Additions to the Bibliography on Mind and Consciousness)
compiled by Piero Scaruffi
My book on Consciousness
| My essays
| Cognitive Science news
My seminar on Mind/Consciousness | My seminar on History of Knowledge
(Copyright © 2000 Piero Scaruffi | Legal restrictions )
Sadock Jerrold: TOWARD A LINGUISTIC THEORY OF SPEECH ACTS (Academic Press, 1974)
Following John Ross, who first proposed the performative analysis of a sentence (i.e., explicitly identifying the performative formula definining the illocutionary force of a sentence), the abstract-performative theory posits that the highest semantic clause of the semantic representation of a sentence provides: a subject referring to the speaker, an indirect object referring to the addressee and a verb referring to a performative verb. Illocutionary force is then that aspect of a sentence's meaning that corresponds to the highest clause in its semantic representation, i.e. a performative formula.
Salthe Stanley: EVOLVING HIERARCHICAL SYSTEMS (Columbia University Press, 1985)
A novel take (from a philosophical perspective) at traditional issues of evolutionary theory. By combining the metaphysics of Justus Buchler and Michael Conrad's "statistical state model" of the evolutionary process, Salthe develops an ontology of the world, a formal theory of hierarchies and a model of the evolution of the world.
Salthe Stanley: DEVELOPMENT AND EVOLUTION (MIT Press, 1993)
By applying principles of complex systems to biological and social phenomena, Salthe attempts to reformulate biology on development rather than on evolution. Salthe's postmodernist strategy is to foster the deconstruction of the rationalist tradition in science and show that an alternative exists based on Aristotle's and Hegel's thinking. Salthe makes use of theoretical tools from semiotics and information science.
Savage Leonard: THE FOUNDATIONS OF STATISTICS (John Wiley, 1954)
Savage was a subjectivist, thinking that probability of an event is not merely the frequency with which that event occurs, but a measure of the degree to which someone believes it will happen. Savage devised a set of rational axioms for a person's preferences
Satinover, Jeffrey: THE QUANTUM BRAIN (John Wiley, 2001)
Schacter, Daniel L.: SEARCHING FOR MEMORY (Basic, 1997)
Schacter Daniel & Tulving Endel: MEMORY SYSTEMS (MIT Press, 1994)
A collection of essays. The editors provide a history of memory theories and survey the contemporary field. They also offer new criteria for defining a memory system and identify five major systems: a procedural system (nondeclarative, implicit), a perceptual system (ditto), a semantic system (declarative, implicit), the episodic system (explicit) and the working memory (also explicit).
Schacter Daniel: SEARCHING FOR MEMORY (Basic Books, 1996)
A comprehensive survey of studies on memory in Psychology.
Schank Roger: CONCEPTUAL INFORMATION PROCESSING (North Holland, 1975)
A number of primitive actions can be used to form all complex actions. Each action entails roles which are common to all languages. Therefore a verb can be represented in terms of more primitive concepts. Schanks' "conceptual dipendency" draws ideas from Fillmore and Katz.
Schank Roger: DYNAMIC MEMORY (Cambridge Univ Press, 1982)
Dynamic memory is a type of memory that can grow of its own, based on experience. A script is a generalization of a class of situations. If a situation falls into the context of a script, then an expectation is created by the script, based on what happened in all previous situations. If the expectation fails to materialize, then a new memory must be created. This memory is structured according to an "explanation" of the failure. Generalizations are created from two identical expectation failures. Memories are driven by expectation failures, by the attempt to explain each failure and learning from that experience. New experiences are stored only if they fail to conform to the expectations. Remembering is closely related to understanding and learning.
Schank Roger: SCRIPTS, PLANS, GOALS, AND UNDERSTANDING (Lawrence Erlbaum, 1977)
A script is a social variant of Minsky's frame. A script represents stereotypical knowledge of situations as a sequence of actions and a set of roles. Once the situation is recognized, the script prescribes the actions that are sensible and the roles that are likely to be played. The script helps understand the situation and predicts what will happen. A script performs anticipatory reasoning.
Schank Roger: TELL ME A STORY (Scribner, 1990)
Ultimately, knowledge (and intelligence itself) is stories. Cognitive skills emerge from discourse-related functions: conversation is reminding and storytelling is understanding (and in particular generalizing). The stories that are told differ from the stories that are in memory: in the process of being told, a story undergoes changes to reflect the intentions of the speaker. The mechanism is similar to script-driven reasoning: understanding a story entails finding a story in memory that matches the new story and enhancing the old story with details from the new one. Underlying the mechanism is a process of "indexing" based on identifying five factors: theme, goal, plan, result and lesson. Memory actually contains only "gists" of stories, that can be turned into stories by a number of operations (distillation, combination, elaboration, creation, captioning, adaptation). Knowledge is embodied in stories and cognition is carried out in terms of stories that are already known.
Schank Roger: THE COGNITIVE COMPUTER (Addison-Wesley, 1984)
An accessible introduction to Schank's theory of natural language understanding, conceptual dependency, scripts, and some of the early programs of his school (MARGIE, SAM, POLITICS, FRUMP, IPP, BORIS, CYRUS).
Schrodinger Erwin: WHAT IS LIFE (Cambridge Univ Press, 1944)
This is the book that popularized the idea that biological organization is created and maintained at the expense of thermodynamic order, thereby promoting the development of nonequilibrium thermodynamics.
Ivan Schmalhausen: FACTORS OF EVOLUTION (Blakiston, 1949)
By reviewing a wealtch of biological data, Schmalhausen advanced the theory that evolution is a process of hierarchical construction: differentiation yields increasing specialization and diversification of parts, while integration yields the creation of more stable and integrated forms of organization (specifically, the formation of new aggregates in which the structure and fuction of parts are subordinated to and regulated by the structure and function of the whole). For this to happen, genetic variation cannot be completely random but must be regulated by a genetic system of genetic systems (analogous to Waddington's "canalization" process).
Schmajuk Nestor: ANIMAL LEARNING AND COGNITION (Cambridge Univ Press, 1996)
Classical conditioning explained through the mathematical models of neural networks. Experimental data on animal cognition and brain physiology are used to validate the theory.
Schneider, Eric & Sagan, Dorion: INTO THE COOL (Univ of Chicago Press, 2005)
Schwartz Eric: COMPUTATIONAL NEUROSCIENCE (MIT Press, 1990)
A collection of papers on the subject.
Scott, Alwyn: STAIRWAY TO THE MIND (Copernicus, 1995)
Scott provides an interdisciplinary overview of consciousness-related topics and advances his own thesis, which is neither materialistic nor dualistic.
Searle John: SPEECH ACTS (Cambridge Univ Press, 1969)
A theory of the conditions that preside to the genesis of speech acts. Searle classifies such acts in several categories, including "directive acts", "assertive acts", "permissive acts" and "prohibitive acts". Only assertive acts can be treated with classical logic.
Searle John: EXPRESSION AND MEANING (Cambridge Univ Press, 1979)
Searle attempts to explain intentionality within his theory of speech acts. The causal relationship between a mental state and the world is due to a speech act or a perception. Language does not have true intentionality, it inherits it from the underlying mental states. Intentionality is a biological property.
Searle John: INTENTIONALITY (Cambridge University Press, 1983)
Searle grounds the notion of meaning of a speech act in a general theory of the mind and action.
Searle John: MIND, BRAINS AND SCIENCE (BBC Publications, 1984)
Searle is an outspoken critic of the functionalist view of the mind. After the invention of the computer a number of thinkers from various disciplines (Herbert Simon, Alan Newell, Noam Chomsky, Hilary Putnam, Jerry Fodor) have adopted a cognitive model based on the relationship between the hardware and the software of a computer. Thinking is reduced to the execution of an algorithm in the brain.
Searle John: FOUNDATIONS OF ILLOCUTIONARY LOGIC (Cambridge Univ Press, 1985)
A formal presentation of the logical foundations of speech acts.
Searle John: THE MYSTERY OF CONSCIOUSNESS (New York Review, 1997)
Searle John: THE REDISCOVERY OF THE MIND (MIT Press, 1992)
Searle John: CONSTRUCTION OF SOCIAL REALITY (Free Press, 1995)
Basically, Searle discusses how minds create new meaning for objects. First comes collective intentionality: a group of rational agents share beliefs and intentions. Secondly, the agents treat some objects as if they had purposes (printed paper has the purpose of exchanging goods). Finally, constitutive rules create new reality.
Searle John: MIND, LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY (Basic, 1998)
Sebeok Thomas Albert: SIGNS (Univ of Toronto Press, 1994)
An introduction to Semiotics.
Sebeok Thomas Albert: CONTRIBUTION TO A DOCTRINE OF SIGNS (Indian Univ, 1976)
Sebeok views semiotics as a branch of communication theory that studies messages, whether emitted by objects (such as machines) or animals or humans. The first chapters provide a survey of Semiotics, its scope and its history. In agreement with Rene Thom, Sebeok thinks that human sign behavior has nothing special that can distinguish it from animal sign behavior or even from inanimated matter. Sebeok analyzes the relation between the signifier and the signified components of signs and advances a new classification of signs.
Peter Sedlmeier: FREQUENCY PROCESSING AND COGNITION (Oxford, 2002)
Sellars Wilfrid: SCIENCE, PERCEPTION AND REALITY (Humanities Press, 1963)
Intentional states are physical states. Physical states have semantic properties, similar to those owned by linguistic terms: an individual thinks P if there is a state in his brain that carries the semantic content P. There is an analogy between the functional roles that the physical states of the brain play in the behavior of the individual and the inferential roles that corresponding linguistic terms play in linguistic inferences. The semantics of intentionality is related to the language's semantics.
Selz Otto: ZUR PSYCHOLOGIE DES PRODUKTIVEN DENKENS UND DES IRRTUMS (#, 1922)
To solve a problem means to recognize that the situation represented by the problem is described by a schema and fill the gaps in the schema. Given a problem, the cognitive system searches the long-term memory for a schema that can represent it. Given the right schema, information in excess contains the solution.
Semon Richard: DIE MNEME (1904)
Shackle George: Decision, order and time (Cambridge Univ Press, 1961)
A theory of possibility, as an improvement over probabilities.
Shafer Glenn: A MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF EVIDENCE (Princeton Univ Press, 1976)
This book summarizes Dempster-Shafer's theory of evidence that refines Bayes' theory of probabilities. The theory of belief functions relies on two principles: the principle of inferring degrees of belief for one question from subjective probabilities for a related question; and Dempster's rule on how to combine degrees of belief which are based on independent evidence.
Shafer Glenn & Pearl Judea: READINGS IN UNCERTAIN REASONING (Morgan Kaufmann, 1990)
Collects seminal papers by Shafer, Pearl, Leonard Savage, Amos Tversky, Richard Cox, David Touretzky, Amos Tversky probabilities are degrees of belief
Shannon Claude & Weaver Warren: THE MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF COMMUNICATION (Univ of Illinois Press, 1949)
Shannon freed Boltzmann's definition of entropy from its thermodynamic context and applied it to information theory.
Shapiro Stuart Charles: ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (John Wiley, 1992)
The new edition of the most comprehensive book on the subject. Each section provides comprehensive, detailed information on an artificial intelligence topic.
Shastri Lokendra: SEMANTIC NETWORKS, AN EVIDENTIAL FORMULATION AND ITS CONNECTIONIST REALIZATION (Morgan Kaufman, 1988)
Shastri's connectionist semantic memory relates concepts of a semantic network to neurons of a neural network.
Sheets-Johnstone, Maxine: THE ROOTS OF THINKING (Temple Univ Press, 1990)
Sheets-Johnstone, Maxine: THE PRIMACY OF MOVEMENT (John Benjamins, 1981)
Sheldrake Rupert: A NEW SCIENCE OF LIFE (J.P. Tarcher, 1981)
Sheldrake Rupert: THE PRESENCE OF THE PAST (Times Books, 1988)
Shepard Roger & Cooper Lynn: MENTAL IMAGES (MIT Press, 1986)
A collection of articles on cognitive models of vision.
Shlain, Leonard: SEX, TIME, AND POWER (2003)
Shlain, Leonard: THE ALPHABET VERSUS THE GODDESS (1998)
Shlain, Leonard: ART AND PHYSICS (1991)
Shettleworth, Sara: COGNITION, EVOLUTION AND BEHAVIOR (Oxford Univ Press, 1998)
Shoham Yoav: REASONING ABOUT CHANGE (MIT Press, 1988)
Mainly a textbook on temporal logics.
Simon Herbert Alexander: MODELS OF THOUGHT (Yale University Press, 1979)
Articles from the beginning of artificial intelligence, including Edward Feigenbaum's Sixties work.
Simon Herbert Alexander: THE SCIENCES OF THE ARTIFICIAL (MIT Press, 1969)
Both the computer and the mind belong to the category of physical symbol systems. These systems process symbols to achieve a goal. Simon states the principle that a physical symbol system has the necessary and sufficient means for intelligent behavior. A physical symbol system is quite simple: the complexity of its behavior is due to the complexity of the environment it has to cope with. Adaptation to the environment is the very reason and purpose of their existence.
Simpson Patrick: ARTIFICIAL NEURAL SYSTEMS (Pergamon, 1990)
A short, but nonetheless very technical, introduction to neural networks that covers all the main learning algorithms.
Sloman Aaron: THE COMPUTER REVOLUTION IN PHILOSOPHY (Harvester Press, 1978)
Each agent which is limited and intelligent and must act in a complex environment, in which an infinite number of resources should be needed to take decisions, must be endowed with mechanisms that cause emotions. Emotions are therefore the result of constraints by the environment on the action of the intelligent being.
Smith Edward E.: CATEGORIES AND CONCEPTS (Harvard University Press, 1981)
In Medin Douglas' "A two-stage model of category construction" the mind builds categories based on a primary feature, from a simple and efficient criterion to divide the universe in objects that satisfy and objects that do not satisfy.
Smith, John Maynard & Szathmary Eors: THE ORIGINS OF LIFE (Oxford University Press, 1999)
Smith, John Maynard & Szathmary Eors: THE MAJOR TRANSITIONS IN EVOLUTION (W. H. Freeman, 1995)
Smith, John Maynard: THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION (Cambridge University Press, 1993)
The British biologist provides an accessible introduction to modern biology, explaining the principles of Darwinism and genetics. Smith shows that the concept of "species" is rapidly becoming obsolete, as it is not clear what is a species, since no two individuals of the same species are exactly alike, and species change over time. Discusses how species are born, from geographic isolation and then what mechanisms (the origins of hybrid infertility and the origins of fertile diploids) can account for the birth of a new species. Altruism, social behavior, sexual behavior.
Smith John Maynard: EVOLUTIONARY GENETICS (Oxford University Press, 1989)
A textbook on the mechanisms of evolution. Mathematical models of population growth, genetic drift, mutation, etc. Quantitative genetics. Shows how sex accelerates evolution.
Smith, John Maynard: GAMES, SEX AND EVOLUTION (Harvester, 1988)
A collection of articles (mainly reviews of books) on several subjects.
Smith, John Maynard: EVOLUTION AND THE THEORY OF GAMES (Cambridge University Press, 1982)
An agile tutorial on theory of games for use by biologists in modelling evolution. built around the concept of Maynard Smith defines "evolutionary stable strategy" as a behavior by a given phenotype that, if adopted by all invidividuals of the populations, would avoid any mutant strategy.
Snyder Frederick: EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF DREAMING (Random House, 1967)
Snyder was the first one (in the 1960s) to advance the notion that, from an evolutionary perspective, REM sleep came first and dreams came later. First bodies developed the brain state of REM sleep, which was retained because it had a useful function for survival (for example, because it kept the brain alert and ready to react to emergencies even during sleep), and then dreams were engrafted upon REM sleep. REM sleep was available and was used to host dreams. Dreaming evolved after a physical feature made them possible, just like language evolved after an anatomical apparatus that was born for whatever other reason. Dreaming, just like language, is an "epiphenomenon".
Solomon Robert: TRUE TO OUR FEELINGS (Oxford University Press, 2007)
Solomon Robert: THINKING ABOUT FEELING (Oxford University Press, 2004)
This collection of essays on emotions by contemporary Anglo-saxon philosophers is truly embarrassing. It shows how little familiar these philosophers are with the science of their time.
Solso Robert & Massaro Dominic: THE SCIENCE OF THE MIND (Oxford University Press, 1995)
A collection of essays from leading psychologists, including Lakoff, Sternberg, Sperry, Kosslyn.
Sombe Lea: REASONING UNDER INCOMPLETE INFORMATION (Wiley, 1990)
A number of different logics for common sense reasoning are surveyed: nonmonotonic logics, probabilistic logic, fuzzy logic, analogical reasoning, revision theory.
Sowa John: CONCEPTUAL STRUCTURES (Addison-Wesley, 1984)
Sowa surveys a number of philosophical and psychological theories (in particular, Selz's schemata) to justify his idea that the process of perception generates a structure called a "conceptual graph", describing the way percepts are assembled together. Conceptual relations describe the role that each percept plays.
Solms, Mark: THE NEUROPSYCHOLOGY OF DREAMS (Erlbaum, 1997)
Sowa John: PRINCIPLES OF SEMANTIC NETWORKS (Morgan Kaufman, 1991)
A collection of six articles on semantic networks. William Woods discusses subsumption and taxonomy. Lenhart Schubert sees semantic networks as a notational variant of logic. Stuart Shapiro believes that semantic networks go beyond logic in that they can also deal with "subconscious" reasoning through the implicit links between nodes. Brachman presents a successor to the KL-ONE language
Sperber Dan & Wilson Deirdre: RELEVANCE, COMMUNICATION AND COGNITION (Blackwell, 1995)
The second edition of the classic 1986 text.
Stalnaker Robert: INQUIRY (MIT Press, 1984)
A study on the process of acquiring and changing beliefs about the world.
Stapp Henry: MIND, MATTER AND QUANTUM MECHANICS (Springer-Verlag, 1993)
Stefik Mark: AN INTRODUCTION TO KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS (Morgan Kaufmann, 1995)
Monumental, but not particularly innovative.
Stenning, Keith: SEEING REASON (Oxford Univ Press, 2002)
Sterelny Kim: THE REPRESENTATIONAL THEORY OF MIND (Basil Blackwell, 1991)
The book defends the functionalist theory of the mind, and specifically the Fodor's "language of thought" hypothesis. Marr's theory of vision and Fodor's modular model of the mind are explained. Eliminativism and connectionism are also examined.
Sternberg Robert J.: HANDBOOK OF HUMAN INTELLIGENCE (Cambridge, 1982)
A colossal reference book compiled by experts in various psychological and biological fields. Hundreds of cognitive models, experiments and studies are surveyed.
Sternberg Robert J.: WISDOM (Cambridge University Press, 1990)
A collection of psychological essays on the subject of wisdom.
Sternberg Robert J.: METAPHORS OF MIND (Cambridge Univ Press, 1990)
A survey of psychological theories of intelligence, from Galton and Binet to Spearman and Thorndike. Cognitive science is briefly mentioned, as well as the biological perspective (Luria, Sperry, Gazzaniga). A chapter is devoted to Piaget's genetic epistemology and its successors.
Stevens Anthony: ARCHETYPE (Routledge, 1982)
Stevens tries to reconcile Jung's theory of innate archetypes (that some archetypes are universal and genetic) with John Bowlby's theory of attachment (that archetypes are imprinted in the early stages of development): archetypes are transmitted from generation to generation and they reveal themselves when a releasing mechanism occurs. For example, the archetype of the mother is innate, but it takes exposure to an individual behaving like a mother to release the behavior of a mother's child.
Stevens Anthony: PRIVATE MYTHS (Harvard Univ Press, 1995)
First, Stevens tries to reconcile Jung's theory of archetypes and Gerald Edelman's neural darwinism. Then Stevens tries to reconcile Jung's division of the mind into a conscious, un unconscious and a collective unconscious with Paul MacLean's findings that the brain contains three brains: a neomammalian brain located in the cortex, a paleomammalian brain located in the midbrain and a reptilian brain located in the cortex. Innate archetypes evolved into myths to encode instructions for individual behavior. The collective unconscious expressed itself through myhts. Dreams and myths are similar in structure and origin: dreams are private myths, and they affect behavior just like myths do.
Stewart, John: "Evolution's Arrow" (Chapman Press, 2000)
Stich Stephen: FROM FOLK PSYCHOLOGY TO COGNITIVE SCIENCE (MIT Press, 1983)
Stich's theory of commonsense reasoning is based on a purely syntactic approach. But, unlike Fodor, Stich does not require the objects upon which these syntactic operations are performed to be representations (endowed with content).
Stich Stephen: THE FRAGMENTATION OF REASON (MIT Press, 199#)
Stich Stephen: DECONSTRUCTING THE MIND (Oxford Univ Press, 1996)
A collection of technical essays (Fodor, Black, Millikan) supporting the view expounded in the eponymous one: folk psychology may be wrong, but that does not imply that mental states should be abandoned by science.
Stillings Neil: COGNITIVE SCIENCE (MIT Press, 1995)
The second edition of the comprehensive textbook on cognitive theories of the mind adds new sections on connectionist models.
Strawson Galen: MENTAL REALITY (MIT Press, 1994)
The British philosopher Strawson is a monist and materialist of sorts. This is a book on the method that philosophers of the mind should follow in studying the mind. Strawson rejects "neobehaviorism", the view that mental life is linked to behavior in such a way that behavior is essential to the explanation of mental life. Strawson argues that philosophy of mind has no need for non-mental, publicly observed and/or behavioral phenomena. He contrasts neo-behaviorism with his own "naturalized Cartesianism", which rests on two assumptions: the mind is physical; the only mental phenomena are the ones that make up our conscious experience (the experiential phenomena). Therefore, representations and intentionality are downgraded to side effects.
|Home | The whole bibliography | My book on Consciousness|
(Copyright © 2000 Piero Scaruffi | Legal restrictions - Termini d'uso )