Piero Scaruffi(Copyright © 2013 Piero Scaruffi | Legal restrictions )
These are excerpts and elaborations from my book "The Nature of Consciousness"
The British psychologist Kenneth Craik speculated in 1943 that the human mind may be a particular type of machine which is capable of building internal models of the world (representing knowledge) and of processing them to produce action (making inferences). Craik's improvement over Descartes' automaton (limited to mechanical reactions to external stimuli) was considerable because it involved the ideas of an "internal representation" and a "symbolic processing" of such representation. Descartes' automaton had no need for knowledge and inference. Craik's automaton needs knowledge and inference. It is the inferential processing of knowledge that yields intelligence.
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