A History of Philosophy

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Friesian's history of philosophy | Garth Kemerling's history of philosophy
In Preparation

This history of Philosophy will differ from traditional ones because of its emphasis on Mind. Most of Philosophy is of purely historical interest today because of either reason
  1. Science has provided theories and explanations that supplant old philosophical speculations on the nature of matter and the universe
  2. The ethics and politics of the ancient thinkers sound outdated to our age
The part of Philosophy that is still current is the one that deals with the mind, whether as reasoning or as knowledge, whether as consciousness or language.
Milestone books in philosophy of mind | Other milestone books | Themes of world philosophy

Table of Contents

The Birth of Western Philosophy

  • Thales (650 BC) and form;
  • Democritos (460 BC) and atomism;
  • Pythagora (570 BC) and numbers;
  • Eraclito (550 BC)
  • Parmenides (515 BC)
  • Zeno (490 BC) and the paradox;
  • Socrates (470 BC)
  • Euclides (300 BC): "Elements"
  • Plato (427 BC) and the world of ideas;
  • Aristotle (384 BC): logic, matter, natural motion;
  • Lucrezio (54 AD): "De Rerum Natura"

Religions

  • "Bible"
  • Jesus
  • Buddha
  • Hinduism
  • Buddhism
  • Zoroaster and Mithraism
  • Judaism and Christianity
  • Mohammed
  • Confucius
  • "Zhuangzi"
  • "Upanisad"
  • "Bhagavad Gita"
  • "I Ching"

The Masters of Eastern Philosophy

  • Laozi
  • Gongsun Long
  • Nagarjuna
  • Vasubandhu
  • Mohammad
  • Fazang
  • Wonhyo
  • Avicenna
  • Ibn Arabi
  • Shinran
  • Dogen

The Age of Reason

  • Augustine (354): "Confessiones"
  • Boetius (524): "De Consolatione Philosophiae"
  • Aquinas (1221): "Summa Theologica"
  • More (1477): "Utopia"
  • Bacon (1561): "Novum Organum"
  • Descartes (1596): "Discourse"
  • Hobbes (1588): "Leviathan"
  • Spinoza (1632)'s spiritualism;
  • Leibniz (1646)' panpsychism;
  • Newton (1642): "Principia Mathematica"
  • Vico (1668): "Scienza nuova" (1725)
  • Darwin (1809): "Origin of Species"

Idealism

  • Locke (1632): Theory of knowledge
  • Berkeley (1685): Idealism
  • Hume (1711): Epistemology
  • Kant (1724)'s categories;
  • Hegel (1770):
  • Kierkegaard (1813):
  • Mill (1806):
  • Marx (1818):
  • Freud (1856): "Interpretation of Dreams"
  • Nietzsche (1844):
  • James (1842):
  • Bergson (1859):
  • Brentano (1838):
  • Meinong (1853):
  • Husserl (1859): Phenomenology
  • Heidegger (1889): Being and Time

Logic

  • Gadamer (1900):
  • Sussure:
  • Dewey (1859):
  • Frege (1848):
  • Peirce (1839):
  • Hilbert (1862):
  • Russell (1872):
  • Kuhn: Paradigm
  • Levi-Strauss:
  • Ayer: Language, Truth and Logic
  • Wittgenstein (1889):
  • Ryle:
  • Von Neumann:
  • Goedel (1906):
  • Turing (1912):

Language and Meaning

  • Austin:
  • Grice:
  • Popper:
  • Quine: Ontological Relativism
  • Rorty:
  • Kripke: Possible World Semantics
  • Putnam: Functionalism
  • Barthes: Semiotics
  • Chomsky
  • Fodor: Computational Functionalism
  • Searle:
  • Dennett: Intentional Stance, Memes

The Science of the Mind

  • Modern synthesis of biology
  • Herb Simon's symbolic processing paradigm
  • Jerry Fodor's computational functionalism
  • Kenneth Craik's representational paradigm
  • Ilya Prigogine's thermodynamics of non-equilibrium systems
  • Gerard Edelman's theory of neural selection
  • Fredrick Bartlett's reconstructive memory
  • William James' connectionism
  • Noam Chomsky's generative grammar
  • Stuart Kaufman's self-organization
  • Humberto Maturana's autopoiesis
  • George Lakoff's cognitive metaphor
  • Roger Penrose's quantum theory of consciousness
  • Lotfi Zadeh's fuzzy logic
  • Rodolfo Llina's brain model
  • Allan Hobson's theory of dreaming
  • Richard Dawkins' memes

Modern physics

  • Thermodynamics and entropy
  • Relativity and spacetime events
  • Quantum Theory and the observer