Ferdinand Saussure
(Copyright © 2005 Piero Scaruffi | Legal restrictions - Termini d'uso )

Philosophy of Language
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Synopsis:
  • "parole" (a specific utterance in a language, performance) vs "langue" (the entire body of the language, competence)
  • Structuralism: the phenomena of human life (e.g, language) are intelligible only inasmuch as they are part of a network of relationships
  • A sign is meaningful only within the entire network of signs
  • The meaning of a sign is its relationship to other signs ("Strictly speaking, there are no signs but differences between signs")
  • A sign requires both a signifier and a signified (a concept in the mind)
  • The relation between a signifier and a signified is arbitrary (The meaning of a sign is totally arbitrary)
  • The relations between signifier and signified form a sign
  • The structure of language is the negative relation among signs: one sign is what it is because it is not another sign
  • Semiotics: science of signs
  • Linguistic sign: the signifier is the sound and the signified is the thought
  • A linguistic sign is a link between a sound and a concept (not the link between a name and a thing)
  • Phoneme: the basic unit of language
  • Morpheme: the basic unit of signification
  • Mytheme: the basic unit of myth
  • Phonemes can stand in two kinds of relationship: diachronic ("horizontal") and synchronic ("vertical")

(Copyright © 2005 Piero Scaruffi | Legal restrictions - Termini d'uso )