic Revolution
The Subatomic Revolution
Waves
1887: Heinrich Herz discovers radio waves
1895: Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen discovers X rays
1896: Antoine Henri Becquerel, Pierre Curie and Marie Curie observe the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei
The Subatomic Revolution
Electrons
Hendrik Lorentz (1892): the atom is not elementary but is made smaller units that are electrical in nature
Ernest Rutherford (1911): the atom is made of a nucleus and orbiting electrons (a mini-solar system)
Niels Bohr (1913): Electrons are arranged in concentric shells outside the nucleus of the atom
Robert Millikan (1913): the charge of the electron
James Chadwick (1932): The nucleus of the atom contains charge-less particles (neutrons)
Enrico Fermi (1933): a "weak force" holds together some subatomic particles
The Subatomic Revolution
Elementary forces:
Electromagnetic force
Gravitational force
Nuclear force
Weak force


The Subatomic Revolution
Quantum Mechanics
First major theory of a dimension that humans cannot perceive (the infinitely small)
Humans were not built by evolution to understand the quantum world
Quantum Mechanics reaches conclusions that are at odds with the world that humans were designed to cope with (indeterminacy, the observer collapses the wave, the vacuum is not empty, antimatter, etc)
Only "interpretations" of what it means are possible: we cannot verify its meaning because its meaning lies beyond our cognitive closure
The Subatomic Revolution
Quantum Mechanics
A consequence of the electric revolution: the study of electricity led to the study of the atom
A German phenomenon: Germany was at the vanguard of the electric revolution

The Subatomic Revolution
Quantum Mechanics
Energy quanta (1900): atoms can emit energy only in discrete amounts (Max Planck)
Energy-frequency equivalence (1905): the energy of a photon is proportional to the frequency of the radiation, i.e. light is particles (Albert Einstein)
Structure of the atom (1913): electrons turn around the nucleus and are permitted to occupy only some orbits (Niels Bohr)
Dualism (1923): waves and particles are dual aspects (Louis de Broglie)
Wave function (1926): wave of probabilities (Max Born)
Anti-matter (1928): positively charged electron (Paul Dirac): Quantum Electrodynamics
The Subatomic Revolution
Quantum Mechanics
The state of a particle is described by a "wave function" which summarizes ("superposes") all the alternatives and their probabilities
Erwin Schrodinger's equation describes how this wave function evolves in time
The wave function describes a set of possibilities
A measurement causes a "collapse of the wave function": only one eigenvalue is possible after the measurement, the one that is measured
A measurement introduces irreversibility: the collapse cannot be undone
The Subatomic Revolution
Quantum Mechanics
Werner Heisenberg's "uncertainty principle": there is a limit to the precision with which we can measure quantities
The Subatomic Revolution
Quantum Mechanics
Forces are due to exchanges of discrete amounts of energy ("quanta")
Equivalent descriptions: wave and particle, energy and mass, frequency and wavelength
Space-time is discrete
The vacuum is not empty ("zero point" radiation)
There is a limit to how small a physical system can be
Randomness
Non-locality
The Subatomic Revolution
Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics
Niels Bohr: only phenomena are real
Werner Heisenberg: the world "is" made of possibility waves (particles are merely "potentialities")
Albert Einstein: an incomplete description of the universe ("hidden variables")
John Von Neumann: consciousness
Paul Dirac: our knowledge of a system
David Bohm: a quantum potential acts beyond the 4-dimensional geometry of spacetime
Hugh Everett: a multiverse
The Synthetic Revolution
The Synthetic Revolution
Synthetic materials
1907: Leo Baekeland invents the first plastic ("bakelite")
1925: Cellophane is introduced
1930: Polystyrene is invented
1933: Eric Fawcett and Reginald Gibson invent polyethylene
1935: Wallace Carothers invents nylon, a synthetic substitute for silk
1938: Roy Plunkett invents teflon
1942: DuPont invents polyethylene plastic
1945: Ed Tupper founds Tupperware for food containers made of polythylene
Third Scientific Revolution
World War II
Cold War
Third Scientific Revolution
World War II inventions
Computer (Tommy Flowers, Britain, 1943, vs Konrad Zuse, Germany, 1914)
Nuclear power (Enrico Fermi, USA, 1942, vs Werner Heisenberg, Germany, and Yoshio Nishina, Japan)
Rocket (Wernher von Braun, Germany, 1942)
Third Scientific Revolution
Cold War inventions
Spaceships
Internet
GPS

The Electronic Revolution
Electronics
1947: William Shockley invents the transistor
1954: first transistor radio
The Electronic Revolution
Office (1950s)
Electric Typewriter
Calculating Machine
Photocopier
Telefax
Telex (1958)
Touch-tone Phone (1963)
Hand-held Calculator (1967)
IBM Computers (1964)
The Electronic Revolution
Media
1948: 12-inch 33-1/3 RPM long-playing vinyl record
1962: the audio cassette
1971: the video-cassette recorder (VCR)
1973: Martin Cooper at Motorola invents the cellular telephone
1978: the USA begins installation of the GPS
1979: Sony launches the "Walkman" portable stereo
1981: the compact disc (CD)
1989: Magellan Corporation introduces the first hand-held GPS receiver
1995: the DVD
The Tourism Revolution
The Tourism Revolution
Transportation
Pan Am's first transatlantic flight (1939)
Boeing 707: long-distance jet (1958)
East Coast to West Coast in five hours instead of three days
New York to London in eight hours instead of five days
Decline of passenger ships and railroads
Shinkansen (1964)
Wide-body jet (1967)
The Tourism Revolution
Transportation
Cheap transportation enables the age of mass tourism
The Space Revolution
Neil Armstrong on the Moon (July 1969)
The Space Revolution
Space exploration
1957: the Soviet Union launches the first artificial satellite (Sputnik)
1961: Yuri Gagarin becomes the first astronaut
1962: the USA launches the first telecommunication satellite (Telstar)
1969: Neil Armstrong is the first human to walk on the Moon
The Space Revolution
Space exploration
1970: First spacecraft on Venus (Soviet)
1971: First spacecraft on Mars (Soviet)
1977: the USA launches the Voyager to reach other galaxies
1981: the USA launches the first space shuttle
1986: the USSR launches the permanent space station MIR
1990: the Hubble space telescope is launched
The Space Revolution
Space Exploration
2000: First mission to the International Space Station
2001: the Voyager leaves the solar system
2003: several unmanned space-crafts land on Mars

The Space Revolution
The Space Revolution
The Space Revolution
The Space Revolution
First photography of a non-solar planet

The Space Revolution
Astronomy
50 billion galaxies in the universe
200 billion stars in the Milky Way (our galaxy)
Nine planets around the Sun (our star)
One light-year = 9,461 billion km
Pluto (last solar planet) = 5.9 billion kms from the Sun (less than 0.001 light-years)
Alpha Centauri (nearest star) = 4.3 light-years
Sirius (brightest star in the sky) = 8.7 light-years
Center of the Milky Way = 26,000 light-years from the Sun
Andromeda (nearest galaxy) = 2.2 million light-years
The Digital Revolution
The Digital Revolution
Computer
1943: the Colossus (Alan Turing and others)
1946: the first non-military computer, ENIAC, is unveiled
1947: William Shockley invents the transistor at Bell Labs
1951: The first commercial computer is built, the Univac
1955: Artificial Intelligence
1956: Robert Noyce and Jack Kilby invent the microchip
1958: Texas Instruments builds the first integrated circuit
1964: IBM introduces the 360 series
1965: Gordon Moore predicts that the processing power of computers will double every 18 months
1965: DEC introduces the first mini-computer, the PDP-8, that uses integrated circuits
The Digital Revolution
Software
1958: Jim Backus (at IBM) invents the FORTRAN programming language, the first machine-independent language
1962: Paul Baran proposes a distributed network as the form of communication least vulnerable to a nuclear strike
1964: IBM introduces the first "operating system" for computers (the OS/360)
1968: The Arpanet is established based on Baran's idea (four nodes: UCLA, Stanford Research Institute, UCSB, University of Utah)
1969: the Unix operating system
1972: Ray Tomlinson invents e-mail
The Digital Revolution
Machine Intelligence
Alan Turing's test (1947)
John Von Neumann's self-reproducing automata (1947)
Norman Wiener's Cybernetics (1947)
Claude Shannon's Theory of Information (1948)
John McCarthy's Artificial intelligence (1955)
Neural Networks (1957)
Herbert Simon & Allen Newell: physical symbol processor
Expert Systems/ Knowledge Engineering (1965)
Common Sense
John Holland's Genetic Algorithms (1975)
The Digital Revolution
Computers
1971: Intel invents the micro-processor
1974: the first personal computer, Altair 8800
1977: Atari introduces the first video game console
1977: Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak develop the Apple II
1981: IBM introduces the PC ("Personal Computer")
The Digital Revolution
Software
1979: Dan Bricklin develops Visicalc, a spreadsheet application for the Apple II
1981: the IBM PC runs DOS, an operating system developed by Bill Gates' Microsoft
1983: Jonathan Sachs develops Lotus 1-2-3, a spreadsheet application for DOS
...
1999: the world prepares for the new millennium amidst fears of computers glitches due to the change of date (Y2K)
1999: Microsoft is worth 450 billion dollars, the most valued company in the world
The Digital Revolution
Internet
1991: the World-Wide Web (invented by Tim Berners-Lee) debuts on the Internet
1993: Marc Andreesen develops the first browser for the World Wide Web (Mosaic)
1994: Jerry Yang launches the first search engine, Yahoo
1994: Four million people use the Internet
1999: Weblogs (Blogs)
The Digital Revolution
Net Society
E-commerce: decline of the brick-and-mortar store
E-mail: first innovation in written personal communication since the invention of mail
World-wide web: largest knowledge base in history
News websites: first major innovation in newscasting since tv news

The Cognitive Revolution
The Cognitive Revolution
The Brain
1949: Donald Hebb's selective strengthening of synapses and cell assemblies
1950s: Electrical activity of the brain
1960s: Neurons communicate via chemicals ("neurotransmitters")
1960s: The left hemisphere is dominant for language and speech, the right hemisphere excels at visual and motor tasks
The Cognitive Revolution
Noam Chomsky (1957)
Human brains are designed to acquire a language
They contain a "universal grammar"
We speak because our brain is meant to speak
Behaviorists: we are trained to learn the meaning of sentences.
Chomsky: we understand sentences that we have never encountered before.
The Cognitive Revolution
Michel Jouvet (1962)
REM (Rapid eye movement)
During REM sleep several areas of the brain are working frantically, and some of them are doing exactly the same job they do when the brain is awake.

The Cognitive Revolution
Evolutionary Psychology
Darwinian thinking applied to the social behavior of animals
William Hamilton: "The Genetic Evolution of Social Behavior" (1963)
George Williams (1966)
Robert Trivers: "The Evolution of Reciprocal Altruism" (1971)
John Maynard-Smith
The Cognitive Revolution
Evolutionary Psychology
Evolutionary Psychology studies human nature
Most behavior is mechanical, instinctive, although it makes a lot of sense: all the "thinking" has already been done by natural selection and summarized in DNA
Genes determine behavior that has been found to be rational over thousands of years
A new kind of "unconscious"

The Cognitive Revolution
Niels Jerne (1968)
Immune system as a Darwinian system
The immune system routinely manufactures all the antibodies it will ever need
When the body is attacked by foreign antigens some antibodies are selected
The Cognitive Revolution
Neural Darwinism
The mind already knows the solution to all the problems that can occur in the environment in which it evolved over millions of years
The mind knows what to do, but it is the environment that selects what it actually does
The Cognitive Revolution
Consciousness
Space-based binding
Time-based binding
The Theoretical Revolution
The Theoretical Revolution
Physics
1963: Theory of Quarks (Quantum Chromodynamics)
1968: Theory of Big Bang


The Theoretical Revolution
Big Bang model (1968)
Quantum fluctuations in an infinitely small universe "created" the universe (space, time and matter) in a "big bang" (George Gamow)
Time slowly turned into spacetime giving rise to spatial dimensions
Spacetime started expanding (Alan Guth's "inflationary" model )
The Theoretical Revolution
Big Bang model (1968)
The Theoretical Revolution
Quarks (1963)
Protons and neutrons are made of 18 quarks (Murray Gell-Man) held together by gluons
Six leptons: the electron, the muon, the tau and their three neutrinos
Virtual particles (bosons) mediate the four fundamental forces: (photon, eight gluons, three weak bosons, graviton?)
Elementary particles: leptons, quarks and their anti-particles (total of 48) plus 12 bosons (total of 60)
The Theoretical Revolution
The Theoretical Revolution
Physics/ Unsolved mysteries
Unification of Relativity and Quantum Theory
1998: Adam Riess discovers that the expansion of the universe is accelerating (dark energy)
2003: 95% of the universe is not accounted for
The Genetic Revolution
The Genetic Revolution
Genetics
1944: Oswald Avery (DNA)
1953: Francis Crick and James Watson discover the double helix of the DNA
1960s: Translation of Four-letter Genetic Code Into Twenty-letter Language of Proteins
The Genetic Revolution
Genetics
1988: first genetically engineered animal, a mouse (Harvard Univ)
1990: the Human Genome Project is launched
1994: the first genetically engineered vegetable (Flavr Savr tomato) is introduced
1997: British biologist Ian Wilmut clones the first mammal, a sheep, Dolly (dies in 2003)
2002: American scientists synthesize a live virus from chemicals
2003: the Human Genome Project is completed, having identified the 19,599 +2,188 genes in human DNA
The Genetic Revolution
Genetics/Unsolved mysteries
The origin of life
95% of the genome is junk