Copyright © 2011 Piero Scaruffi)

(See also a timeline of Tibet)

2500BC: ink, tea and silk are invented
2357BC: Yao rules northeastern China
2205BC: the Xia dynasty is founded by Yu: Yellow River (Huang He) valley
1766BC: Tang deposes the last Xia and founds the Shang dynasty
1500BC: the Shang dynasty expands in the northern plains of the Yellow River (Huang He): advanced bronze casting, Chinese alphabet, human sacrifice, war chariot, succession from elder brother to younger brother and then to the oldest maternal nephew,
1395BC: the Shang move their capital to Yin (near Anyang)
1133BC: Wu becomes king of the Zhou (a population that originated in Central Asia) and builds the capital of Hao (near Xian)
1122BC: Wu conquers the Shang empire and founds the Zhou dynasty: father-to-son succession system, decentralized feudal rule (federation of city-states)
1116BC: the Zhou build a city at Luoyang
1046BC: Zhou Wuwang defeats the Shang and establishes the Zhou Dynasty
900BC: I Ching/Yi Jing
841BC: A popular uprising deposes the tenth Zhou emperor, Zhou Liwang , and Gong Hebo is elected to rule the empire
771BC: Western barbarians sack Zhou's capital and the Zhous move their capital east to Luoyang
700 BC: the Chinese invent gunpowder
651BC: The states of northern China unify in a league against the southern state of Chun and King Huan of Qi is appointed their leader
600BC: Confucius
550BC: Taoism/Daoism
473BC: The state of Yueh destroys the state of Wu
453BC: The main states of China are Qi in the east, Qin in the west and Chu and Yueh in the south
403BC: the Zhou empire begins to split in several states (Qin in the west, Qi in the east, Chu in the south and smaller ones)
350BC: the period of the "warring states" is characterized by coins, iron weapons, public works (canals, walls)
334BC: The state of Chu destroys the state of Yueh in the south
286BC: The Qi destroy the state of Sung
256BC: the Qin depose the last Zhou emperor, the Zhou dynasty ends after over 800 years of rule
249BC: The state of Chu destroys the state of Lu in the north
246BC: A boy (later renamed Qin Shi Huangdi) ascends to the throne of Qin, assisted by Lu Pu-wei
237BC: Lu Pu-wei is replaced by Li Ssu as prime minister of Qin
221BC: Qin Shi Huangdi of the Qin state conquers all of China and becomes the first emperor of China (first Great Wall of China, about 5,000 kms)
213BC: Shi Huangdi outlaws all schools of thought except the legalist one, burns thousands of books and buries alive 346 scholars
210BC: Shi Huangdi is buried in a colossal tomb near Xian, surrounded by thousands of terracotta soldiers, while Li Ssu chooses a new successor who is incompetent
209BC: Uprisings erupt throughout the Qin empire
207BC: Liu Pang, a man of humble origins, seizes the Wei Valley (base of Qin power)
206BC: The aristocrat Hsian Yu, a descendant of the Chu, defeats the Qin
202BC: Liu Pang defeats Hsian Yu, assumes the name Gaozu and founds the Han dynasty with capital in Xian
200BC: Mao-tun unites the Turkic-speaking Huns (Xiongnu, Hsiung-nu) in Central Asia around Lake Bajkal and southeastern Mongolia
195BC: Liu Pang dies and one of his consorts become empress Lu Zhi
180BC: The empress Lu dies
176BC: the Huns attack eastern China
154BC: The Han emperor defeats seven rebellious kings
141BC: Wu-ti/ Wu Di becomes emperor and adopts an expansionist policy
140BC: Han emperor Wu-ti conducts campaigns against the Huns
139BC: Han emperor Wu Di dispatches Zhang Qian/ Chang-Ch'ien to Central Asia
121BC: China defeats the Huns
121BC: Chinese invent the magic lantern
115BC: Han emperor Wu Di dispatches Zhang Qian/ Chang-Ch'ien to Central Asia again (second journey)
111BC: Wu Di destroys the South Yuen state
108BC: Wu Di invades North Korea and south Manchuria
106BC: the Silk Road is inaugurated (a treaty between Chinese emperor Wu-Ti/Wu Di and Parthian king Mithridates II)
104BC: a Chinese army briefly invades the Fergana Valley (Uzbekistan)
87BC: Han emperor Wu-ti dies having achieved a vast territorial expansion and building a strong and centralized Confucian state
57 BC: a kingdom is established in the Silla region of south Korea with capital in Kyongju
51 BC: the Hsiung-nu/Xiongnu split into two hordes, with the eastern (southern) horde surrendering to China
22 BC: Uprisings against the Han
2 AD: the Han empire has 57 million people, the most populous country in the world
9 AD: Wang Mang deposes the empress and tries to start a new dynasty
25 AD: Wang Mang is removed from power by Liu Hsiu (Kuang Wu Di)
48 AD: the Hsiung-nu empire is defeated by the Han and dissolves
57 AD: Ming Di becomes emperor
68 AD: Buddhism is introduced in China
68 AD: Youstol Dispage
73 AD: Ming Di sends Ban Chao to conquer Central Asia
88 AD: Empress Dowager Tou appoints her brother Tou Hsien as emperor
89 AD: The Tou family of the empress is exterminated
97 AD: Chinese general Pan Chao sends an embassy to the Roman Empire
105 AD: Cai Lun/Tsai Luns invents paper
132 AD: Emperor Shun chooses Liang Na/ Shunlie as empress
141 AD: The empress' brother Liang Ji is appointed prime minister
144 AD: Emperor Shun dies and his toddler son Liu Bing/ Chong becomes emperor, with Liang Na as empress dowager
145 AD: Emperor Chong dies and Liang Na and Liang Ji appoint the child Liu Zuan as emperor
146 AD: Liang Ji poisons emperor Liu Zuan and appoints 14-year-old Liu Zhi/ Huan as emperor, with Liang Na still regent
150 AD: Empress dowager Liang Na dies but Liang Ji continues to exert power
160 AD: The Liang family of the empress is exterminated by emperor Huan
165 AD: Confucian classics are carved into rows of stones to protect them from natural disasters
166 AD: The imperial eunuchs carry out purges to eliminate political enemies
169 AD: The imperial eunuchs carry out a second wave of purges to eliminate political enemies
184 AD: Revolt of the "Yellow Turbans" who believe that the end of the world is approaching
190: the Chinese invent the abacus
220: a new wave of invasions by the Hsiung-nu cause population movement to the south (from the Yellow River to the Yangze in the south) and the Han dynasty collapses, allowing three kingdoms to appear: Wei in the north (founded by Wei Wen Di), Shu in Szechuan (founded by Liu Bei) and Wu in the south (founded by Sun Quan)
221: Liu Bei founds a dynasty in Chengdu
263: Wei general Wudi takes Chengdu and annexes Shu
265: Wei general Wudi stages a coup and founds the Western Qin dynasty
290: Wudi dies and the Western Qin kingdom falls apart
316: The Hsiung-nu destroy Luoyang and found the Chao dynasty
317: The Qin move their capital from Luoyang to Nanjing/Nanking and start the Eastern Qin dynasty
351: Tibetan general Fu Chien founds a dynasty in Xian
366: Buddhists begin the Mogao caves near Dunhuang
372: Buddhism is introduced from China into the kingdom of Koguryo (Korea)
386: Chinese astronomers witness a supernova
391: Kwanggaeto becomes emperor of Koguryo
386: The Northern Wei dynasty is established by the barbarian tribe of Topa with capital in Datong
420: Qin general Liu Yu stages a coup and causes the collapse of the Eastern Qin dynasty
427: Koguryo moves the capital to Pyongyang
439: The Northern Wei unifies northern China
444: Northern Wei adopts Daosim as official religion
446: Buddhist persecutions in Northern Wei
465: Buddhists begin the Yungang caves near Datong in China (Northern Wei)
485: Northern Wei introduces the "equal field" system
493: The Northern Wei move their capital from Datong to Luoyang
494: Buddhists begin the Longmen caves near Luoyang in China (Northern Wei)
520: Bodhidharma popularizes Chan/ Zen Buddhism
514: Pophung becomes emperor of Koguryo
527: the Korean kingdom of Paekche builds the Buddhist temple Taetong-sa in the capital Ungjin (Kongju)
538: the Korean kingdom of Paekche dispatches a delegation to introduce Buddhism to the Japanese emperor
551: Silla seizes territory from Koguryo
552: the Turks conquer the Rouran state and establish the Ashina Kaghanate
553: the Korean kingdom of Silla builds the Buddhist temple Hwangnyong-sa in the capital Kumsong (Kyongju)
557: The Northern Zhou establish themselves in Xian
574: Buddhist persecutions in Northern Zhou
581: A general usurps the throne of Northern Zhou and founds the Sui dynasty, and builds a new capital in Changan/Xian
589: The Sui re-unify China
602: Tibet is unified under Namri Songtsen
604: Yang Di becomes emperor of Sui
608: Sui emperor Yangdi orders the construction of a Grand Canal between Rongyang and the region of Beijing
612: The Sui are defeated by the Korean kingdom of Koguryo
615: The Sui are defeated by the Eastern Turks
617: Li Shih-min conquers the Sui capital of Xian and overthrows the Sui dynasty
618: Li Shih-min appoints his father Li Yuan as first emperor of a new dynasty, Tang, with capital still in Xian
626: Li Shih-min deposes his father and appoints himself as Tang emperor Tai Tsung/ Taizong
629: the eastern Ashina kaghanate is defeated by the Tang
629: Tibet expands to Nepal under Songtsen Gampo
630: The Tang conquer the Eastern Turks
643: Buddhist pilgrim Hiuan-tsang/ Xuanzang brings sanskrit manuscripts from India to China
648: The Tang conquer the Western Turks (the Tarim basin) and the Uighurs become allies of the Tang
649: Tang emperor Tai Tsung/Taizong dies and is succeeded by Kao Tsung
650: the Tang dynasty extends the boundaries of China west into Afghanistan, north into Siberia, east into Korea and south into Vietnam, golden age of art and literature (ideal of the universal man, combining the qualities of scholar, poet, painter, statesman)
650: Acupuncture is invented
655: Kao Tsung's wife Wu is the de facto ruler of the Tang and scientifically exterminates the aristocracy
659: The western Ashina kaghanate is defeated by the Tang
668: Silla, with the help of the Tang, conquers Koguryo and Paekche, thereby uniting the whole of Korea, with capital in Kyongju, but becomes a vassal of the Tang
682: Elterish rebels to the Chinese and founds a second Turk Kaghanate
690: Kao Tsung's empress Wu assumes power
705: Empress Wu is deposed by a coup
712: Hsuan Tsung/Xuangzong becomes emperor after seven years of chaos
713: The first ambassador from the Islamic caliphate visits the emperor of China
714: Guangzhou port opens to Muslim traders
725: Xian is probably the largest city in the world
744: the Turk Kaghanate collapses and the Uigur empire is founded in Mongolia with capital in Ordubalik
751: the Arabs defeat the Chinese at the battle of the Talas River (in the Fergana valley)
751: Korean prime Minister Kim Tae-song orders the construction of the Buddhist cave temple Sokkuram at Mount Toham
755: Governor An Lu-shan of Sogdian origins, protected by empress Yang Kuei-fei, leads a rebellion and captures Xian
756: Xuangzong abdicates
757: An Lu-shan is killed by his son
758: Muslims raid Canton/Guangzhou
762: The Tang army restores order with help from the Uighurs
763: Tibetans sack of Chinese capital Xian
780: The Double Tax system is introduced that taxes land and not individuals
781: Tibetans occupy Dunhuang
811: "Flying money" (paper money) is introduced in China to pay for goods in distant places
821: Peace treaty between Tibet and China
842: The Tibetan emperor Langdarma is assassinated and the empire disintegrates
844: Persecution of Buddhism by the Tang (40 thousand temples and more than four thousand monasteries are destroyed)
846: the Kirghiz drive the Uighurs west to the Tarim Basin
868: the Diamond Sutra (Jingang Jing) is printed (oldest extant book in 2000)
874: An uprising in the north
875: Peasant uprising led by Haung Chao in the south
878: Muslims are massacred in Canton/Guangzhou
884: A general of Turkish origins quells the uprising in the north
907: A northern general usurps the throne and terminates the Tang dynasty
907: Hangzhou is made capital of the kingdom of Wuyse under Qian Liu
918: Wang Kon terminates the Silla dynasty in Korea and founds the Goryeo dynasty
932: the Turkic Qarakhanid dynasty is founded in Kashgar
932: Qian Liu dies
932: Chinese official Fang Tao commissions block printing of the 130 vlumes of the Confucian classics
936: Wang Kon unifies Korea and moves the capital north to Songdo (Kaesong)
938: the Vietnamese repel the Chinese at the battle of Bach Dang
947: The Khitan found the Liao dynasty in northern China with five capitals
960: general Tai Tsu usurps the throne and founds the Song dynasty
971: Guangzhou is annexed by the Song
979: The Song dynasty under Tai Tsung re-unifies China
1000: Kaifeng is the largest city in the world with about one million inhabitants
1004: The Liao in the north defeat the Song and carve out their independent state
1024: The Northern Song issue the first paper money (in Chengdu)
1035: Thousands of Buddhist scriptures are hidden in Dunhuang to save it form a Tibetan invasion
TM, ®, Copyright © 2005 Piero Scaruffi All rights reserved.
1041: Bi Sheng invents the printing press with movable type
1038: Tibetan tribes founds the Hsia/Xia state in notheast China with capital on the Yellow River
1044: The Hsia/Xia in the nothwest defeat the Song
1052: Uprising in Guangzhou
1067: Shen Tsung becomes emperor
1069: Shen Tsung appoints Wang Anshih as prime minister who launches economic and military reforms
1085: Shen Tsung dies and Wang Anshih's reforms are undone
1087: the Korean court has the entire Tripitaka carved in woodblocks
1092: Lu Dalin publishes the first archeological treatise
1100: Hui Tsung becomes emperor
1114: the Jurchen/Nuzhen (Manchu) rebel against the Liao
1115: the Jurchen/Nuzhen (Manchu) invade from the north and establish the Jin dynasty with capital in Beijing
1120: uprising of Fang-La
1124: The Khitan found the Karakhitai empire in East Turkestan
1125: the Jurchen/Jin destroy the Liao
1126: the Jurchen/Jin conquer the Song's capital of Kaifeng and the Song move their capital to Hangzhou in the south
1127: Gaozong/ Kao Tsung becomes Song emperor
1130: The kingdom of Qi is created in the central plains
1130: Peasant uprising by Zhong Xian in the lower Yangtze
1135: Song general Yue Fei puts down Zhong Xian's rebellion
1137: Song general Yue Fei destroys the kingdom of Qi
1138: The Song establish a new capital at Huangzhou
1141: Song signs a peace treaty with the Qin accepting the role of vassal
1161: Qin invades south China of Song
1162: Gaozong is deposed
1234: Mongols led by Ogodai Khagan conquer northern China and expel the Jurchen
1264: the Mongols invade China and Kublai Khan founds the Yuan dynasty and moves the capital from Karakorum to Khanbaligh (Beijing)
1266: the Polo brothers travel from Venezia to China
1275: Hangzhou has 1.7 million people
1279: Mongols complete the conquest of entire China and terminate the Song dynasty
1284: the Uighur empire is absorbed by the Mongols
1330: An outbreak of bubonic plague kills thousands of people
1356: Peasant uprising led by Zhu Yuangzhang that captures Nanjing
1368: the Ming dynasty is founded by a Chinese peasant and former Buddhist monk turned rebel, Zhu Yuanzhang/ Chu Yuanchang/ Hongwu, under whose leadership China regains independence from the Mongols
1368: the renovation of the Great Wall of China is begun
1380: Hongwu disbands the central administration and assumes absolute powers
1389: the Uigurs convert to Islam
1392: Yi Song-gye seizes power, terminates the Goryeo/ Koryo dynasty dynasty, founds the Yi/Choson dynasty and moves the capital to Seoul
1392: end of the Goryeo dynasty in Korea and beginning of the Joseon dynasty
1398: Yi Song-gye abdicates in Korea
1400: Taejong becomes emperor of Korea
1403: Yongle/ Yung-lo/ Zhu Di/ Chengzu becomes the third emperor of Ming China after a civil war
1405: Zheng He/ Cheng Ho (a former Muslim slave) sails west with a fleet of 300 ships, invading Sumatra and Ceylon and eventually reaching the coast of Africa
1418: Taejong of Korea dies and is succeeded by Sejong
1420: The third Ming emperor Yong Le/ Yung Lo moves the capital from Nanjing to Beijing
1421: construction of the Forbidden City in Beijing
1424: Ming emperor Yongle/ Yung-lo dies
1433: Shipbuilding is halted and sea travel forbidden
1446: Korean king Sejong enacts the official Korean alphabet Hangui of 14 consonants and ten vowels
1455: Sejo becomes emperor of Korea
1468: Sejo of Korea dies
1469: Songjong, a child, becomes emperor of Korea
1500: 100 million live in the Ming empire
1550: the renovation of the Great Wall of China is completed
1556: an earthquake kills 800,000 people in Shensi
1557: Portugal establishes a trading post in Macao (first European settlement in the Far East)
1557: Pirate Wang Zhi is captured and killed
1567: uprising of the White Lotus secret society in Chungking
1573: The Mongol emperor invites the Dalai Lama of Tibet to the Mongol capital of Altan Khan and begins conversion of Mongolia to Buddhism
1583: Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci arrives in China
1592: Japan invades Korea and destroys dozens of temples
1592: Huang Taiji seizes power in Manchuria and founds the Qing dynasty with capital in Shenyang
1598: China expels the Japanese from Korea
1600: the Chinese empire is the largest nation in the world
1616: Nurhachi unifies the Jurchen (Manchus) and creates the state of Jin/Qing in northeastern China
1620: A 15-year old boy ascends to the Ming throne and the eunuch Wei Zhongxian/ Wei Chung-hsien is the de facto ruler of China
1622: The Jesuit Johannes-Adam Schall moves to China and becomes the favorite astronomer of the emperor
1623: A military coup installs the "Westerners" in Korea
1625: The Qing move their capital south to Mukden
1626: Spain begins colonizing Formosa/Taiwan
1626: Nurhachi dies and the empress Abahai/ Xiao Lie Wu is forced to commit suicide, while power shifts to his eighth son Hong Taiji
1628: A peasant, Li Zicheng/ Li Tzu-cheng, starts a rebellion against the Ming
1636: Qing emperor Hong Taiji changes the name of his people from Jurchen to Manchu ("pure")
1637: the Manchus invade Korea and Korea becomes a vassal state of the Manchus
1642: Holland seizes Formosa/Taiwan from Spain
1643: Qing emperor Hong Taiji dies and is succeeded by Dorgon, regent for Hong Taiji's six-year old son Fulin,
1644: Li Zicheng/ Li Tzu-cheng, who controls northwestern China, sacks Beijing and overthrow the Ming, and general Wu Sangui asks the Manchu for help
1644: the Manchus, led by Dorgon, invade northern China and take Beijing, establishing the Qing dynasty, while general Wu Sangui and two other generals create their own states in the south
1650: Koxinga (Kuo Hsing Yeh), refusing to submit to the Manchus, founds a pro-Ming kingdom in the South China Seas
1658: Koxinga retreats to Formosa/Taiwan with more than 1,000 scholars and artists
1661: Koxinga expels the Dutch from Formosa/Taiwan
1661: Kangxi, still a child, ascends to the throne of the Manchu/Qing but real power is in the hand of prime minister Oboi
1663: Tainan is declared capital of Formosa/Taiwan
1668: Chinese immigration to Manchuria is banned by the Manchus
1669: Kangxi throws Oboi into jail and assumes real power
1673: Wu Sangui and the other two states in the south rebel against the Qing
1681: Wu Sangui is defeated by the Qing
1683: Koxinga's grandson Zheng Keshuang cedes Formosa (Taiwan) to the Manchus
1685: Guangzhou opens to foreign trade
1689: China signs a border treaty with Russia (first bilateral agreement with a European power), the treaty of Nerchinsk, to settle the border between Russian Siberia and Chinese Manchuria, declaring Outer Mongolia a neutral land (partition of the steppe world between Russia and China)
1696: The Qing defeats the barbarian Galdan of Eastern Turkestan, supported by Tibet, at the battle of Urga
1699: Britain opens a trading post in Canton
1708: Jesuit missionaries draw the first accurate map of China
1715: East India Company opens offices in Guangzhou
1722: Qing emperor Kangxi
1723: Yongzheng becomes Qing emperor
1724: Yongzheng persecutes the Jesuits
1724: Yongjo becomes emperor of Korea
1727: Russia and China sign the treaty of Kyakhta, defining their border and granting Russia a trading post in Kyakhta
1728: France establishes a trading post in Canton
1729: the emperor issues a decree banning the sale of opium
1736: Yongzheng dies and his fourth son Qianlong becomes emperor
1750: Dream of the Red Chamber
1757: China invades eastern Turkestan
1760: all foreign trade is confined to Guangzhou
1766: The Qing send troops to Burma
1776: Yongjo dies and his grandson Chongjo becomes emperor of Korea
1777: The corrupt Heshen becomes influential on the Qing emperor
1785: Korea bans Christianity because it disapproves of ancestor worship:w
1787: the Qing send troops to quell a rebellion in Taiwan
1790: The Qing send troops into Nepal
1795: Qianlong abdicates in favor of his son Jiaqing
1796: The "White Lotus Rebellion" against the Qing
1799: Qianlong dies and Heshen loses his power
1800: There are 150,000 catholics in China
1801: China's population is 295 million
1804: The "White Lotus Rebellion" ends
1815: The Protestant missionaries of Melaka publish a magazine in Chinese
1817: Britain exports 275 tons of opium to China
1830: corruption, decentralization of power, popular rebellions
1839: The imperial emissary Lin Zexu arrests 1,700 Chinese opium dealers in Guangzhou, seizes tons of opium from foreign traders and writes a letter to Queen Victoria of Britain urging her to end the opium trade, and in response the British start the "Opium War"
1842: The British seize Shanghai
1842: under the Treaty of Nanjing, China cedes the island of Hong Kong to Britain
Jul 1844: The Treaty of Wangxia between China and the USA opens five Chinese ports to the USA
1845: An English-language newspaper, the "China Mail", is founded in Hong Kong
1850: An English-language newspaper, the "North China Herald", is founded in Shanghai
1851: the Taiping rebels, led by a village teacher, Hong Xiuquan, stage an anti-Manchu rebellion that will last 14 years (30 million people killed)
1855: Revolt of the Nien in China, led by Zhang Luoxing
1856: China is attacked by British and French forces
1856: Following a massacre of Muslims by imperial forces, the ethnic Hui sultan Du Wenxiu/ Tu Wen-hsiu/ Sulayman ibn `Abd ar-Rahman sets up a Muslim state in southern China (Yunnan), the Pingnan Guo Sultanate
1860: British and French troops loot Beijing
1860: Russia and China sign a border treaty that grants Russia the coast around the newly founded city of Vladivostok
1860: Russia secures north Manchuria
1861: The new Manchu/Qing emperor, Tongzhi, is five years old while his mother Tsu Hsi/Cixi wields the real power
1862: Popular uprising in Korea
1862: Popular uprising in Kansu (northwestern China) by Muslim sect "New Teaching"
1864: Chinese general Zeng Guofan/ Tseng Kuo-fan and his Hunan army defeat the Taiping
1865: British investors form the Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank
1865: Yakub Beg founds a Muslim state in the Tarim basin
1868: Chinese general Li Hongzhang/ Li Hung-Chang and his Anhui/ Anhwei army defeat the Nien in China
1869: The Suez canal halves the distance to Europe
1870: There are 400,000 catholics in China
1870: Chinese general Li Hongzhang/ Li Hung-Chang rules over Tianjin/ Tientsin and launches a mixed program of modernization ("government supervision and merchant operation")
1870: Chinese mobs massacre French missionaries in Tianjin/ Tientsin
1872: First educational mission of Chinese students sent to the USA
1872: The newspaper "Shun Pao" is founded in Shanghai
1873: Britain exports 6250 tons of opium to China
1873: Chinese general Zuo Zongtang/ Tso Tsung-tang defeats the Muslim rebels of Kansu
1873: The the Pingnan Guo Sultanate is destroyed, one million people are killed and Du Wenxiu commits suicide
1875: Tongzhi dies and Cixi, breaking the old rules of succession, appoints his three-year old cousin Guangxu as emperor
1876: First railway
1876: Japan forces Korea to sign the treaty of Kanghwa
1877: about nine million people die in a famine in 1877-78
1877: Chinese general Zuo Zongtang/ Tso Tsung-tang defeats the Muslim rebels of Yakub Beg
1880: Li Hongzhang is appointed in charge of relations with Korea
1881: The first Chinese daily is founded in Singapore, the "Lat Pau/ Le Bao"
1882: First telegraph
1882: China sends troops to defend the Korean government and Japan sends troops to defend its delegation after a mob attacks it
1882: Christian missionaries are admitted in Korea
1882: Zhang Zhidong/ Chang Chih-tung becomes governor of Shansi province
1884: War erupts between France and China over the borders of Annam/Vietnam and France invades Formosa/Taiwan
1884: China annexes eastern Turkestan and renames it Sinkiang/Xinjiang
1884: Zhang Zhidong/ Chang Chih-tung becomes governor of Guangdong and Guangxi
1885: France and China signs a treaty recognizing French authority in Annam/Vietnam and returning Formosa/Taiwan to China
1884: Xinjiang becomes a province of Qing China
1885: China's Li Hongzhang and Japan's Ito Hirobumi agree to pull out their troops from Korea
1889: Zhang Zhidong/ Chang Chih-tung becomes governor of Hunan and Hubei and begins a modernizing program
1894: China sends troops into Korea and Japan invades China (first sino-japanese war)
1895: Japan defeats China and China is forced to cede Taiwan and recognize Japanese sovereignity over Korea at the treaty of Shimonoseki
1895: Britain controls two thirds of Chinese foreign trade
1895: Chinese intellectuals found the "Society for the Study of Self-Strengthening" and Zhang Zhidong organizes a "Self-Strengthening" army in Nanjing
1895: Peiyang University is founded
1895: Shikai Yuan is appointed to create a new imperial army with German instructors
1896: Robert Hart sets up the first post system in China
1896: Chinese students enroll in Japanese universities
1896: So Chaepil founds the newspaper "Tongnip Shinmun", written in vernacular Korean, that launches a reformist movement
1896: China grants Russia permission to build the Chinese Eastern Railway across Manchuria to Vladivostok
1897: Kang Yuwei demands radical reforms
1897: China cedes Kokang to Britain's Burma
1897: Germany seizes the port of Kiaochow in China
1898: The anti-Confucian "Hundred Days' Reform", launched by emperor Guang Hsu/Guang Xu to modernize China and appease Kang Yuwei, fails when the mother of the emperor, Tsu Hsi/Ci Xi, has him arrested and confined in the Forbidden City, while Kang flees to Japan
1898: Russia expands in northern China
1898: Shimpei Goto is appointed in charge of Taiwan and begins economic development
1898: The Imperial University is founded
1899: the Russians take Shenyang
1899: the Qing support the anti-western Boxer movement
1900: the anti-western Boxer (Yihetuan) rebellion, supported by the Qing emperor but not by the regional governors of Canton (Li Hongzhang), Wuhan (Zhang Zhidong), Nanjing and Shantung, is crushed by foreign troops (Russia, Britain, France, Japan, USA) and empress Tsu Hsi flees to the mountains
1900: China's population is 467 million
1903: Britain gains control of Tibet
1904: Russians seize Harbin
1904: British troops occupy Tibet
1905: Japan takes Shenyang
1905: the Confucian system of examination is abolished
Aug 1905: Sun Yatsen founds in exile the nationalistic and pro-democracy "Tongmeng Hui/ United League"
1905: After Japan defeats Russian, Russia withdraws from Manchuria, loses Sakhalin, and recognizes a Japanese protectorate over Korea (treaty of Portsmouth), the first time that a non-European country defeats a European power
1907: Britain and Russia negotiate the status of Persia, Tibet and Afghanistan
1907: Chinese exiles in Paris led by Wu Chih-hui found an anarchist paper, "Hsin Shih-chi/ New Century"
1907: Japan forces the Korean emperor to abdicate and real power is seized by Ito Hirobumi
1907: Chinese exiles in Tokyo led by Liu Shih-pei and his wife Ho Chen found an anarchist paper, "Tien-i Pao/ Natural Justice"
Nov 1908: both Qing/Manchu emperor Guang Xu and his aunt Cixi die within 24 hours and are succeeded by another child, Puyi
1908: Xuanhuai Sheng combines iron mines and coal mines to form the economic empire of Hanyehping Iron and Coal Company
1909: China and Japan sign a treaty deciding the border between China and Korea
1909: Japan's politician Ito Hirobumi is assassinated in Manchuria by a Korean nationalist
1910: Japan annexes Korea and thereby terminates the Choson dynasty after more than five venturies of rule
1910: There are 200,000 Christians in Korea
1910: Chinese troops enter Lhasa, Tibet
1911: Bogh Haan proclaims Mongolia independent
Apr 1911: Sheng borrows money from a consortium of French, British, German and USA banks to develop railways
1911: Wuhan revolutionaries launch an uprising (the 10/10 revolution) and Sun Yatsen returns to China
Feb 1912: the infant Qing emperor abdicates
1912: Tibet and Mongolia declare independence and become protectorates respectively of Britain and Russia
Jun 1912: Russian and Japanese banks join the consortium of French, British, German and USA banks
Aug 1912: Song Jiaoren, an associate of Sun, founds the Guomindang/Kuomintang (KMT) party
1912: China adopts the Gregorian calendar
1913: Song's KMT wins the majority of votes but Song is assassinated and Sun flees the country, while power is seized by the authoritarian Shikai Yuan (11 million die)
1913: The 13th Dalai Lama proclaims Tibet an independent country
Feb 1913: Song's KMT wins the majority of votes
Mar 1913: Song is assassinated by Yuan and Sun flees the country, while power is seized by the authoritarian Shikai Yuan (11 million die)
1913: anarchists led by Liu Ssu-fu found the Chinese and Esperanto magazine "Min-sheng/ The People's Voice" in Canton
May 1913: Liang Qichao founds the Progressive Party
Jul 1913: Seven provincial governments declare independence
Nov 1913: Yuan bans the Kuomintang
Jan 1914: Yuan disbands the parliament
1914: Foreign investment in China is $1.4 billion
1914: Britain obtains Arunachal Pradesh from Tibet
Jul 1914: Sun founds the "Chinese Revolutionary Party"
Dec 1915: Yunnan (south of China) secedes
1915: The first college for women opens in Nanjing, the Ginling College
1915: Chen Duxiu/ Chen Tuhsiu founds the magazine "New Youth"
Jun 1916: Yuan dies, is succeeded by Duan Qirui and Sun Yatsen returns to China
1917: The USA accounts for 67% of the world's oil output
Jul 1917: Sun installs a dictatorship in Canton
Aug 1917: China joins World War I on the side of Britain, France, Japan and the USA, the first time ever that Chinese soldiers walk into another continent
Mar 1919: Koreans march to protest Japanese occupation
May 1918: Sun is forced to resign and retire in Shanghai
May 1919: Students join in a protest in the Tiananmen Square of Beijing against the European powers' decision to grant German-controlled Shandong to Japan, and thus create a new nationalist Chinese movement ("May Fourth Movement")
1919: Syngman Rhee is elected president of South Korea by the independence movement in exile
1920: Duan Qirui is ousted
Jul 1921: Marxist intellectuals found the communist party of China with Chen Duxiu/ Tu-hsiu as secretary general
1922: at the Washington Conference with Britain and the USA, Japan accepts to return disputed territories to China
Jan 1923: the Communists and the Guomindang ally in Canton under the leadership of Sun Yatsen and the supervision of Soviet agent Borodin, while the Guomindang's military commander Chiang Kaishek/Jiang Jieshi is trained in the Soviet Union
1924: Warlord Yuxiang Feng seizes Beijing
1924: The Central Bank of China is established in Canton
May 1924: A treaty confirms Mongolia into the sphere of influence of the Soviet Union
Mar 1925: Sun dies of cancer and Ching-wei/Jingwei Wang succeeds him at the helm of the Kuomintang
Jun 1926: Chiang Kaishek/Jiang Jieshi becomes the chief commander of the Kuomintang
Jul 1926: Jiang's Guomindang launches a military campaign to fight the warlords and reunify China ("northern expedition")
Dec 1926: The nationalist government moves from Canton to Wuhan
1927: A young communist leader, Mao Zedong, organizes the Autumn Harvest Uprising, which fails
April 1927: Chiang Kai-shek's Guomindang troops take Shanghai, and Chiang Kai-shek establishes his capital at Nanjing/Nanking
Aug 1927: Civil war erupts between Chiang Kai-shek's Guomindang and the communists, with the leaders of the Communist Party being executed or driven to the countryside
1927: Chen Duxiu/ Tu-hsiu, accused of Trotskyism, is replaced by Li Lisan as secretary general of the Communist Party
1927: Peng Pai opens a soviet in Hai-Lu-Feng that pioneers rural militarized communism and terror
1927: Communist terror in Jingxi kills 186,000 people between 1927 and 1931
1928: Chiang Kai-shek defeats the northern warlords and takes Beijing (hundreds of thousands die), the beginning of the "Nanking Decade"
1928: The Japanese Kwantung army kills the Manchurian warlord before he can ally with Chiang Kaishek
1929: Chen Duxiu/ Tu-hsiu is expelled from the Communist Party
1930: Manchuria (China's northeastern region) has 34 million people
Sep 1931: The Japanese army invades Manchuria (1.1 million die)
1931: Peng Pai is executed and Mao has to apologize to the communist party for the terrorist excesses of the previous four years
November 1931: Mao proclaims the Chinese Republic of Soviets
1932: the Japanese army invades Harbin
Mar 1932: the Japanese install former Manchu emperor Puyj as head of the puppet state of Manchukuo with capital is Changchun
1933: the Japanese army invades Hebei
May 1933: Germany sends general Hans von Seeckt as a military advisor to China
Apr 1934: Germany sends general Alexander von Falkenhausen as a military advisor to China
See the timetable of World War II
1933: The 13th Dalai Lama of Tibet dies
1934: in order to avoid persecution by Chiang, Mao Zedong leads the "Long March" of the communist "Red Army" (170,000 die)
1936: Japan invades the northern province of Suiyuan
Jul 1937: A clash between Chinese and Japanese troops ("Marco Polo Incident") lead to a general war
1937: Mao moves the headquarters of the communist government to Yan'an / Yenan
Dec 1937: Japan captures Nanjing (350,000 Chinese are killed and 100,000 women are raped during the "rape of Nanking")
1938: Japan opens the first wartime facility for "sexual comfort" in Nanjing
Oct 1938: Japan captures Canton
1938: Chongqing is made capital by the Kuomingtan
1938: Lee Byung-chull founds the trading company Samsung in South Korea
Mar 1938: Japan installs a puppet regime in Nanjing
1938: Japan installs five puppet regimes in China (Manchukuo, Inner Mongolia, Beijing, Nanjing, Taiwan)
1940: Tenzin Gyatso becomes the 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet
1941: USA pilots ("flying tigers") help the KMT
1941: Japan attacks the USA that enters the war on the side of the KMT
1943: Cairo Conference between Roosevelt, Churchill and Chiang Kaishek
July 1943: A "campaign of salvation" is launched by Kang Sheng of the Communist Party against political opponents of Mao
April 1944: Mao has to apologize for the excesses of Kang Sheng's "campaign of salvation"
1945: the USA tries to mediate between KMT and Communists but the KMT attacks the Communists
1945: World War II ends and Japan is forced to retreat (20 million Chinese dead)
1945: Hong Kong's population is 600,000
August 1945: at the end of World War II the Korean peninsula is occupied by the Soviet Union (north) and the USA (south)
1946: Independence leader Syngman Rhee assumes power in South Korea
1946: China switches to driving on the right
January 1946: The leader of North Korean opposition, Cho Man Sik, is arrested (and executed a few months later), the beginning of purges in North Korea that will lead to more than 100,000 executions and the death of 1.5 million people in concentration camps until 1994
1946: China recognizes Mongolia but not Tibet nor Xinjiang
1946: The Far Eastern Economic Review begins publication in Hong Kong
1946: Civil war between Chiang and Mao continues, with Chiang (southern China and northern cities) helped by the USA and Mao (northern countryside) helped by the Soviet Union
1946: The Far Eastern Economic Review of Hong Kong shuts down
1946: During the "agrarian revolution" of 1946-52 the communists execute between 2 and 5 million landowners who collaborated with Japan and send six million to labor camps
1947: an uprising in Taiwan ("2/28 uprising") against the Kuomintang leaves thousands dead
1947: Tibet requests India to return land annexed by India as part of several Indian states
1947: Chung Ju-yung founds Hyundai in South Korea
1947: Koo In-Hwoi founds the plastic manufacturing company Lak-Hui (later LG) in South Korea
Apr 1948: A paramilitary organization tied to general Syngman Rhee kills 30,000 people in Cheju, South Korea
May 1948: Syngman Rhee's party wins national elections in South Korea
Aug 1948: Syngman Rhee is declared president of the newly independent South Korea
Sep 1948: communist North Korea declares independence under its leader Kim Il Sung, chosen by the Soviet Union
1948: More than 100,000 people die in the communist siege of Changchun
1949: Chiang and his KMT government flee to Taiwan while Mao Zedong proclaims the People's Republic of China (1.2 million have died in three years)
1949: Zhou Enlai is appointed premier of Communist China, while Mao retains the chairmanship of the communist party
1949: Communist China invades eastern Tibet
Dec 1949: Mao travels abroad for the first time, to Russia
June 1950: communist North Korea (with approval from Stalin) attacks capitalist South Korea, but the invasion fails after USA intervention
July 1950: Mao orders the persecution of "counter-revolutionaries" of the cities, which causes the deaths of 710,000 people and the deportation of 2.5 million people to "reeducation camps"
1950: Mao's China invades Tibet
1950: Hong Kong's population is 2.5 million thanks to the exodus from China
1950: South Korea kills thousands of communists (Bodo League massacre)
1950: Communist China annexes Xinjiang/Sinkiang (eastern Turkestan)
October 1950: Chinese troops enter Korea to help North Korea
1951: Communist China annexes Tibet/ Xizang
Feb 1951: The South Korean military kills more than 700 civilians (Geochang massacre)
1951: The communists conduct mass trials against "counterrevolutionaries"
1952: Mao orders the persecution of landlords which causes the deaths of about one million people
1953: The communist party launches the first five-year plan with the aims of industrialization, collectivization of agriculture, and political centralization
July 1953: Korea is permanently partitioned across the DMV (54 thousand USA soldiers, 415 thousand South Koreans including 58 thousand soldiers, 400 thousand Chinese soldiers, two million North Koreans have died including 520 thousand soldiers)
1953: the population of mainland (communist) China is 583 million
1953: Taiwan (non-communist China) begins an economic miracle that will turn it into one of the richest countries in Asia and the second most powerful economy after Japan
1954: Deng Xiao Ping is appointed secretary general of the communist party
Dec 1954: mutual defense treaty between the USA and Taiwan
1954: political prisoners are held in a vast network of labor camps (the "laogai"), mostly in Qinghai, Xinjiang, Tibet, Inner Mongolia and Northern Manchuria
1956: China bombs the Batang monastery in Tibet killing more than 2,000 monks and pilgrims
May 1957: Mao launches the "Hundred Flowers Campaign", another campaign to liquidate political opposition in the cities
December 1957: Mao launches the "Great Leap Forward" (mass mobilization and collectivization of the farms to increase crop production and steel production
1958: The Khampas of eastern Tibet stage an insurrection against China
1959: 38 million people starve to death because of the 1959-62 famine caused by the "Great Leap Forward" (the population of Communist China declined by 4.5%)
1959: The Tibetan uprising against the Chinese fails in Lhasa and the Dalai Lama into India (87,000 Tibetans killed)
1959: Liu Shaoqi replaces Mao as president, while Lin Biao becomes minister of defense (head of the army) and launches purges in the military
July 1959: Peng Dehuai criticizes Mao's "Great Leap Forward"
March 1959: Tibetans riot against Chinese occupation (87,000 dead) and the Dalai Lama flees to India ("Tibetans were... crucified, buried alive, dismembered and beheaded")
1960: Communist China launches its first ballistic missile
Apr 1960: Student protests cause the resignation of Rhee in South Korea
May 1961: General Park Chung-hee stages a coup in South Korea at a time when half of the country's GDP is USA aid
1961: China sends aid to Albania
1962: Mao breaks with the Soviet Union
1962: Following the catastrophe of the Great Leap Forward, Mao loses power to president Liu Shaoqi and his collaborator Deng Xiaoping
Oct 1962: China-India border war
Oct 1964: Communist China becomes the fifth nuclear power, the first one in Asia
1964: Mao regains absolute power
1964: South Korea launches a plan to improve exports
1964: The population of Tibet has decreased from 2.8 million in 1953 to 2.5 million in 1964
June 1966: A dazebao by philosophy teacher Nie Yuanzi invites students to organize and liquidate the revisionists
August 1966: Mao ("One is always right to revolt") defends the students that are revolting against their own teachers who had encouraged and defended them
May 1966: Mao and his wife Jiang Qing launch the "Cultural Revolution" (call upon students to form units of "Red Guards" and rebel against authority): about one million people die in the next three years, the Great Wall is destroyed, 2692 Tibetan monasteries are destroyed, Shaoqi Liu and XiaoPing Deng are ousted
1966: Youstol Dispage
1966: LG produces South Korea's first television set
January 1967: Maoists and Liuists fight for power, starting in Shanghai (second phase of the Cultural Revolution)
May 1967: Maoist rebels in Wuhan fight the "Million Heroes" (conservatives) armed by the army
July 1967: Civil war erupts in Canton
1967: Kim Woo-chong founds Daewoo in South Korea to export clothing
Sep 1967: Mao changes course and employs army to put down the Red Guards
July 1968: The army restores order (end of the Cultural Revolution)
August 1968: Order is restored with reprisals in Guangxi (100,000 die), Guangdong (40,000 die), etc (Hua Guofeng is nicknamed "the butcher of Hunan")
1969: Chinese and Soviet troops clash along the border
1969: 20 million Chinese are sent to the countryside
1969: Chinese troops crush an insurrection in Tibet
1969: Samsung-Sanyo Electronics established in South Korea
1969: Liu Shaoqi dies insane
1970: Communist China launches its first satellite
1970: South Korea opens its first "autobahn", the Seoul-Pusan expressway, mostly built by Hyundai
1970: a South Korean ferry sinks in the Korea Strait killing 308 people replace
Sep 1971: Lin Biao, first in line to succeed Mao, dies in an airplane crash in Mongolia on his way to exile, and Zhou Enlai replaces him as second most powerful man in mainland China
Oct 1971: Communist China takes over the seat at the United Nations that was held by Taiwan (non-communist China)
Feb 1971: USA president Richard Nixon visits Communist China
Sep 1972: Japanese prime minister Kakuei Tanaka meets with Chinese premier Zhou Enlai
1973: Thousands of tons of precious Tibetan sculptures have been melted by Chinese foundries, and thousands of gold and silver relics have been transported to Beijing
1973: The government of Taiwan creates the Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI)
1973: South Korea launches an industrialization plan (shipbuilding, electronics, steel, machinery, metals, chemicals) and POSCO begins South Korea's production of steel
TM, ®, Copyright © 2005 Piero Scaruffi All rights reserved.
1974: Zhou Enlai rehabilitates Deng Xiaoping
1974: Peng Dehuai dies of cancer
1974: South Korea's Hyundai builds its first ship
1975: the Shimantan Dam collapses in the Henan province, killing 85,000 people and causing the subsequent death of about 100,000 people
1975: Zhao Ziyang pioneers capitalism in Sichuan province of mainland China
January 1975: Zhou Enlai, at the fourth Congress, outlines a program of Four Modernizations (agriculture, industry, army, science)
1975: Chiang Kai-shek dies and is succeeded as dictator of Taiwan (non-communist China) by his son Chiang Ching-kuo
January 1976: Zhou Enlai dies
April 1976: Widespread demonstrations for the death of Zhou Enlai are crushed by the army
1976: Hyundai introduces its first car
September 1976: Mao dies
October 1976: Hua Guofeng seizes power after ousting the "Shanghai Four" or "Gang of Four" (led by Mao's widow Jiang Qing)
1976: mass demonstrations against the communist party
1976: Tangshan earthquake
1976: China begins a campaign to resettle ethnic Chinese in Tibet
1977: Deng Xiaoping engineers the "Beijing Spring" of political liberation
1978: Japan and China sign a peace treaty
Nov 1978: Deng Xiaoping visits Singapore
Dec 1978: The Plenum of the 11th Party Congress ushers in capitalist-style economic reform, as Hua Guofeng relinquishes power to Deng Xiaoping, creating 12 state companies to control imports and exports and "Special Economic Zones" in southern China to imitate Singapore's success ("Period of Reform and Opening")
Dec 1978: Dissenters write controversial opinions on the "Democracy Wall" of Beijing (notably "The Fifth Modernization" by Wei Jingsheng)
Jan 1979: Mainland China normalizes relations with the USA
1979: Border war with Vietnam
1979: The government of mainland China introduces the one-child policy in cities to reduce population growth
March 1979: Wei Jingsheng is arrested
Oct 1979: Park Chung-hee of South Korea is assassinated
1979: China opens Tibet to foreign tourists
July 1979: Deng Xiaoping turns the fishing village of Shenzhen near Hong Kong into a "Special Economic Zone" (SEZ) to experiment with foreign investment and export manufacturing
Dec 1979: Singapore and China sign a trade agreement
1980: month-long trial of the "Gang of Four" (Mao associates)
Apr 1980: Another general, Chun Doo-hwan, seizes power in South Korea, pro-democracy demonstrations erupt, thousands of political dissindets are arrested including Kim Dae-jung
May 1980: South Korea's paramilitary forces kill hundreds of protesters in Kwangju
Dec 1980: Taiwan's minister Li Kuo-ting establishes the Hsinchu Science Park
1980: The USA grants mainland China most-favored-nation status, i.e. access to US investors, technology and market
1980: The population of China is one billion.
1980: Deng Xiaoping replaces Hua Guofeng with Zhao Ziyang as premier of Communist China
1980: Secretary general Hu Yaobang admits past atrocities during a visit to Tibet
1980: Pro-democracy politician Kim Young-sam is banned from politics in South Korea
1981: the Communist Party formally condemns Mao for the economic disasters from 1957 till his death, and blames Lin Biao and Mao's widow Jiang Qing for the excesses of the Cultural Revolution
1981: Hua Guofeng is replaced by Hu Yaobang (an ally of Deng Xiaoping) as as party chairman of Communist China
1981: Deng Xiaoping seizes power and launches pseudo-capitalistic economic reforms
1981: East Asia has the highest poverty rate in the world
1982: Deng Xiaoping begins to dismantle the communes and allows peasants to grow and sell produce
1982: Chun Doo-hwan allows South Korean dissident Kim Dae-jung to go in exile in the USA
Sep 1983: The Soviet Union shoots down a Korean airliner killing 269 people
October 1983: South Korean officials are murdered by North Korean agents in Burma
October 1984: Mainland China enacts reforms that limit the interference of government officials in the management of companies
1984: Daim Zainuddin is appointed finance minister of Malaysia
1984: Liu Chuanzhi of the Chinese Academy of Sciences founds a privately-run but state-owned company, Legend (later Lenovo), to sell IBM's personal computers in China
1985: South Korea is one of the "Asian tigers" whose economy booms
1985: The growth rate in mainland China was 9.4% between 1978 and 1995
1985: Jiang Zemin becomes mayor of Shangai and oversees the spectacular economic development of the city
1986: the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) is formed in Taiwan (non-communist China)
1986: Malaysia's finance minister Daim Zainuddin enacts economic reforms that terminate the NEP
1986: pro-democracy demonstrations by students in Beijing
November 1987: A Korean Airlines flights crashes in the sea due to a bomb planted by North Korean agents (115 dead)
Dec 1987: South Korea becomes a democracy under president Roh Tae-woo, Chun's appointed heir, who wins elections against Kim Young-sam and Kim Dae-jung
1987: Hu Yaobang, Communist China's main reformer, is forced to resign
October 1987: Another insurrection is Tibet is crushed by the Chinese, and the government establishes a special school in Beijing to educate the reincarnate Tibetan lamas
June 1989: following the death of Hu Yaobang, students join in a pro-democracy protest in the Tiananmen Square of Beijing and Zhao Ziyang (willing to negotiate with them) is removed as prime minister
1989: the Chinese governor Hu Jintao declares martial law in occupied Tibet after three days of rioting and anti-Chinese pogroms by Tibetans
1989: Tibetans revolt against the occupying Chinese troops and hundreds are killed
1989: Deng Xiaoping says "To get rich is glorious" and "Some should be allowed to get rich first"
1989: Mainland China has almost 22,000 joint ventures with foreign companies, including 952 with USA firms
1889: Mainland China opens Zhongguancun Science Park, China's version of "Silicon Valley"
1989: the Dalai Lama of Tibet is awarded the Nobel Prize for peace
1989: Taiwan's per capita GDP is $7,500 while mainland China's per capita GDP is $350
1989: South Korea's per capita GDP is $4,500 while mainland North Korea's per capita GDP is less than $1,000
1990: the Shanghai stock exchange is established
1990: Shanghai has 10,000 factories and accounts for 1/6 of China's GDP
1990: China's Lenovo introduces its first homemade computer when the market is dominated by IBM, HP and Compaq
1990: China accounts for just 3% of global manufacturing output
1991: Communist China joins the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)
1991: Mao's widow Jiang Qing commits suicide
1991: Shanghai is opened to capitalism
1991: Wang Lequan is appointed governor of Xinjiang province and proceeds to suppress Islam and the Uighur language, while mordernizing industry and transportation
1991: the panchen lama of Tibet dies, opening a conflict with China over the appointment of the successor
1992: Communist China launches a program to put men into space
1992: Deng takes a "Southern Tour" to Shenzhen and coins the term "socialist market economy"
1992: Taiwan holds its first democratic elections
1992: South Korea's Samsung becomes the largest producer of memory chips in the world
1992: the religious sect Fulan Gong is founded by Li Hongzhi
1993: Jiang Zemin is appointed president of Communist China
Feb 1993: Opposition leader Kim Young-sam who won democratic elections becomes the first civilian president of South Korea
1993: The world's largest bronze Buddha statue opens at the Po Lin monastery in Hong Kong
1994: Communist China's gross domestic product grows at an average annual rate of about 10%, the highest in the world, between 1994 and 2000
1994: North Korea's leader Kim Il Sung dies and is succeeded by his son Kim Jong Il, the communist world's first hereditary transfer of power
Dec 1994: A fire in a Xinjiang theater kills 325 people including 288 schoolchildren because the crowd is told to wait for Community Party officials to leave first ("Karamay fire")
1995: South Korean conglomerate LG acquires Zenith
Dec 1995: South Korean arrests former presidents Chun Doo-hwan and Roh Tae-woo for corruption and murder
1995: China's economy only accounts for 2% of the world's economy
1996: South Korean conglomerate Samsung builds a factory in Texas, one of the largest foreign investments in the history of the USA
1996: China, Russia and three (later four) former Soviet republics (Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan) form the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)
1997: Deng dies and Jiang Zemin, who was already ruling Communist China, becomes the sole leader
1997: Britain cedes Hong Kong back to Communist China, and Jiang Zemin appoints Tung Chee-hwa as chief executive of the city
1997: Jiang Zemin legalizes private enterprise and unveils a plan to privatize Communist China's state-owned enterprises
Feb 1997: riots erupt between Uighurs and Chinese in Yining (Xinjiang province of mainland China)
Nov 1997: Wei Jingsheng is exiled to the USA
1997: Lenovo passes IBM to become China's main vendor of personal computers
1997: Hwang Jang Yop, the architect of North Korea's "juche" strategy, is the first high-level official to seek asylum in South Korea
1998: Former Shanghai mayor Zhu Rongji is appointed prime minister of Communist China and proceeds to overhaul state-owned companies
1998: Xiao Yang becomes president of the Supreme People's Court of mainland China and greatly reduces the rate of death sentences
1998: Kim Dae-jung is elected president of South Korea
1998: The growth rate in mainland China was 11.2% between 1990 and 1998
1998: Pakistan provides North Korea with nuclear technology in exchange for missile technology
1998: Former Shanghai mayor Zhu Rongji is appointed prime minister of Communist China and proceeds to overhaul state-owned companies
1998: South Korea's Samsung introduces the world's first digital television set
1999: Chen Shui-bian becomes the first democratically elected president of Taiwan and the first to advocate independence from Communist China
1999: Daewoo, the second largest conglomerate in South Korea with interests in about 100 countries, goes bankrupt
1999: the world's largest Tibetan tangka is completed (a 1,500 square meter, 1,000 kg scroll)
1999: Mainland China arrests Uighur activist Rebiya Kadeer
1999: a ferry sinks killing over 275 near Yantai
Dec 1999: Portugal returns Macau to China
2000: Shanghai has 14 million people, Beijing 12.5 million, Chengdu 10 million
2000: Binxing Fang begins work on the "Great Firewall of China", that would block millions of websites including
2000: Mainland China ranks eight in the world for papers published in scientific magazines
2000: Kim Dae-jung of South Korea meets with Kim Jong-il of North Korea, the first time that the leaders of the two Koreas meet
2000: The "Midi Music Festival" is held in Beijing, the first music festival in China
Dec 2000: A welding accident sets off a fire at a club in Luoyang, China, killing 309 people. br>2001: Jiang Zemin invites capitalists in the Chinese communist party br>2001: China executes more than 20 Uighur militants declaring them affiliated with Al Qaeda
2002: Jiang Zemin resigns and Hu Jintao succeeds him, the first peaceful transition of power since 1949
2002: South Korea's Samsung is the second semiconductor manufacturer in the world after Intel
2002: Japan and South Korea combined deliver 75% of the world's shipbuilding
2002: A magnetic levitation train is inaugurated in Shanghai, the fastest train in the world
2002: Tenzin Delek Rinpoche and other Tibetan leaders are arrested by the government of mainland China
2002: North Korea admits that is developing nuclear weapons in violation of a treaty with the USA
2003: Roh Moo-hyun wins the election in South Korea with a program that calls for US withdrawal and negotiations with North Korea
2003: 130 people die in a South Korean subway fire set by a madman
2003: Wen Jiabao is appointed prime minister of Communist China, replacing Zhu Rongji
2003: an unknown type of pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), spreads out of southern Communist China and kills hundreds of people
2003: Communist China quarantines 10,000 people in Nanjing to control the spread of the Sars virus
2003: Communist China's "Three Gorges Dam" on the Yangtze (2.3 km long and 185 meters tall), the world's largest dam, becomes operational
2003: Communist China sends a man in space, Yang Liwei, the third country to do so after the USSR and the USA, and announces plans to send a man to the moon by 2020
2003: about 200 people die of an explosion at a gas field in Chongqing
2003: Communist China's economy grows 9.1% in 2003
2003: Car manufacturer BYD is founded in Shenzen
2003: Liu Xiaobo becomes president of the Chinese chapter of an international organization of writers
2004: Roh Moo-hyun is impeached in South Korea for illegal actions
2004: Russia and China settle all border disputes, mostly favoring China
2004: The high-speed monorail Shanghai Maglev Train (built by Germany's Transrapid) opens
2004: Mainland China announces a "science city" in Hefei, capital of the Anhui province
2004: president Chen Shui-bian of Taiwan is re-elected by very few votes after a man tried to kill him, sparking protests in the island
2004: 150 passengers die in a train collision in North Korea
2004: "Taipei 101" becomes the tallest skyscraper in the world, unseating Malaysia's Petronas Towers
2004: South Korea's per-capita GDP passes Taiwan's to become the second in Asia after Japan
2004: Between 1980 and 2004 the size of China's economy has increased seven times
2004: Mainland China opens its first Confucius Institute (in South Korea)
2005: North Korea announces that it has nuclear weapons and pulls out of nuclear talks
2005: a mine explosion kills more than 200 people in communist China
2005: Hong Kong's chief executive Tung Chee-hwa resigns after pro-democracy protests
2005: China and India sign a treaty in which China gives up any claim on the state of Sikkim
2005: there are more than 300 skyscrapers in Shangai (up from one in 1985)
2005: Shenzhen's population is 12 million (up from 1.7 in 1990)
2005: two Chinese astronauts orbit Earth for five days
2005: Hu Yaobang is rehabilitated by Communist China
2005: 100 tons of toxic material contaminate rivers in China (near Harbin) and Russia
2005: Hong Kong holds the largest pro-democracy demonstration ever in the history of mainland China
2005: Mainland China's trade surplus triples in one year to a record $102 billion, and mainland China becomes the world's third-largest foreign trader after the United States and Germany with trade of $1.4 trillion, as well as second only to Japan for foreign currency reserves ($794 billion)
2005: Mainland China becomes the fourth world economy after the USA, Japan and Germany
2005: China's Lenovo acquires IBM's personal computer business
2006: American search engine Google accepts to cooperate with the government of mainland China in censoring the world-wide web
2006: the Beijing government does not even mention the 40th anniversary of Mao's "Cultural Revolution"
2006: a railway connection between mainland China and Tibet is inaugurated (the 1,140km Golmud-Lhasa being the world's highest)
2006: North Korea tests missiles, angering the USA, Japan and South Korea
2006: North Korea announces its first nuclear test
2006: 15 years after opening to capitalism, Shanghai surpasses Shenzhen and the Pearl River Delta as China's primary industrial zone
Jan 2006: Mainland China joins the World Trade Organisation
2007: Mainland China shoots a missile to destroy an orbiting satellite
2007: The growth rate in mainland China was 9.9% between 1999 and 2007
2007: China overtakes all European countries and becomes the third economic power after USA and Japan
2007: Mainland China's per-capita GDP is $2,500, while Taiwan's is $17,000 and Japan's is $38,559
2007: an edition in modern Chinese of "The Analects of Confucius" becomes the all-time bestselling book in mainland China
2007: the USA and South Korea sign a free-trade treaty
2007: Mainland China overtakes the USA to become the world's second largest exporter (after Germany) and overtakes Canada to become the main exporter to the USA
2007: Mainland China's exports to Europe surpass mainland China's exports to the USA
2007: Mainland China overtakes the USA as the world's main polluter
2007: For the first time since 1951 a train crosses the border between North and South Korea
2007: Lee Myung-bak wins the election in South Korea despite being under investigation for corruption
2007: Mainland China attracts almost $83 billions of foreign industrial investment in 2007, the highest amount of any country in the world
2007: dissident Hu Jia is jailed for criticizing the Communist Party
2007: 150,000 Chinese are studying abroad
2007: The world's largest vendors of personal computers are HP, Dell, Taiwan's Acer, China's Lenovo and Japan's Toshiba
2007: Mainland China's GDP growth rate peaks at 14%
2008: Taiwan's opposition party Kuomintang (KMT), that wants closer ties with mainland China, wins a landslide victory in parliamentary polls
2008: Shenzhen has ten million people
2008: Tibetan protesters and Chinese civilians are killed and hundred of Tibetans are arrested in pro-independence riots
2008: An earthquake kills more than 60,000 people in mainland China
2008: Opposition leader Ma Ying-jeou wins Taiwan's presidential elections
2008: Mainland China and Taiwan sign a deal to launch regular flights between the two countries
2008: Chinese policemen kill five Islamist militants in Xinjiang
2008: Two people are killed by bombs placed on buses in Kunming
august 2008: Uighur Islamic separatists kill 23 Chinese policemen in East Turkestan (Xinjiang)
august 2008: The Olympic Games are held in mainland China
november 2008: Chinese exports fall for the first time in seven years
december 2008: The Shanghai stock market loses almost 65% in 2008
december 2008: Mainland China holds an estimated $1 trillion in USA government debt
december 2008: Mainland China has 115,000 state-owned companies
2008: Korean auto-maker Hyundai becomes the fourth-largest automaker in the world behind Toyota, General Motors and Volkswagen
2008: Former Google executive Kai-fu Lee founds Innovation Works in mainland China
2008: Nearly 180,000 Chinese students leave mainland China for universities abroad, a 25% increase over the previous year
2009: The government of mainland China injects a $4 trillion stimulus package into the economy to offset the international financial crisis
mar 2009: Bank of China's governor Zhou Xiaochuan proposes that international trade be based on a global currency instead of the dollar
may 2009: former South Korean president Roh Moo-hyun, accused of corruption, commits suicide
may 2009: Mainland China buys $22 billion worth of Australian mining operations
jun 2009: Mainland China mandates censorship software on all computers sold in mainland China
jun 2009: Pro-democracy advocate Liu Xiaobo is jailed by mainland China
jul 2009: three Uighurs from the province of Xinjiang set themselves on fire in Beijing and ethnic violence in Xinjiang between Uighurs and Hans kills 197 people (for which several Muslims are sentenced to death)
jul 2009: fearing an aging population, Shanghai repels the one-child only policy
dec 2009: A gas pipeline between Turkmenistan and mainland China is inaugurated, bypassing Russia
dec 2009: Mainland China limits the creation and viewing of websites by its citizens
Dec 2009: Mainland China passes Germany as the world's top exporter ($1.2 trillion a year) and mainland China passes Canada as the USA top exporter
2009: Mainland China's car market becomes the world's largest (for the first time more new cars are sold in mainland China than in the USA)
2009: Mainland China's Inner Mongolia has become the country's largest producer of coal and the world's largest producer of rare earths
Jan 2010: The USA sells Patriot air defense rockets to Taiwan
2010: Mainland China bans the search engine Google
May 2010: Evidence emerges that North Korea sank a South Korean warship, causing the deaths of 46 sailors
Jun 2010: Chinese workers led by Tan Guocheng go on strike at a Honda plant
Jun 2010: Mainland China surpasses the USA to become the world's biggest energy consumer
Jun 2010: General Motors sells more cars in mainland China than in the USA
Aug 2010: A bomb set off by a Uighur kills seven people in Aksu, Xinjiang, mainland China
Sep 2010: Kim Jong Il's youngest son Kim Jong-Un is appointed to succeed his father as North Korea's leader
Sep 2010: Mainland China produces 95% of the rare earths of the world and stops shipments to Japan over a territorial dispute
Nov 2010: North Korea shells the South Korean island of Yeonpyeong killing two civilians
Dec 2010: The first study to include Chinese students finds that Chinese students outperform the rest of the world in Science, Reading and Math
Dec 2010: Mainland China pressures countries to boycott the Nobel Prize ceremony after the peace price is awarded to jailed dissident Liu Xiaobo
Dec 2010: The social network Renren reaches 100 million users in mainland China, where Facebook and Twitter are banned
Dec 2010: Village advocate Qian Yunhui who was fighting illegal land seizures is killed in a mysterious truck accident
Dec 2010: Mainland China (GDP of $5.75 trillion) overtakes Japan (GDP of $5.39 trillion) as the world's second largest economy after the USA, although mainland China's GDP per head ($4,500) is only 11% of Japan's ($40,000)
2010: The European Union becomes mainland China's biggest export market, while the USA remains the European Union's biggest export market
2010: The USA has become mainland China's second-largest export market and mainland China has become the USA's third-largest export market and the fastest-growing one
2010: Mainland China holds about $1.6 trillion in Treasury bonds of the USA
2010: There are about 200,000 people in gulags throughout North Korea
2010: South Korea's Hyundai-Kia passes Ford to become the fourth automaker in the world after Toyota, General Motors and Volkswagen
2010: Mainland China's trade with Central Asian countries exceed Russia's for the first time
Mar 2011: A Tibetan monk sets himself on fire in Sichuan, starting protests centered around the monastery of Kirti
2011: A Huazhong University of Science and Technology student, "Hanjunyi", throws a shoe at Binxing Fang, the architect of the "Great Firewall of China"
Apr 2011: Russia and mainland China allow the United Nations Security Council to vote a resolution which authorized NATO military attacks in Libya to protect anti-government protesters, but do not allow a similar resolution against Syria that is also killing hundreds of protesters
Apr 2011: Mainland China creates the State Internet Information Office to censor the Internet
May 2011: Mainland China cracks down on young people trying to organize protests (the "jasmine revolution")
May 2011: Ethnic Mongols stage a protest in Inner Mongolia of Mainland China
Jun 2011: Vietnam and mainland China trade accusations over oil exploration in the South China Sea
Jun 2011: Mainland China invests in the port of Piraeus of Greece
Jul 2011: 18 people are killed suring political unrest in China's Uighur region
Jul 2011: Mainland China introduces regulations that require bars, restaurants, hotels and bookstores to install Web monitoring software
2011: The USA has 413 billionaires, mainland China has 115 billionaires, Russia 101, India 55, Germany 52, Britain 32, Brazil 30, and Japan 26
Jul 2011: A high-speed train crashes in mainland China killing 40 people
Jul 2011: Dozens of people are killed in riots in Western China (Uighurs)
Sep 2011: Russia and mainland China are the only countries to support Syria's crackdown on dissidents while even Syria's ally Iran distances itself from Assad's regime
Sep 2011: Several Tibetan monks set themselves on fire in Kirti
Oct 2011: The USA signs free-trade treaties with Colombia, Panama and South Korea
Oct 2011: The world's population is 7 billion up from 1 billion in 1850 and less than 3 billion in 1950.
Oct 2011: 20-year-old Tibetan nun Tenzin Wangmo set herself on fire in Mainland China
Dec 2011: Mainland China owns $800 billion of euro zone government bonds
Dec 2011: Mainland China's foreign exchange reserves are worth $3.2 trillion or 5% of the world's GDP
Dec 2011: North Korea's leader Kim Jong Il dies and is succeeded by his son Kim Jong-un
Dec 2011: Chinese writer Chen Wei is jailed for nine years by a court in Sichuan for "inciting subversion" through pro-democracy essays.
Dec 2011: Zulian Lin leads popular protests against corrupt officials in the small village of Wukan
2011: The USA spends $739bn in defense while China spends $90bn
Jan 2012: In one year 15 Tibetan monks have set themselves on fire to protest Chinese occupation
2012: Hong Kong students form the protest group Scholarism
Mar 2012: Bo Xilai, the populist leader of the southwestern megacity of Chongqing, is removed from power, the first major purge in decades
May 2012: Two monks that set themselves on fire in Lhasa bring to 36 the number of self-immolations in Tibet since march 2011
Jun 2012: Hong Kong holds huge protests against its newly appointed leader Leung Chun-ying
Aug 2012: A teenager kills eight people with a knife in northeast China
Sep 2012: Anti-Japanese protests erupt in mainland China over contested islands
Sep 2012: China launches its first aircraft carrier
Nov 2012: The Chinese Communist Party elects a new leader of the country, Xi Jinping
Nov 2012: Several Tibetans set themselves on fire in Gansu, Sichuan and Qinghai provinces of mainland China to protest Chinese occupation
Dec 2012: Park Geun-hye, the daughter of former dictator Park Chung-hee, wins South Korean elections and becomes the first female president of the country
Dec 2012: China opens the world's longest high-speed rail route, linking Beijing with Guangzhou
Feb 2013: Chey Tae-won, head of South Korea's conglomerate SK, is jailed for embezzlement
Mar 2013: 83 miners are buried alive at a gold mine in China's Tibet
Apr 2013: Uighur separatists attack mainland China's security forces in Kashgar leaving 21 dead
Jun 2013: A fire at a poultry processing plant in Dehui in Jilin province kills at least 119 people
Jun 2013: Riots kill at least 35 people in China's western region of Xinjiang
Jun 2013: China's ICBC tops the list of the world's top 1,000 banks
Oct 2013: Uighur separatist group East Turkestan Islamic Movement explodes a car bomb in Beijing killing the three people in the car and two bystanders
Nov 2013: Nine Uighur attackers and two Chinese policemen are killed in Xinjiang province
Nov 2013: Baidu's founder Robin Li is the richest man in China
Dec 2013: Eight Muslim militiamen are killed after trying to attack a police station in China's Xinjiang
Feb 2014: Islamic separatists from Xinjiang armed with knives storm the railway station in the southwest Chinese city of Kunming and kill 29 people
Apr 2014: A bomb by Islamic separatists kills 3 people at an Urumqi train station
May 2014: Angry at China for moving a drilling rig into Vietnamese waters, mobs of Vietnamese people set on fire 15 foreign-owned factories
May 2014: Uighur separatists attack a market in Chinese occupied Urumqi, leaving 39 people dead
May 2014: Liu Han, a Chinese tycoon close to China's former security chief Zhou Yongkang, is sentenced to death
Jun 2014: Mainland China sentences to prison anticorruption activists Liu Ping and Wei Zhongping
Jun 2014: China restricts Islamic fasting for anyone employed in government
Jun 2014: For the first time since 1949 an official delegation from mainland China visits Taiwan
Jul 2014: During protests against the Chinese government 59 Muslims are killed by security forces and 37 civilians are killed by the protesters in the towns of Elixku and Huangdi of Xinjiang province
Jul 2014: An earthquake in Yunnan province kills 600 people
Sep 2014: China commits 700 troops to defend oilfields in South Sunda
Sep 2014: Chinese president Xi Jinping and India's prime minister Narendra Modi sign an agreement for China to build high-speed trains and to set up industrial parks in Gujarat and Maharashtra
Sep 2014: The Occupy Central movement (or "Umbrella Movement"), led by 19-year-old Joshua Wong and others, organizes pro-democracy demonstrations in Hong Kong after the Chinese government announced that it will restrict candidates at elections
Sep 2014: Ilham Tohti is sentenced to life in jail for supporting the Uighur separatists
Sep 2014: 100 "rioters", six civilians and four police officers are killed in eastern China's Xinjiang during riots between police and Uighur separatists
Nov 2014: Russia and China sign a colossal oil and gas deal, using the Chinese yuan as the trading currency
Nov 2014: Mainland China arrests activist lawyer Xia Lin
Dec 2014: Under threat from anonymous hackers, Sony Pictures cancels the release of a film on North Korea's dictatorship, while South Korea publishes a white paper denouncing that North Korea has 6,000 "cyberwarriors" and has nuclear capabilities to strike the USA
2014: China launches the project OBOR ("One Belt One Road") to construct a number of land and sea arteries with the rest of Asia and Europe
Jan 2015: An official in Tianjin kills himself after a chemical explosion kills 173 people
Mar 2015: A woman becomes the 137th known person to set herself on fire in Tibet to protest the Chinese occupation since 2009
Apr 2015: China and Pakistan unveil a network of roads, railway and pipelines that will connect Gwadar in Pakistan to China's Xinjiang The projects will give China direct access to the Indian Ocean
Apr 2015: North Korea's defense minister Hyon Yong-chol and 15 senior officials are executed
Jun 2015: 18 people are killed when Uighurs attack a police station in China's Muslim city of Kashgar
Jun 2015: China inaugurates the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB), a rival to the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank funded by 50 countries including Britain, Germany, Australia and South Korea but not Japan nor the USA
2015: China's has become the main importer of Middle Eastern oil (51% of its oil imports, 16% from Saudi Arabia alone)
Jun 2015: China passes a law that increases the government's control over ordinary lives including online
Aug 2015: China's stocks lose about 40% in two months, causing panic selling in markets across Asia
Aug 2015: A chemical explosion in Tianjin kills 173 people
Sep 2015: Chinese police makes 19,000 triad arrests in Hong Kong, Macau and Guangdong
Oct 2015: China repeals the one-child policy
Nov 2015: The Commercial Aircraft Corp. of China (COMAC) unveils the first Chinese-made big passenger airplane
Nov 2015: For the first time the leaders of Taiwan and mainland China meet (Taiwan's president Ying-jeou Ma and mainland China's president Jinping Xi)
Dec 2015: After a landslide kills more than 70 people in Shenzhen, a local politician kills himself
Dec 2015: The owner of a mine where dozens of miners died in an accident kills himself
Dec 2015: China's economy grows by 6.9% in 2015, its slowest growth rate in 26 years, and China's total debt reaches a record 277% of GDP
2015: For the first time since 1981 China's steel production declines
2015: China produces 803 million tons of steel, more than 50% of the world's total
2015: China's debt hits 250% of GDP
2015: The average number of hours worked in China per worker in 2015 was 2,432 hours and 1,767 in the USA, 1,372 in Germany and 1,495 in France
2015: China accounts for 24% of global manufacturing output, manufacturing accounts for almost 36% of China's GDP and wages have increased 12% per year on average since 2001
2015: Four of the five biggest banks in the world are Chinese
2015: China's economy accounts for 17% of the world's economy
Jan 2016: A slowing economy sends the Chinese stock market crashing
Jan 2016: Ing-wen Tsai of the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) is elected Taiwan's first female president
Feb 2016: The first train to connect China and Iran takes 14 days through Kazakstan and Turkmenistan
Feb 2016: China deploys surface-to-air missiles on a disputed island in the South China Sea that is claimed by both Vietnam and Taiwan
Mar 2016: Chinese journalist Shaolei Yu denounces president Xi's censorship in a resignation letter
Apr 2016: Joshua Wong launches a new political party in Hong Kong, Demosisto, demanding self-determination for Hong Kong
Apr 2016: The death of student Wei Zexi after treatment at a military hospital reveals a large number of military hospitals that rent space to fake doctors
Jun 2016: Chinese anti-corruption activist Zulian Lin is arrested on trumped-up charges of corruption
Jul 2016: The USA begins deploying an anti-missile system in South Korea
Jul 2016: The Philippines win a legal case against China's annexation of the Scarborough Shoal in the South China Sea
Jul 2016: The Chinese government cracks down on political activists and human-rights lawyers
Aug 2016: China tests the Transit Elevated Bus (TEB) in Qinhuangdao City
Sep 2016: Chinese police launches a raid against the "protest" village of Wukan after arresting its elected leader on corruption charges
Sep 2016: Yang Qingpei kills his parents and 17 neighbours
TM, ®, Copyright © 2011 Piero Scaruffi All rights reserved.

Xia Dynasty 21-16th c. BC
2070-1600 BC
Shang Dynasty 16th-1066 BC
1600-1046 BC
Western Zhou 1066-770 BC
1046 - 771 BC
Eastern Zhou 770-256 BC
Spring & Autumn 722-481 BC
Warring States 403-221 BC
Qin State 900s?-221 BC
Qin Dynasty 221-206 BC
Western Han 206 BC-23 AD
Xin (New) 9-23 AD
Western Han 23-25 AD
Eastern Han 25-220
Three Kingdoms Wei 220-265
Three Kingdoms Shu 221-263
Three Kingdoms Wu 222-280
Western Jin 265-316
Eastern Jin 317-420
16 Nations 304-420
Cheng Han Di 301-347
Hun Han (Zhao) Hun 304-329 ss
Anterior Liang Chinese 317-376
Posterior Zhao Jiehu 319-352 ss
Anterior Qin Di 351-394 ss
Anterior Yan Xianbei 337-370
Posterior Yan Xianbei 384-409
Posterior Qin Qiang 384-417 ss
Western Qin ss Xianbei 385-431
Posterior Liang Di 386-403
Southern Liang Xianbei 397-414
Northern Liang Hun 397-439
Southern Yan Xianbei 398-410
Western Liang Chinese 400-421
Xia Hun 407-431 ss
Northern Yan Chinese 409-436
North Dynasties 386-581
Northern Wei 386-534
Eastern Wei 534-550
Western Wei 535-557
Northern Qi 550-577
Northern Zhou 557-581
South Dynasties 420-589
Liu Song 420-479
Southern Qi 479-502
Liang 502-557
Chen 557-589
Sui Dynasty 581-618
Tang Dynasty 618-907
Five Dynasties 907-960
Posterior Liang 907-923
Posterior Tang 923-936
Posterior Jin 936-946
Posterior Han 947-950
Posterior Zhou 951-960
10 Kingdoms 902-979
Wu 902-937 Nanjing/Nanking
Shu 907-925 Sichuan
Nan-Ping 907-963 Hubei
Wu-Yueh 907-978 Zhejiang
Min 907-946 Fukien
Southern Han 907-971 Canton
Chu 927-956 Hunan
Later Shu 934-965 Sichuan
Southern Tang 937-975 Nanjing/Nanking
Northern Han 951-979 Shaanxi
Khitan Liao 907-1125
Northern Sung 960-1127
Southern Sung 1127-1279
Western Xia 1032-1227
Jurchen Jin (Gold) 1115-1234
Mongol Yuan 1279-1368
Ming Dynasty 1368-1644
Manchu Qing 1644-1911
Republic 1912-1949 Beijing
Taiwan 1949-present Taipei
Communists 1949-present Beijing

(Excerpted from Ugly Chinese)

Leaders of Taiwan:
Leaders of mainland China (none of them elected democratically):

World News | Politics | History | Editor
(Copyright © 2011 Piero Scaruffi)