Additions to the Bibliography on Mind and Consciousness)
compiled by Piero Scaruffi
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Talbot Michael: THE HOLOGRAPHIC UNIVERSE (Harper, 1991)
Tarski Alfred: LOGIC, SEMANTICS, METAMATHEMATICS (Clarendon, 1956)
A collection of the historical papers by Tarski, in particular "On the concept of truth", which advanced the correspondence theory of truth: a statement is true if it corresponds to reality. Tarski's semantics has the goal of reducing all concepts to physical concepts. All semantic concepts are defined in terms of truth, and truth is defined in terms of satisfaction, and satisfaction is defined in terms of physical concepts.
Taylor Charles: THE EXPLANATION OF BEHAVIOR (Routledge & Kegan, 1964)
Behavior is a function of the state of the system and its environment; but what brings behavior about is its being required to achieve the goals.
Taylor, Timothy: THE ARTIFICIAL APE (MacMillan, 2010)
Thagard Paul: MIND (MIT Press, 1996)
A clear and well-organized textbook on cognitive science.
Thelen Esther & Smith Linda: A DYNAMIC SYSTEMS APPROACH TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF COGNITION AND ACTION (MIT Press, 1994)
Thom Rene': SEMIOPHYSICS (Addison-Wesley, 1990)
The English translation of a book published in 1988 in France. Semiophysics is the physics of meaning, of significant form. Thom identifies the quantities that define what is relevant for meaning.
Thom Rene': MATHEMATICAL MODELS OF MORPHOGENESIS (Horwood, 1983)
A collection of papers on catastrophe theory written between 1967 and 1981, Thom was interested in including "A dynamic theory of morphogenesis", commonly considered the birth of catastrophe theory. Thom was interested in structural stability in topology (stability of topological form) and was convinced of the possibility of finding general laws of form evolution regardless of the underlying substance of form, as already stated at the beginning of the century by D'Arcy Thompson. Esistence is determined by essence.
Thom Rene': STRUCTURAL STABILITY AND MORPHOGENESIS (Benjamin, 1975)
Thom states his goal as to explain the "succession of form". Our universe presents us with forms (that we can perceive and name), A form is defined, first and foremost, by its stability: a form lasts in space and time. Forms change. The history of the universe, insofar as we are concerned, is a ceaseless creation, destruction and transformation of form. Life itself is, ultimately, creation, growth and decaying of form.
Thom Rene: APOLOGIE DU LOGOS (Hachette, 1990)
A huge collection of articles that span Thom's interests, from morphology to catastrophe theory. Thom is the founder of catastrophe theory. In 1973 he wrote the influential paper on semiotics "De l'icone au symbole" in which showed that human sign behavior has nothing special that can distinguish it from animal sign behavior or even from inanimated matter.
Thompson D'Arcy: ON GROWTH AND FORM (Cambridge University Press, 1917)
Tipler Frank: THE PHYSICS OF IMMORTALITY (Doubleday, 1995)
Samuel Todes: BODY AND WORLD (MIT Press, 2001)
Tomasello, Michael: THE CULTURAL ORIGINS OF HUMAN COGNITION (Harvard University Press, 1999)
Toffoli Tommaso & Margolus Norman: CELLULAR AUTOMATA MACHINES (MIT Press, 1987)
The book contains an introduction to cellular automata ("discrete dynamical systems whose behavior is completely specified in terms of a local relation). "Cellular automata are the computer scientist's counterpart to the physicist's concept of field". Space is represented by a uniform grid and time advances in discrete steps. Each cell of space contains bits of information. Laws of nature express what operation must be performed on each cell's bits of information, based on its neighbor's bits of information. Laws of nature are local and uniform.
Touretzky David: THE MATHEMATICS OF INHERITANCE SYSTEMS (Morgan Kaufman, 1986)
Touretzky's inheritance theory shows the similarities between logical proof (which is a tree of formulas, with the theorem at the root and the axioms as the leaves) and paths (sequences of nodes) that are explored during a search within a network.
Trefil, James S.: Are We Unique?; A Scientist Explores the Unparalleled Intelligence of the Human Mind (Wiley, 1997)
A popular science writer discusses the achievements of modern science while trying to prove the uniqueness of humans (versus animals and machines). His overview of cognitive science and the likes is more a collection of articles on popular buzzwords than an organized overview. And it misses the majority of today's important research, while still recounting obsolete debates.
Trehub Arnold: THE COGNITIVE BRAIN (MIT Press, 1991)
Trivers, Robert: SOCIAL EVOLUTION (Benjamin/Cummings, 1985)
Tulving Endel & Craik Fergus: THE OXFORD HANDBOOK OF MEMORY (Oxford Univ Press, 2000)
Tulving Endel: ORGANIZATION OF MEMORY (Academic Press, 1972)
A collection of articles on memory. Tulving distinguishes between episodic memory (which receives and stores information about temporally dated episodes and temporal-spatial relations among them) and semantic memory (organized knowledge about the world). Episodic memory is a faithful record of a person's experience.
Tulving Endel: ELEMENTS OF EPISODIC MEMORY (Oxford Univ Press, 1983)
Turbayne Colin Murray: THE MYTH OF METAPHOR (Yale Univ Press, 1962)
Turbayne treats metaphor not as a linguistc phenomenon, but as a philosophical one.
Turchin Valentin: PHENOMENON OF SCIENCE (Columbia Univ Press, 1977)
The Russian physicist Turchin works out an evolutionary model of the universe, heavily influenced by cybernetics. The emergence of life and consciousness and culture are reduced to the formation of new systems out of more basic systems within a hierarchy of levels of cybernetic control.
Turing Alan Mathison: MORPHOGENESIS (North-Holland, 1992)
A collection of historical papers by Turing. In "The chemical basis of morphogenesis" (1952) he advanced the reaction-diffusion theory of pattern formation, based on the bifurcation properties of the solutions of differential equations.
Turing Alan: PURE MATHEMATICS (Elsevier Science, 1992)
A collection of historical papers by Turing.
Turing Alan: MECHANICAL INTELLIGENCE (Elsevier Science, 1992)
A collection of historical papers by Turing.
Turner Raymond: LOGICS FOR ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (Ellis Horwood, 1985)
A short, but clear, introduction to non-standard logics: modal logic, epistemic logic, multi-valued logics, intuitionistic logic, theory of types, non-monotonic reasoning, temporal logic and fuzzy logic.
Turner, Scott: THE EXTENDED ORGANISM (Harvard Univ Press, 2000)
Turner Scott: THE CREATIVE PROCESS (Lawrence Erlbaum, 1994)
A theory of creativity and a case-based computer prototype ("Minstrel") that generates stories. Art is viewed as a problem solving activity, and an author as a problem solver who employs knowledge encoded in cases. Creativity is an integrated process of search and adaptation guided by creativity heuristics: it is an extension of problem solving that is driven by the failure of problem solving and creative alternatives are created by using old knowledge in new ways.
Turvey Michael: PERCEIVING, ACTION AND KNOWING (Lawrence Erlbaum, 1977)
A psychological theory of how cognition and action interact. An action can be performed in many different ways, i.e. the nervous system has to deal with degrees of freedom. It solves the problem through a hierarchical command structure. Every level of the hierarchy adds detail to the overall goal of the action. Lower levels have a degree of autonomy, higher levels exert control over lower units by tuning the parameters that define the features of the lower units and by tuning the pathways connecting them.
Tversky Amos, Kahnemann Daniel & Slovic Paul: JUDGMENT UNDER UNCERTAINTY (Cambridge University Press, 1982)
A collection of essays on heuristics and biases, as introduced by Tversky. The fundamental assumption is that people rely on a limited set of heuristic principles which greatly reduces the task of assessing probabilities: representativeness (the degree to which an event is representative of a class of events), availability (the degree to which past occurrences of an event can be brought to mind) and adjustment (the degree to which the initial approximate value must be changed). Representativeness can be viewed as "connotative" distance, availability can be viewed as "associative" distance.
Tye Michael: THE METAPHYSICS OF MIND (Cambridge University Press, 1989)
There are no mental events (beliefs or desires) and no mental objects (such as pain or images). Drawing from Sellar's "adverbial" theory of sensing, Tye develops his own "operator" theory in which sensory adverbs are analyzable as predicate operators added to a standard predicate calculus.
Tye Michael: THE IMAGERY DEBATE (MIT Press, 1991)
After a sloppy survey of mental-imagery theories over the centuries, Tye proposes a unified theory of mental imagery that embraces both the the visual stance and the linguistic stance, that tries to bridge Stephen Kosslyn's pictorialism and Zenon Pylyshyn's descriptionalism (the two main opposite schools of thought on what kind of representational structures images exactly are). Tye believes that the experimental evidence supports a mixed theory of pictorialism and descriptionalism.
Tye Michael: TEN PROBLEMS OF CONSCIOUSNESS (MIT Press, 1995)
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