A time-line of Christianity and Judaism

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(Copyright © 1999 Piero Scaruffi)


2500 BC: Canaanites live in te city-state of Jericho, a tributary of Egypt
1500 BC: a caravan trader, Abraham, leads Semitic nomads from Sumer to Canaan and then on to Egypt (Hebrews)
1400 BC: Canaanites found Urusalim (Jerusalem)
1300 BC: iron age in Palestine
1250 BC: Indo-European tribes (Philistines) move to Palestine (named after them) from the Aegean sea
1250 BC: the Hebrews move from Egypt to Palestine (Moses)
1230 BC: Hebrew leeader Joshua conquers part of Palestine
1125 BC: the Canaanites are definitely defeated by the Hebrews
1025 BC: the Hebrew king Saul defeats the Philistines and unifies Israel with capital in Jerusalem
1000 BC: David succeeds Saul
961 BC: David's son Solomon succeeds David
930 BC: Solomon builds a temple in Jerusalem for the Jews
922 BC: king Solomon dies and the Hebrew kingdom splits in two, Israel to the north (ten tribes) and Judea (Jerusalem) to the south (two tribes)
722 BC: Sargon II of Assyria conquers Israel and forcefully relocates Jews (Jewish diaspora)
587 BC: Nebuchadnezzar II conquers Judea (southern kingdom of the Hebrews), destroys Jerusalem and deports thousands of Jews (second Jewish diaspora) to Babylonia
550 BC: the Bible is composed
538 BC: Cyrus of Persia sacks Babylon and frees the Jews
515 BC: the Jews rebuild the temple of Jerusalem
332 BC: Palestine is invaded by Alexander the Great
323 BC: Alexander dies and his empire splits, with Palestine being controlled by the Ptolemaics (Alexandria)
310 BC: Simon the Just is high priest of the temple
301 BC: Ptolemy I settles Jews in Alexandria
300 BC: Seleucus I founds Antioch and attracts Jews in his new capital granting them equal rights with the Greek citizens
260 BC: the Old Testament is translated from Hebrew into Greek by scholars of Alexandria (the "Septuagint")
291 BC:
198 BC: the Seleucids (Antiochus III) seize Palestine from the Ptolemaics
198 BC: Onias III becomes high priest of Jerusalem
196 BC: the ascetic Jewish sect of the Essenes lives in a monastery at Qumran
190 BC: the Hasidic party opposes the Hellenization of the Hebrew religion
170 BC: Onias III is assasinated and the Hasidic party loses to the Hellenists, who gain the office of high priest
170 BC: the Jews of Jerusalem rebel against the Seleucid emperor Antiochus IV
168 BC: the Seleucid emperor Antiochus IV outlaws Judaism and mandates the worship of Greek deities
167 BC: Mattathias and his son Judas Maccabean lead a revolt of Judea against the Seleucids and the Maccabeans (or Hasmoneans) are granted relative independence
161 BC: Judas dies and is succeeded by his brother Jonathan
152 BC: Jonathan Maccabean is appointed both high priest and ruler of Judea
143 BC: Jonathan is murdered and is succeeded by his brother Simon
135 BC: Simon dies and is succeeded by John Hycarnus I, who conquers Samaria and Idumea, whose inhabitants are forced to convert to Judaism
104 BC: John Hyrcanus dies after greatly expanding the borders of Judea and is succeeded by Alexander Jannaeus
104 BC: the Pharisees (who adopt the orthodox views of the Maccabeans) and the Sadducees (who adopt the Hellenists views of the Seleucids) fight for control of the temple and of the state
100 BC: the Dead Sea Scrolls are composed
78 BC: Alexander Jannaeus dies after expanding the Maccabean kingdom to the whole of Palestine
64 BC: the Book of Henoch is completed
63 BC: Roman leader Pompeus captures Jerusalem and occupies Palestine
50 BC: Antipater the Idumaean helps Caesar during the civil war and is therefore granted Roman citizenship and de facto rule of Jerusalem
44 BC: Caesar is assassinated
43 BC: Antipater is murdered
40 BC: Antigonus, a Maccabean, seizes power in Jerusalem
38 BC: Herod, Antipater's son, marries Mariam Maccabean
37 BC: Antigonus is beheaded and Herod, Antipater's son, is appointed by the Romans as king of Judea
30 BC: the Sanhedrin is recognized as the supreme court of justice for the Jews
29 BC: Herod murders his wife Mariam, after killing her father and brother
20 BC: Herod rebuilds the temple of Jerusalem
12 BC: Octavian (Augustus) becomes emperor of Rome (the "anointed")
6 BC: Herod murders his own sons
6 BC: Jesus is born in Betlehem
4 BC: Herod dies and his sons split the reign
6 AD: the kingdom of Judea is annexed to Rome
14 AD: Augustus dies and Tiberius becomes emperor of Rome
26 AD: Pilate (Pontius Pilatus) is appointed prefect of Judea
27 AD: John the Baptist preaches in Judea
29 AD: John the Baptist is beheaded by Herod's son Herod Antipas
30 AD: Jesus is crucified by the Romans, and James becomes the leader of the "Christians"
33 AD: Saul/Paul, a Jew from the city of Tarsus in Asia Minor who used to persecute Christians, converts to Christianity
37 AD: Tiberius dies and Caligula succeeds him
40 AD: the Jewish philosopher Philo of Alexandria reconciles Judaism with Greek philosophy
41 AD: Caligula is succeeded by Claudius
50 AD: Simon Magus, a Samaritan (Turkish) magician, becomes popular in Rome
40 AD: Paul, a Jew from the city of Tarsus in Asia Minor, declares Christianity a universal religion and spreads the Gospel throughout the Mediterranean region
44 AD: all of Palestine becomes a Roman province
49 AD: Paul preaches Christianity in Greece
49 AD: emperor Claudius expels Christians from Rome
54 AD: Claudius is succeeded by Nero
60 AD: the earliest gospels are composed
62 AD: Paul is executed in Rome
62 AD: James the brother of Jesus is executed by the Sadducees
63 AD: Joseph of Arimathea travels to Glastonbury on the first Christian mission to Britain
64 AD: Peter is crucified in Rome
64 AD: Nero sets fire to Rome and blames the Christians for it
66 AD: Jews, led by the Zealots, start a revolt against Rome in Palestine
66 AD: Thaddeus establishes the Christian church of Armenia
67 AD: Linus is elected first bishop (pope) of Rome
67 AD: the Jewish general Josephus deserts to the Romans
68 AD: Nero commits suicide and is succeeded by Vespasianus
68 AD: Roman troops destroy the Essene monastery at Qumran (Dead Sea)
70 AD: the Roman general Titus defeats the Jews, captures Jerusalem, destroys the temple and expels the Jews from the region
70 AD: the Pharisees expel Christians from their institutions
71 AD: Mark the Evangelist introduces Christianity in Egypt and founds the Coptic church
73 AD: Jews expelled from Jerusalem concentrate in two communities, the western one at Yavneh/Jamnia/Jabne ("Alexandrian" Jews) under the Sanhedrin (supreme court) of rabbi Yohanan/Jochanan ben Zaccai, and the "Babylonian" community, a tributary of the Parthians
74 AD: the Zealonts/Sicarii commit mass suicide at Masada, the last stronghold of the Jewish rebels
75 AD: Judea, Galilea and Samaria are renamed "Palaestina" by the Romans
79 AD: Vespasianus is succeeded by Tito
80 AD: the Jewish historian (and former general) Josephus writes the "Jewish Antiquities"
90 AD: rabbi ben Zaccai fixes the canon of the Hebrew scriptures for the Jews
93 AD: emperor Domitian orders the persecution of Christians
110: Ignatius of Antioch writes to the Smyrnaeans that the Christian church is "katholikos" ("universal")
117 AD: the earliest known gospel manuscript (gospel of John)
132: Jews, led by Bar-Cochba, whom some identify as the Messiah, revolt against Rome
135: the bishop of Rome Telesphorus institutes the birthday of Jesus (Christmas) as a Christian holiday
135: the "Apocalypse of Peter" prescribes that sinners will be punished in Hell
136: emperor Hadrian definitely crushes the Jewish resistance, forbids Jews from ever entering Jerusalem, and changes the name of the city to Aelia Capitolina
136: the bishop of Rome, Hyginus, assumes the title of "pope"
138: Hadrian is succeeded by Antoninus Pius, who repels Hadrian's anti-Jewish laws
140: the Sanhedrin is reorganized at Usha, in Galilee, under Simon II, patriarch of the west
144: Marcion founds a heretic sect that believes the God of the Old Testament and the God of the New Testament are different Gods, and Jesus is not the son of the former
150: the four official gospels assume their final form
155: Anicetus, the first pope from Syria, issues the first condemnation of heresy
161: Marcus Aurelius becomes Roman emperor
180: the Gaul bishop Irenaeus writes against gnosticism
180: the Didascalia opens in Alexandria, a school of Christian theology
189: Vittore I is the first African to be elected pope
220: a Jewish academy is founded at Sura (in Mesopotamia)
190: Pantaenus founds the Coptic Catechetical School at Alexandria
196: Byzanthium falls to the Roman emperor Septimus Severus
200: Hippolytus writes the "Philosophoumena", a "refutation of all heresies"
206: King Abgar IX converts Edessa to Christianity
225: Tertullian, father of the African church, dies
230: pope Urban I justifies the ownership of property by the Church, the elevation of bishops and the excommunication of heretics
235: the Egyptian (Coptic) philosopher Origen writes that the Roman empire is a divine will
246: Paul of Thebes retreats to the Egyptian desert and becomes the first Christian hermit
250: the Roman philosopher Plotinus synthesizes the Platonism and Aristotelianism ("neoplatonism")
250: emperor Decius orders the first empire-wide persecution of Christians
258: Cyprian, second father of the African church, dies
260: Paul of Samosata preaches that Jesus was not God
264: A council excommunicates Paul of Samosata
268: Lucianus of Antioch (born in Samosata) preaches that Jesus was only a man
270: Anthony becomes a hermit in Egypt
276: Mani is crucified by the Sassanids for tring to incorporate Judaism, Christianity and Zoroastrianism into one religion ("manicheism")
285: Papa is ordained first bishop of Seleucia-Ctesiphon (the first "catholico")
300: the population of the Roman Empire is 60 million (about 15 million Christians)
303: emperor Diocletian orders a general persecution of the Christians
306: the first bishop of Nisibis is ordained
311: Donatus and others rebel against the appointment of the bishop of Carthage, claiming independence of Church and state, and claiming that the people could determine how worthy of administering sacraments a priest is
312: Roman emperor Constantine converts to Christianity
313: Constantine ends the persecution of the Christians (edict of Milan)
313: Constantine recognizes the Christian church
313: a cathedral is built in Edessa
314: Donatism is condemned as a heresy
314: the Armenian king Tiridates I converted by Gregory the Illuminator
316: Donatism splits from Catholicism and spreads throughout Africa
318: Arius (b 256), a student of Lucian, preaches in Alexandria that Jesus was human and not divine ("Arianism")
318: Pachomius, a disciple of Anthony, organizes a community of ascetics at Tabennis in Egypt (birth of Christian monasticism)
320: Eusebius views a unified Christian empire as a divine goal
320: Arius is expelled by the patriarch Alexander and during his travels through the eastern Roman empire converts more bishops
323: Constantine builds a church to the apostle Peter on the Roman cemetery where the martyr is buried
325: The council of Nicaea discusses the divine/human nature of Jesus and approves the Christian canon (the New Testament) against "heretic" theories (such as Arianism)
325: The council of Nicaea establishes the date of Easter (Jesus's resurrection) as the first sunday after the full moon following the equinox of March
330: Amoun and Macarius found monasteries in the Egyptian desert
330: Hilarion organizes a monastery at Gaza in Palestine
330: Mar Augin founds a monastery in Syria near Nisibis
334: the first bishop is ordained for Merv, in Transoxania
339: Athanasius of Alexandria visits Rome accompanied by the two Egyptian monks Ammon and Isidore, disciples of Anthony, who export the idea of monasticism
340: Christianization and literalization of the Goths (Ulfila and the "Gothic bible")
340: the first monastery of Persia is founded by Aphrahat near Mosul
344: catholics are massacred in Persia
345: Pachomius dies and his institution already counts eight monasteries and hundreds of monks organized in a hierarchy
350: the missionary Ninian establishes the church Candida Casa at Whithorn in Galloway, Scotland
358: Basil founds the monastery of Annesos in Pontus, the model for eastern monasticism (perfect Christian life and constant penance, meditation + poverty + humility)
360: Martin, future bishop of Tours, founds the first French monastery at Liguge
360: the Vandals convert to Christianity
363: Persia recaptures Nisibis from the Romans and the school of Nisibis moves to Edessa
371: Martin of Tours converts pagans
375: the Jerusalem Talmud (manual of lifestyle) is compiled by western Jews
376: Visigoths convert to Arian Christianity
379: the Roman empire bans Arianism
380: Theodosius I proclaims Christianity as the sole religion of the Roman Empire
374: Ambrose is elected bishop of Milan, which has become the main Christian center in Italy
380: Ambrose preaches virginity
381: The second Ecumenical Council organized by Theodosius I in Constantinople declares Arianism heretic
386: Jerome founds monasteries in Bethlehem
397: the eight council (at Carthage) defines the Christian canon (the "New Testament") as comprised of four official gospels (all others are declared heretic) and the letters of the apostles
398: Maximus of Turin preaches against pagans
400: Jerome (Eusebius Hieronymus) translates the Bible into Latin (the "Vulgate")
410: at the council of Seleucia, the Persian church declares its independence from Antioch and Rome
410: the Visigots sack Rome
410: the ascetic monk Maron founds the Christian Maronite religion in Syria
411: thanks to Augustine, Donatism begins to decline
415: at the synod of Jerusalem the Celtic monk Pelagius is accused of heresy for preaching that the soul has free will and goes to heaven if it chooses the good
415: Roman emperor Theodosius II expels the Jews from Alexandria
423: Saint Simeon spends 36 year on a pillar near Aleppo, Syria
424: at the synod of Dadyeshu the "catholico" of the Eastern Church proclaims himself as a patriarch on equal footing with Antioch and Rome
425: Augustine writes "De Civitate Dei", which separates the world of humans from the world of heavens, and proclaims salvation through faith only
425: the first bishops are ordained for Herat and Samarkand
428: Nestorius, a monk in the Syrian monastery of Euprepius, is appointed by the eastern Roman emperor Theodosius II as patriarch of Constantinople and preaches the doctrine of two natures of Jesus, human and divine
431: Palladius is sent by the Pope as first bishop of Ireland
431: the third Ecumenical Council convened in Ephesus declares that there is only one nature in Jesus (divine), condemns Nestorius (who is then banned by Theodosius II) and affirms that Mary was the "mother of God"
432: the Roman missionary Patrick is taken prisoner to Ireland
440: the hermit Symeon the Stylite lives on top of a column (monastery of Telanissos in Syria)
445: the monastery of Armagh is founded
445: the emperor Valentinian III decrees that all western bishops must obey the pope
450: the first British monasteries are established in Wales
450: Theodosius II dies and Marcian succeeds him, the first Roman emperor to be crowned by a religious leader (the patriarch of Constantinople)
451: the fourth Ecumenical Council convened in Chalcedon condemns Dioscurus of Alexandria for monophysitism (Jesus is of one nature, only divine) and affirms that Jesus was one person of two natures (both human and divine)
455: Roman emperor Valentinian III orders all bishops to submit to the bishop of Rome (the pope)
457: Babaeus/Babowai becomes the bishop ("catholico") of Seleucia-Ctesiphon
457: the eastern Roman emperor is crowned by the patriarch of Constantinople instead of the Pope
457: the monosophytes of Alexandria rebel to the authority of Constantinople and found the Coptic Orthodox church
460: Persian king Firuz persecutes Jews, who emigrate to Arabia
481: emperor Zeno shuts down the Nestorian school of Edessa, causing Nestorian scholars to flee to Persia (Nisibis)
484: the Synod of Beth Papat in Persia declares the Nestorian docrine (two natures of Jesus) as the official theology of the East Syrian Church, centered in Edessa
490: Brigid founds the monastery of Kildare in Ireland
496: Clovis converts Franks to catholicism
499: the Babylonian Talmud is compiled for eastern Jews, a much more orthodox manual of lifestyle than the western Talmud
500: Pseudo-Dionysius writes mystical works
525: Christian monk Dionysius Exiguus fixes the birth of Jesus in the year of Rome 753
527: Byzantium enforces anti-Jewish laws and the Jews all but disappear from the eastern Roman Empire
529: Benedetto of Nursia founds the monastery of Monte Cassino and codifies western monasticism (absolute power of the abbot)
529: the council of Orange condemns the Pelagian heresy
529: the synod of Orange accepts Augustine's doctrine of salvation
529: Emperor Justinian closes the Platonic Academy in Athens because it helps heretics
530: the Benedictine monk Cassiodorus encourages monks to copy manuscripts of the classics
532: Exiguus calculates the year in which Jesus was born as 533 years before his year and inaugurates the Christian calendar
533: Mercurius is elected pope and takes the name of John II, the first pope to change name upon election
534: the Roman empire destroys the Arian kingdom of the Vandals
537: Justinian builds the church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople
537: Justinian's general Belisarius deposes pope Silverius and replaces him with pope Vigilius
541: Jacob Bardaeus, bishop of Edessa, organizes the Monophysite Church in western Syria (the "Jacobites"), which spreads to Armenia and Egypt (the "copts")
544: Ciaran founds the monastery of Clonmacnoise in Ireland
546: Columbanus founds the monastery of Derry in Ireland
553: the fifth Ecumenical Council convened in Constantinople condemns the heresy of the Three Chapters
556: Columbanus founds the monastery of Durrow in Ireland
563: Columbanus founds the monastery of Iona off the coast of Scotland, soon to become the main center of the Columban school
573: Gregory is appointed bishop of Tours
580: Monte Cassino is sacked by the Lombards and the monks flee to Rome
587: the Visigothic king Recared converts to catholicism
588: the Visigoths abandon Arianism and convert to catholicism
590: the Irish missionary Columbanus founds monasteries in France (Luxeuil in Burgundy)
590: the Benedectine monk Gregory I becomes Pope, the first time that a monk is elected pope
597: Pope Gregory I dispatches monk Augustine to England with forty monks
600: Pope Gregory I promulgates the doctrine of salvation through confession and penance
601: Augustine converts king Ethelbert of Kent and establishes the see of Canterbury with himself as its first archbishop
603: the Lombards convert to Christianity and move their capital to Pavia
604: Gregory I dies
609: the Irish monk Colombanus founds the monastery at Bobbio
612: the Visigothic king Sisebut forces the Jews of Spain to release all slaves and convert to Christianity
615: Colombanus dies in Italy
620: the Visigoths in Spain persecute the Jews
627: pope Gregory I sends Paulinus to found the see of York and convert king Edwin of Northumbria
635: Iona bishop Aidan founds a monastic community in the island of Lindisfarne off the coast of Scotland
635: Cynegils, king of Wessex, converts to Christianity
635: Fructuosus of Braga founds the monastery of Complutum in Spain
636: Arabs capture Jerusalem
638: the Arabs allow the Jews to return to Jerusalem and allow Christians to co-manage the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem
639: the Arabs conquer Syria (mainly Nestorian) from Byzantium
642: the Arabs conquer Egypt (mainly monophysite) from Byzantium
647: Amadeus, bishop of Maastricht, carries out missionary work in Frisia (Holland) and among the Slavs
650: Arianism disappears after the Lombards convert to catholicism
657: king Oswy of Northumberland founds the Benedictine monastery of Whitby in Yorkshire
663: Constans II is the last eastern Roman emperor to set foot in Rome
664: the synod of Whitby brings the Celtic (English) church into conformity with Rome
664: Iona monk Wilfrid is appointed bishop of York
668: the monk Theodore of Tarsus is appointed as archbishop of Canterbury
674: Benedict Biscop founds the monastery of Wearmouth in Northumbria
681: Benedict Biscop founds the monastery of Jarrow in Northumbria
670: Whitby monk Caedmon translates the gothic Bible into Germanic vernacular (ancient english)
678: Wilfrid evangelizes in Frisia (Holland)
680: the 6th Oecumenical council in Constantinople, convoked by emperor Constantine IV, acknowledged the Pope as the head of Christianity
685: John V is the first of a series of Greek and Syriac Popes under the influence of Constantinople
687: the Danes destroy the monastery of Whitbey
690: English missionary Willibrord evangelizes in Holland and Denmark
694: the Visigothic king Egica orders all Jews enslaved
698: Arabs capture Carthage
700: Babylonian Jews extend their influence as the Arab conquest spreads west
711: the Arabs conquer southern Spain from the Visigoths (with help from the Jews)
716: Iona conforms to Roman usage
719: Gregory II dispatches the Anglosaxon Benedectine monk Boniface (Wynfrid) to evangelizes in Frisia
722: the Anglosaxon Benedectine monk Boniface (Wynfrid) evangelizes in Saxony
726: eastern emperor Constantine V bans icons (iconoclasm) and orders all images to be destroyed
731: Bede writes the "Ecclesiastical History of the English People"
732: the Muslim invasion of Europe is stopped by the Franks at the battle of Tours
732: Gregory II appoints Boniface archbishop
739: Boniface reforms the Frankish church
744: Boniface founds the monastery of Fulda in Germany
751: the Lombards under king Aistulf conquer Ravenna from the Byzantines and indirectly release Rome from the influence of Constantinople
752: Stephen II is pope for only one day
754: Boniface is killed by Frisians
754: pope Stephen II anoints Pepin III king of the Franks
756: Pepin III defeats the Lombards and conquers Ravenna but leaves the conquered territories to the Pope, thereby founding the Papal State and establishing a temporal power for the Pope
769: at the Lateran council the cardinals decide that only cardinals can become popes
775: the Eastern patriarchate moves from Seleucia-Ctesiphon to Baghdad
787: the second council of Nicaea affirms that the visual artist is to work for the Church, faithful to the letter of the Bible
800: Pope Leo III crowns Charles emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and therefore introduces theocratic monarchy in Europe
817: Benedict of Ariane draws up the monastic constitution of Benedectine monasteries (monks as a political entity that mediates between laity and deity)
822: Mojmir, prince of Morava, converts to Christianity
826: the Frankish missionary Angkar, bishop of Hamburg, evangelizes in Denmark and Sweden
826: Harald Klak of Denmark converts to Christianity
843: the "Restoration of the images" in Constantinople solves the iconoclastic controversy
845: the Irish theologian Johannes Scotus Erigena (John the Scot) takes over the Palatine Academy in France
846: Muslims raid Rome
849: caliph al-Mutawakkil deposes the patriarch of the Eastern Christian Church and persecutes Christians
852: Ansgar founds the churches at Hedeby and Ribe in Denmark
858: Nicholas I becomes pope and asserts the independence of the Church from local authorities and from Constantinople
861: the Khazars convert to Judaism
862: Boris of Bulgary converts to Christianity
862: Ratislav of Moravia converts to Christianity
863: Cyril and Methodius from Constantinople write the Slavic bible in the first Slavic alphabet, glagolitic
870: The Serbs convert to Christianity
883: Muslims burn the Abbey of Mount Cassino
885: Mt Athos is granted independence as a religious retreat by emperor Basil I
904: Sergius III is elected pope thanks to a powerful Roman noblewoman, the first of a series of popes appointed by the Roman aristocracy
909: Berno, who is already abbots of two monasteries, founds the monastery of Cluny in Burgundy
912: the Normans become Christian
922: the Viking ruler Dirk I founds the Egmont Benedictine monastery in Haarlem (Holland)
931: Odo, the new abbot of Cluny, obtains papal permission to bring more monasteries under the rule of Cluny
948: the leader of the Magyars converts to Christianity
950: the church of Hosios Loukas (Holy Luke) is founded in Stiris, Greece
965: Harald Bluetooth (Harold I) converts the Danes to Christianity
969: Athanasios of Trebizond founds the Great Lavra (Great Monastery) on Mount Athos in Greece
988: Vladimir of Kiev converts to Christianity
995 : Olav I conquers Norway and proclaims it a Christian kingdom
996 : a German is elected pope Gregory V
999 : German emperor Otto III appoints Gerbert d'Aurillac pope, who becomes the first French pope and assumes the name Sylvester II
1000: Greenland and Iceland are Christianized
1001: cathedral of Ani in Armenia
1003: the Egyptian ruler Hakim persecutes Christianity
1009: Arabs destroy the church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem
1008 AD: Sweden is Christianized
1012: Romualdo founds the Camaldolese order in Italy (Anthony's monasticism and hermits appears in Italy)
1018: bishop Hildebrand founds the monastery of San Miniato is founded near Florence in Italy
1022: the Catharist/Albigenian heresy, a neo-manichaean sect believing that matter is evil, spreads in Languedoc (southern France)
1032: a teenager is elected pope Benedict IX , the youngest pope ever and the last of the "dynastic" popes
1036: San Miniato monk Giovanni Gualberto founds the monastery of Vallombrosa near Florence in Italy
1039: German emperor Heinrich III favors the monastery of Cluny
1039: Cluny's abbot Odilo turns his monastery into the head of a monastic feudal system whose influence spread all over Europe
1045: after Benedict IX gets married and sells the papacy to his godfather Gregory VI, the emperor Heinrich III calls for the synod of Sutri to reform the corrupt papacy
1049: Heinrich III appoints Pope Leo IX, a German reformer
1050: the Camaldolese hermit-monk Pietro Damiani publishes a book denouncing the moral and sexual corruption of the Church
1050: the ascetics Anthony and Theodosius found the Monastery of the Caves (Pecherska Lavra) in Kiev
1054: the patriarch of Constantinople and the pope in Rome excommunicate each other (the Great Schism)
1055: the monastery of Cluny captures the papacy
1059: Humbert della Silva Candida publishes the rules by which popes should be elected, restricting the electors to the cardinals and forbidding interference from the Roman nobility or the Holy Roman emperor, and resumes the Donatist heresy (the morality of a priest determines whether he is worthy of administering sacraments)
1060: Svend Estridsen (Svend II) organizes the Danish church
1070: Lanfranc, an Italian lawyer, becomes Archbishop of Canterbury, establishing the primacy of the see of Canterbury over York
1070: The Hospital (Knights) of Saint John is founded in Jerusalem by Amalfi merchants
1071: the Turks capture Jerusalem
1073: Hildebrand becomes pope Gregory VII and launches the "Gregorian" reform (celibacy of the clergy, primacy of the papacy over the empire, infallibility of the Church, right of the pope to depose emperors)
1075: Pope Gregory VII demands that the German emperor Heinrich IV abandons the habit of "lay investiture" (the emperor appoints the bishops)
1075: the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela is built, the third most popoular pilgrimage site after Jerusalem and Rome
1076: Heinrich IV refuses and Gregory VII excommunicates and deposes him, but then forgives him at Canossa (abbot Hugh of Cluny acts as mediator)
1084: Bruno founds the Carthusian order at the Grande Chartreuse near Grenoble
1085: Todelo is reconquered by the Christian king Alfonso VI
1085: Heinrich IV invades Italy and drives Pope Gregory VII out of Rome, and the Pope dies in exile, prisoner of the Normans who have repelled the Germans but also sacked Rome
1088: Christodoulos of Patmos founds the monastery of Saint John the Theologian on Patmos
1088: A monk of Cluny is elected Pope Urban II
1093: Anselm becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
1095: Pope Urban II, responding to an appeal from the Byzantine emperor Alexios Komnenos, calls for a Crusade against the Muslims , but no European king joins
1096: Jews are persecuted by the Crusaders
1098: Robert of Molesme founds the Cistercian order at Citeaux near Dijon (advocating a return to the benedectine rule)
1098: the Crusaders capture Antioch
1099: Crusaders under Godfrey of Bouillon capture Jerusalem
1099: Vallombrosa monk Raniero becomes Pope Paschal II
1100: England's king Henry I fights with Pope Pasquale II on the issue of lay investiture (the king elects the bishops)
1017: the Danish king Canute converts to Christianity
1103: the Danish king Erik Ejegod (Erik I) obtains that Lund become the archiepiscopal see for the whole of Scandinavia
1107: the Concordat of London finds a compromise between England's king Henry I and Pope Pasquale II on the issue of lay investiture (the king elects the bishops)
1111: Paschal II resolves the conflict between Church and Empire by renouncing all of the Church's earthly possessions and by embracing apostolic poverty
1113: the Pope recognizes the Hospital of Saint John as separate monastic order (the Hospitallers) with headquarters in Acre
1115: Bernard of Clairvaux founds a Cistercian monastery at Clairvaux and begins a campaign against Cluny
1118: Hugh de Payens founds the order of Knights Templar (warrior monks) at the Temple Mount in Jerusalem who adopt the Cistercian rule, establish their headquarters at Acre, and protect pilgrim routes to Jerusalem
1118: Paschal II dies
1122: Pope Calixtus II and German emperor Heinrich V sign the Concordat of Worms that resolves the "investiture controversy" by granting the emperor veto power over the German Church
1137: Benedictine monk Suger builds the cathedral of Saint-Denis in a new style, the gothic style
1141: the philospher Pierre Abelard is condemned as heretic and is books are burned for his views on the Trinity and his love for Heloise
1144: Bernard of Clairvaux calls for a second Crusade to rescue the besieged Latin kingdom of Jerusalem, and Louis VII of France and Konrad III of Germany join the crusaders, but they are defeated by the Muslims
1147: Jews are persecuted by the Crusaders
1154: Englishman Adriano IV is elected pope
1159: French theologian John of Salisbury publishes the "Policraticus", first doctrine of the separation of church and state but with the state subordinate to the church
1160: Paris bishop Maurice de Sully begins work at the church of Notre Dame
1160: Alexander III excommunicates Friedrich I "Barbarossa"
1162: Friedrich I "Barbarossa" raids Rome and Milan
1168: a Spaniard is elected pope Calixtus III
1177: Barbarossa recognizes Alexander III as Pope and is forgiven
1187: Saladdin retakes Jerusalem
1189: the third Crusade is led by King Richard the Lion-Hearted of England, king Philip Augustus II of France, and emperor Frederick Barbarossa
1164: Sweden obtains an archbishop
1180: the Jewish philosopher Maimonides attempts to bridge the Talmud and Aristotle in the "Guide for the Perplexed"
1184: pope Lucius III excommunicates Peter Waldo, founder of the anti-Cluniac ascetic Waldensians ("poor men of Lyons")
1190: the Teutonic Knights are founded by German lords to fight in the crusade, establish their capital at Acre, and adopt the Templars' white mantle and the Hospitallers' rule
1198: cardinal Lothario Conti is elected pope Innocent III
1200: the Jews are expelled from England
1200: There are 694 Cistercian monasteries
1204: the Crusaders, led by Venezia, sack Constantinople, a Christian city
1206: Francis of Assisi gives up his wealth and adopts a life of absolute poverty
1208: pope Innocent III launches a crusade against the Catharist/Albigensian and the Waldensian heretics
1210: the Pope recognizes the Franciscan order of mendicant friars
1212: the Jews of Toledo are massacred by the Crusaders
1215: the Dominican order of mendicant friars is founded in Languedoc
1215: the fourth Lateran council defines the seven sacraments (in particular marriage and confession) and prescribes that Jews be confined in ghettos
1216: Innocent III dies
1217: Emperor Friederich II grants lands to the Teutonic Knights in Sicily
1219: Francis of Assisi preaches to the sultan of Egypt
1226: the Carmelite Order is founded
1226: Emperor Friederich II grants the Teutonic Knights authority to restore order name in Prussia
1227: count Ugolino is elected pope Gregory IX
1229: The king of France ends the war against the Catharist/Albigensian with the Treaty of Paris that disposses southern nobles of their fiefs, and the Inquisition was established to root out the remaining heretics
1233: Gregory IX institutes the Inquisition, whose courts are mainly run by the Dominican monks
1233: pope Gregory IX issues a mandate for Inquisition against the heretics
1238: Valencia is reconquered
1244: Hundreds of Cathars are burned at Montsegur
1248: Sevilla is reconquered by Ferdinand III
1250: Eusebius of Esztergom founds the Order of St Paul the First Hermit ("Pauline monks") by uniting all the hermits who lived in the forests of Hungary and Croatia
1252: Pope Innocent IV issues a papal bull that approves torture against heretics
1264: the Dominican monk Thomas Aquinas publishes the "Summa Contra Gentiles", that reconciles science and religion
1268: the cardinals take three years to elect a new pope
1271: newly elected pope Gregorio X institutes the conclave to elect popes
1283: Jews are massacred in Germany
1290: the sacred book of the kabbalistic Jews, the "Zohar", is published in southern France
1290: the Jews are expelled from England
1290: the Teutonic Knights conquer all of Prussia
1291: defeated by the Muslims at Acre, Hospitallers and Templars move their headquarters from Acre to Cyprus and Teutonic Knights move their headquarters from Acre to Venice
1291: the Muslims expel the Crusaders from the Middle East
1292: The Knights of Saint John move to Cyprus
1294: the hermit Pope Celestine V abdicates after a few months
1300: Boniface VIII announces the first Jubilee Year, during which special indulgences are granted
1302: Boniface VIII's "Unam Sanctam" proclaims that it "is absolutely necessary for salvation that every human creature be subject to the Roman pontiff"
1303: the French king Philippe IV kidnaps pope Boniface VIII over the right to tax the French clergy
1305: the French archbishop of Bordeaux becomes pope Clement V and moves the papacy to Avignon in France, the peak of France's influence over the papacy
1306: the Jews are expelled from France
1306: The Knights of Saint John move to Rhodes
1309: the Teutonic Knights move their capital from Venice to Prussia and establishes a theocratic state
1309: the Hospitallers conquer the island of Rhodes and move their capital there, establishing an ecclesiastical principality under the eastern Roman empire
1312: Pope Clement V abolishes the order of the Knights Templar, after drumming up false accusations for the purpose of seizing their wealthy assetts with the help of French king Philippe IV
1312: the Hospitallers are awarded the Templars' possessions in western Europe, Cyprus, and Greece
1314: Jacques de Molay, the grand master of the Templars, is burned at the stake in Paris
1321: Jordanus, a Dominican monk, is the first Christian missionary in India
1321: Franciscan monk Marsilio da Padova is excommunicated for preaching democracy in the Church (the council should be elected by the people)
1321: Franciscan monk William of Occam is excommunicated for preaching that the Church should not own properties
1323: the Church condemns Paschal II's apostolic poverty as heresy
1324: Franciscan monk Marsilio da Padova publishes "Defender Of Peace", in which he argues that the Church has not authority over secular affairs and that the purpose of a state is to guarantee peace
1327: German emperor Ludwig IV invades Italy and appoints pope John XXII
1336: Meteora is established as a monastic Greek Orthodox community
1336: Jews are massacred in Germany
1347: the "black death" (the plague) causes the decline of monasticism
1350: Sergius of Radonezh founds the Monastery of the Holy Trinity (at Sergiev Posad), the new center of Russian Christianity
1377: pope Gregory XI moves back the papacy to Rome from Avignon
1378: pope Gregory XI dies and the Roman nobles elect Bartolomeo Prignano as pope Urban VI
1379: pope Urban VI's fight against corruption causes the cardinals to move back to Avignon and elect another pope, Robert de Geneve as Clement VII ("Western Schism"), who is recognized by France's allies (Spain and Scotland) but not by France's enemies (England, Portugal, Flanders, Germany, Poland, Hungary)
1378: the Oxford theologian John Wycliffe preaches that the Church has fallen into sin, that it ought to give up all its property, and that the clergy should live in complete poverty
1385: Lithuania converts to Christianity as is unified with Poland
1389: the Serbs are defeated by Ottoman Turks of Sultan Murad I
1391: the Jews of Iberia are forced to convert
1396: the English translation of the Bible, begun by John Wycliffe, is completed (the "Wycliffe" Bible) but is declared heretic by the Church (the "Vulgate" being the only authorized version)
1410: the Teutonic Knights are defeated by Jagiello's Polish-Lithuanian army at the battle of Tannenberg
1414: the Council of Constance assembles to settle the schism of the three popes Gregory XII, Benedict XIII and John XXIII
1415: the heretic Jan Hus is burned at the stake at Constance for opposing the sale of indulgences and claiming that the Church is a human invention
1417: the Council of Constance fires the three rival popes and chooses cardinal Oddone Colonna as Pope Martin V
1420: When Pope Martin V finally reaches Rome, the city is in ruin
1431: Eugenius IV is elected pope
1434: Eugenius IV is expelled from Rome and a republic is declared
1439: a treaty is signed to unify the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church
1443: Eugenius IV is allowed to return to Rome
1447: Nicholas V becomes Pope and begins to build the Vatican Library of ancient Latin and Greek classics
1450: Nicholas V rebuilds Rome for the jubilee that brings millions of pilgrims to Rome
1453: Constantinople (and therefore the Eastern Church) falls to the Ottoman, that change its name to Istanbul
1455: Spanish-born Alfonso Borgia becomes Pope Calixtus III
1456: Callixtus III's nephew Rodrigo Borgia is made a cardinal
1462: Vlad IV of Walachia is defeated by Ottoman Sultan Muhammad II
1466: Kazimierz IV's Polish army defeats the Teutonic Knights and annexes western Prussia to Poland
1471: Sixtus IV becomes Pope and adds one thousand books to the Vatican Library
1475: cardinal Rodrigo Borgia has a son, Cesare Borgia
1480: Spanish Inquisition
1480: cardinal Rodrigo Borgia has a daughter, Lucrezia Borgia
1484: pope Innocent VIII orders the persecution of witches while Rome plunges into moral and political chaos
1486: Pico della Mirandola, a student of the Kabbalah, tries to reconcile all religions and philosophies
1492: Granada is reconquered by the Christians
1492: Spanish-born Rodrigo Borgia becomes pope Alexander VI
1492: Jews and Muslims are expelled from Spain
1492: Jews and Muslims are expelled from Spain
1493: Alexander VI makes his son Cesare Borgia a cardinal
1493: Alexander VI weds his daughter Lucrezia (aged 13) to Giovanni Sforza
1494: Alexander VI forms a "holy league" with Milano, Venezia, German emperor Maximilian, and Fernando II of Aragonia to repel the invasion of Charles VIII of France
1497: the Dominican monk Girolamo Savonarola is excommunicated and hanged and burnt as an heretic
1500: Alexander VI appoints twelve new cardinals in return for huge payments
1500: European Jews divide into "Sephardim" (Spanish and Portuguese Jews) and "Askenazim" (German and Polish Jews)
1500: Cesare Borgia leads the Papal army to reconquer the old Papal states, and fight the Orsini and Colonna families
1501: Lucrezia Borgia, daughter of the Pope, marries Alfonso I d'Este
1503: Giuliano della Rovere becomes Pope Julius II and replaces Cesare Borgia with Guidobaldo as the head of the Papal army
1506: Pope Julius II decides to rebuild the Basilica of St Peter
1506: Pope Julius II leads an expedition to reconquer the Papal states
1508: Pope Julius II assembles the League of Cambrai (Spain, France and Germany) and defeats Venezia
1509: the Dutch humanist Desiderius Erasmus publishes "The Praise of Folie", which advocates a return to the moral values of early Christianity
1511: Peope Julius II assembles a "holy league" with Venezia, Spain, England and Germany to expel France from Italy
1516: a Jewish ghetto is instituted in Venezia
1516: a Greek translation of the New Testament done by Erasmus (Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus) is printed
1517: the Ottoman empire conquers Jerusalem
1517: the Protestant Reformation begins at Wittenberg when Martin Luther publishes his "95 Theses" against the Catholic practice of selling indulgences
1513: the 37-year old Giovanni de' Medici, not yet a priest, is elected pope Leo X
1514: Leo X appoints Raphael chief architect of Saint Peter's Basilica
1522: a Dutch is elected Adrian VI
1523: Giulio de' Medici is elected pope Clement VII
1525: the grand master of the Teutonic Knights is appointed duke of Prussia
1526: Martin Luther prints his German translation of the Bible
1528: the Capuchin Order of friars is founded in Italy by Franciscan friar Matteo Da Bascio
1530: defeated at Rhodes by the Turks, the Hospitallers move to Malta under the king of Spain
1534: Michelangelo paints the Sistine Chapel of the Vatican Palace in Rome
1534: Henry VIII declares himself supreme head of the Church of England
1536: William Tyndale is burned at the stake for translating the Bible into English
1540: Ignatius of Loyola founds the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), which believes in free will and in salvation through good deeds (not just faith)
1547: the Pope convenes the first Council of Trento in response to the Protestant Reformation ("counter-reformation")
1549: the Catholic missionary Frances Xavier reaches Japan
1559: Pope Paul IV issues a list of forbidden books, the "Index Expurgatorius"
1564: Michelangelo builds the dome of St. Peter's Church in Rome
1567: Joseph Karo/Caro publishes the "Shulhan Aruk", the code of Jewish law
1571: pope Paul IV issues a list of forbidden books ("Index Librorum Prohibitorum")
1582: Pope Gregory XIII institutes the Gregorian Calendar
1600: the philosopher Giordano Bruno is executed as an heretic in Rome for claiming that the universe is infinite
1620: English pilgrims aboard the "Mayflower" land at Plymouth Rock on Cape Cod, Massachusetts
1626: Saint Peter's Basilica is inaugurated in Rome
1648: 200,000 Jews are slaughtered during the Russian invasion of Poland by Cossacks led by Bogdan Chmielnicki
1650: the Jews are expelled from Wien (Vienna)
1665: the Greek Jewish kabbalist Shabbatai Zvi is hailed as the messiah, but then accepts to convert to Islam to save his life
1712: the first public synagogue in inaugurated in Berlin
1736: Israel Baal Shem Tov founds the Jewish Hasidism (sincere devotion over Talmudic erudition, appreciation of God in nature)
1768: Jews are massacred during riots in Russia-occupied Poland
1773: the Book of Henoch is rediscovered in Abyssinia
1858: Saint Bernadette sees the Madonna at Lourdes
1878: Pius IX dies, after 32 years of pontificate (the longest ever after Peter)
1881: a wave of anti-Jewish pogroms in Russia causes mass migrations of Jews (2.5 million Jews settle in the United States, thousands settle in Palestine)
1897: Jews of Palestine led by Theodor Herzl at Basel (Switzerland) call for the creation of a Jewish homeland in Palestine (first Zionist Congress)
1917: Three shepherd children see the Virgin Mary in Fatima, Portugal
1909: Tel Aviv is founded as a Hebrew speaking Jewish city
1910: there are 11 million Jews in the world: 5 million in Russia, 2 million in Austria-Hungary, 1.7 million in the USA, 607,000 in Germany, 463,000 in Turkey, 380,000 in the UK, 300,000 in northern Africa, 250,000 in Romania, 105,000 in Holland, 95,000 in France.
1918: Padre Pio, a Capuchin Monk, bears the marks of the Crucifixion in his hands, feet and side
1941: Hitler envisions a "final solution" for the Jews and extermination camps are set up ("Holocaust") that will eliminate six million Jews
1945: a library of early Christian texts is discovered at Nag Hammadi in Egypt
1947: the Dead Sea Scrolls are discovered near Qumran in Egypt
1948: the Jewish state of Israel is founded in Palestine
1952: Mother Theresa (Yugoslavia-born missionary nun Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu) founds the Nirmal Hriday Home for the Dying in Calcutta, India
1968: Padre Pio dies
1971: Peruvian priest Gustavo Gutierrez Merino founds Liberation Theology
1978: John Paul II is the first non-Italian Pope in centuries (and the first Pole ever to become Pope)
1979: Pope John Paul II visits Poland and supports the anti-communist movement
1981: a Bulgarian agent tries to kill the Pope
1985: the first World Youth Day is held in Rome when Pope John Paul II invites Catholic and Buddhist youth from all over the world to pray with him
1989: John Paul II meets Gorbachev, the first meeting between a Pope and a Soviet leader
1997: Mother Theresa (Yugoslavia-born missionary nun Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu) dies in India
2003: Pope John Paul II starts his 100th trip
2005: John Paul II dies, the third longest-serving pontiff in history, after Peter and Pius IX, and his funeral is the largest gathering of world leaders in history
2005: German cardinal Joseph Ratzinger becomes pope Benedict XVI
2005: only 10% of Dutch, 12% of French, 15% of German, 18% of Spanish and 25% of Italian catholics attend mass weekly; and only 21% of Europeans believe that religion is important compared with 60% of Americans
Mar 2013: Jorge Mario Bergoglio of Argentina becomes pope Francis I, the first pope from the Americas, after Benedict XVI resigns

Popes


33-61 Peter
67-76 Linus
76-88 Anacletus I
88-97 Clement I
97-105 Evaristus
105-15 Alexander I
115-25 Sixtus I
125-36 Telesphorus
136-40 Hyginus
140-55 Pius I
155-66 Anicetus
166-75 Soter
175-89 Eleuterus
189-99 Victor I
199-217 Zephyrinus
217-22 Calixtus I
222-30 Urban I
222-35 Hippolytus
230-35 Pontian
235-36 Anterus
236-50 Fabian
251-53 Cornelius
251-58 Novatian
253-54 Lucius I
254-57 Stephen I
257-58 Sixtus II
260-68 Dionysius
269-74 Felix I
275-83 Eutychian
283-96 Caius
296-304 Marcellinus
308-9 Marcellus I
309-10 Eusebius
311-14 Miltiades
314-35 Sylvester I
335-36 Marcus
337-52 Julius I
352-66 Liberius
353-65 Felix II
366-83 Damasus I
366-67 Ursinus
384-99 Siricius
399-401 Anastasius I
401-17 Innocent I
417-18 Zosimus
418-22 Boniface I
418-19 Eulalius
422-32 Celestine I
432-40 Sixtus III
440-61 Leo I
461-68 Hilarius
468-83 Simplicius
483-92 Felix III
492-96 Gelasius I
496-98 Anastasius II
498-514 Symmachus
498-505 Laurentius
514-23 Hormisdas
523-26 John I
526-30 Felix IV
530-32 Boniface II
530 Dioscurus
533-35 John II
535-36 Agapetus I
536-37 Silverius
537-55 Vigilius
556-61 Pelagius I
561-74 John III
575-79 Benedict I
579-90 Pelagius II
590-604 Gregory I
604-6 Sabinian
607 Boniface III
608-15 Boniface IV
615-18 Deusdedit
619-25 Boniface V
625-38 Honorius I
640 Severinus
640-42 John IV
642-49 Theodore I
649-55 Martin I
655-57 Eugene I
657-72 Vitalian
672-76 Adeodatus
676-78 Donus
678-81 Agatho
681-83 Leo II
684-85 Benedict II
685-86 John V
686-87 Conon
687 Theodore II
687-92 Paschal I
687-701 Sergius I
701-5 John VI
705-7 John VII
708 Sisinnius
708-15 Constantine
715-31 Gregory II
731-41 Gregory III
741-52 Zacharias
752-57 Stephen II
757-67 Paul I
767 Constantine
767 Philip
767-72 Stephen III
772-95 Adrian I
795-816 Leo III
816-17 Stephen IV
817-24 Paschal I
824-27 Eugene II
827 Valentine
827-44 Gregory IV
844 John VIII
844-47 Sergius II
847-55 Leo IV
855-58 Benedict III
855 Anastasius III
858-67 Nicholas I
867-72 Adrian II
872-82 John VIII
882-84 Marinus I
884-85 Adrian III
885-91 Stephen V
891-96 Formosus
896 Boniface VI
896-97 Stephen VI
897 Romanus
897 Theodore II
898-900 John IX
900-903 Benedict IV
903 Leo V
903-4 Christopher
904-11 Sergius III
911-13 Anastasius III
913-14 Lando
914-28 John X
928-29 Leo VI
929-31 Stephen VII
931-35 John XI
936-39 Leo VII
939-42 Stephen IX
942-46 Marinus II
946-55 Agapetus II
955-63 John XII
963-64 Leo VIII
964 Benedict V
965-72 John XIII
973-74 Benedict VI
974-83 Benedict VII
983-84 John XIV
984-85 Boniface VII
985-96 John XV (or XVI)
996-99 Gregory V
999-1003 Sylvester II
1003 John XVII
1003-9 John XVIII
1009-12 Sergius IV
1012-24 Benedict VIII
1012 Gregory VI
1024-32 John XIX
1032-45 Benedict IX
1045 Sylvester III
1045-46 Gregory VI
1046-47 Clement II
1048 Damasus II
1049-54 Leo IX
1055-57 Victor II
1057-58 Stephen IX
1058 Benedict X
1058-61 Nicholas II
1061-73 Alexander II
1061-64 Honorius II
1073-85 Gregory VII
1080-1100 Clement III
1086-87 Victor III
1088-99 Urban II
1099-1118 Paschal II
1100-1102 Theodoric
1102 Albert
1105 Sylvester IV
1118-19 Gelasius II
1118-21 Gregory VIII
1119-24 Calixtus II
1124-30 Honorius II
1124 Celestine II
1130-43 Innocent II
1130-38 Anacletus II
1138 Victor IV
1143-44 Celestine II
1144-45 Lucius II
1145-53 Eugene III
1153-54 Anastasius IV
1154-59 Adrian IV
1159-81 Alexander III
1159-64 Victor IV
1164-68 Paschal III
1168-78 Calixtus III
1179-80 Innocent III
1181-85 Lucius III
1185-87 Urban III
1187 Gregory VIII
1187-91 Clement III
1191-98 Celestine III
1198-1216 Innocent III
1216-27 Honorius III
1227-41 Gregory IX
1241 Celestine IV
1243-54 Innocent IV
1254-61 Alexander IV
1261-64 Urban IV
1265-68 Clement IV
1271-76 Gregory X
1276 Innocent V
1276 Adrian V
1276-77 John XXI
1277-80 Nicholas III
1281-85 Martin IV
1285-87 Honorius IV
1288-92 Nicholas IV
1294 Celestine V
1294-1303 Boniface VIII
1303-4 Benedict XI
1305-14 Clement V
1316-34 John XXII
1328-30 Nicholas V
1334-42 Benedict XII
1342-52 Clement VI
1352-62 Innocent VI
1362-70 Urban V
1370-78 Gregory XI
1378-89 Urban VI
1378-94 Clement VII
1389-1404 Boniface IX
1394-1423 Benedict XIII
1404-6 Innocent VII
1406-15 Gregory XII
1409-10 Alexander V
1410-15 John XXIII
1417-31 Martin V
1423-29 Clement VIII
1424 Benedict XIV
1431-47 Eugene IV
1439-49 Felix V
1447-55 Nicholas V
1455-58 Calixtus III
1458-64 Pius II
1464-71 Paul II
1471-84 Sixtus IV
1484-92 Innocent VIII
1492-1503 Alexander VI
1503 Pius III
1503-13 Julius II
1513-21 Leo X
1522-23 Adrian VI
1523-34 Clement VII
1534-49 Paul III
1550-55 Julius III
1555 Marcellus II
1555-59 Paul IV
1559-65 Pius IV
1566-72 Pius V
1572-85 Gregory XIII
1585-90 Sixtus V
1590 Urban VII
1590-91 Gregory XIV
1591 Innocent IX
1592-1605 Clement VIII
1605 Leo XI
1605-21 Paul V
1621-23 Gregory XV
1623-44 Urban VIII
1644-55 Innocent X
1655-67 Alexander VII
1667-69 Clement IX
1670-76 Clement X
1676-89 Innocent XI
1689-91 Alexander VIII
1691-1700 Innocent XII
1700-21 Clement XI
1721-24 Innocent XIII
1724-30 Benedict XIII
1730-40 Clement XII
1740-58 Benedict XIV
1758-69 Clement XIII
1769-74 Clement XIV
1775-99 Pius VI
1800-1823 Pius VII
1823-29 Leo XII
1829-30 Pius VIII
1831-46 Gregory XVI
1846-78 Pius IX
1878-1903 Leo XIII
1903-14 Pius X
1914-22 Benedict XV
1922-39 Pius XI
1939-58 Pius XII
1958-63 John XXIII
1963-78 Paul VI
1978-1978 John Paul I
1978-2005 John Paul II
2005-2013 Benedict XVI
2013- Francis I
Note: 205 popes have been Italian (106 from Rome) and 57 foreigners: 19 from France, 14 from Greece, 8 from Syria, 5 from Germany, 3 from Africa, 2 from Spain, 1 from Austria, 1 from Palestine, 1 from England, 1 from Holland, and 1 from Poland.

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(Copyright © 1999 Piero Scaruffi)