A time-line of ancient Greece

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Resources on Ancient Greece

(Copyright © 1999 Piero Scaruffi)


2800 BC: domed tombs in Crete (Minoan civilization)
2200 BC: Indo-European people (Acheans) invade Greece creating the Greek language and founding Mycenae
1900 BC: earliest writing in Crete
1900 BC: palace of Knossos in Crete
1628 BC: a volcanic eruption in Thera causes destruction in Crete
1600 BC: royal tombs of Mycenae
1450 BC: the Minoan civilization is destroyed by the Mycenaens
1250 BC: walls and palaces of Mycenae
1184 BC: Troy falls to Mycenae
1100 BC: Mycenae is detroyed by Dorian invaders who have iron weapons
1100 BC: Delphi is the capital of a league of Greek cities (including Sparta and Athens)
1000 BC: Greeks colonize the eastern coasts of the Aegean Sea
950 BC: Greeks found Miletus in Ionia (west coast of Turkey)
900 BC: origin of the Homeric poems
800 BC: city-states or "polis" (Athens, Thebes, Megara, Corinth, Sparta)
800 BC: Greeks adopt the alphabet from the Phoenicians
776 BC: the first Olympic Games
760 BC: Euboea founds the colony of Cumae in Italy
750 BC: first inscriptions in the Hellenic Greek alphabet
750 BC: Colonization of the Mediterranea
734 BC: Naxus is the first Hellenic colony in Sicily
733 BC: Corinth founds the Sicilian colony of Syracuse
725 BC: the poet Hesiod writes the Theogony
700 BC: Hellenic colonization spreads to southern Italy, Asia Minor, Black Sea
670 BC: the first Greek coins are minted by king Gyges of Lydia
670 BC: Miletus begins founding colonies both in the Black Sea and in the Mediterranean Sea
657 BC: Megara founds Byzantium
650 BC: Terrace of the lions at Dilos
650 BC: Perdiccas Temenid found the Macedonian kingdom with capital at Aegeae (Vergina)
640 BC: Sparta adopts a militaristic form of government
632 BC: Athens abolishes the monarchy in favor of an oligarchy
621 BC: Dracon establishes the Athenian code of law
610 BC: Miletus founded a trading post in Egypt
594 BC: Solon founds the Athenian democracy
585 BC: philosopher Thales in Miletus
582 BC: the Pythian games are established in Delphi and the Isthmian games are established in Corinth
575 BC: poetess Sappho
570 BC: the first coins are minted by Athens
560 BC: Lydian king Croesus conquers Ionia, except Miletus
560 BC: the temple of Artemis at Ephesus is built
549 BC: Cyrus, king of Persia, conquers Medes, Lydia and Greek city-states in Asia Minor
546 BC: tyrant Peisistratus conquers Athens
546 BC: Sparta forms the Peloponnesean League
538 BC: First performance of a tragedy in Athens
530 BC: Pythagora founds Mathematics
525 BC: tragedy (Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides)
510 BC: Athens joins the Peloponesean League
510 BC: The temple of Ceres at Paestum (in Italy) is built
508 BC: Cleisthenes grants full rights to all free men of Athens
505 BC: a temple to Apollo is built at Delphi
499 BC: Miletus leads the rebellion against the Persians and Athens helps Miletus
493 BC: Themistocles seizes power in Athens and invests in naval power and international trade
490 BC: Darius, king of Persia, invades Greece to punish Athens but loses at the battle of Marathon
485 BC: the sofist Protagoras ("Man is the measure of all things")
481 BC: Both Athens and Sparta join the Hellenic League against Persia
480 BC: Xerses, king of Persia, invades Greece but si defeated at the naval battle of Salamis because the Greeks employ the faster trireme boats
480 BC: Syracuse repels an attack by Carthage
480 BC: the Persians led by Xerxes sack Athens
480 BC: the Greeks defeat the Persians at Salamis
478 BC: the Hellenic League conquers Cyprus and Byzantium from the Persians
461 BC: Pericles promotes the ideals of democracy and peace
461 BC: first Peloponnesian War between Athenians and Spartans
454 BC: Athens attacks the Persians in Egypt but is defeated
450 BC: the first bank is founded in Athens by Antisthenes and Archestratos
450 BC: sculptor and architect Pheidias
450 BC: poet Pindar
450 BC: Herodotus writes a non-theological history
450 BC: Hippocrates founds Medicine
450 BC: Temple of Zeus at Olympia
438 BC: the Parthenon is inaugurated in Athens
431 BC: the second Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta
431 BC: second Peleponnesean war
430 BC: Athens has about 200,000 inhabitants
429 BC: Pericles dies
430 BC: the temple of Concord is built at Agrigento (in Sicily)
415 BC: Syracuse with help from Sparta repels an invasion from Athens
410 BC: the temple of the Erechtheion is built at the Athens acropolis
404 BC: Athens loses the second Peloponnesian War and Sparta imposes the Thirty Tyrants, a group of aristocratic Spartans, which end the supremacy of Athens
403 BC: Athenians restore the democracy
400 BC: comedy (Aristophanes)
399 BC: Socrates is tried and commits suicide
399 BC: the catapult is invented in Syracuse by Dionysius the Elder
395 BC: Athens, Argos, Corinth and Thebes revolt against Sparta and Persia attacks Sparta ("Corinthian war")
388 BC: Plato, a pupil of Socrates, founds his philosophical Academy, the first university
375 BC: Plato writes the "Republic"
373 BC: the temple of Apollo at Delphi is destroyed
373 BC: the temple to Apollo at Delphi is ruined
371 BC: Athens, Thebes, Chios, Mytilene, Byzantium, Rhodes and others defeat Sparta which loses its supremacy (first defeat by Sparta in its entire history)
367 BC: Aristotle enters the Academia of Plato
359 BC: Philip II Temenid becomes the king of Macedonia
356 BC: the temple of Artemis at Ephesus is rebuilt
354 BC: a tomb for King Mausolus is built at Halicarnassus
350 BC: the cynics (Diogenes)
350 BC: the theatre at Epidavros
350 BC: the theatre is built at Delphi
344 BC: Philip II of Macedonia conquers Thessaly, Illyria, Epirus,
342 BC: Aristotle tutors Alexander Temenid of Macedonia
338 BC: Philip II defeats Athens and Thebes at Chaeronea and unites several eastern Greek cities (League of Corinth)
336 BC: Philip II of Macedonia is assassinated and is succeeded by his son Alexander
335 BC: Aristotle founds the Lyceum of Athens
334 BC: Alexander defeats the Persian army at the Dardanelles
333 BC: Alexander invades the Persian empire from Syria to Palestine
332 BC: Alexander conquers Egypt
331 BC: Alexander conquers Persia (battle of Gaugamela) and destroys Persepolis, ending the Achaemenid dynasty
329 BC: a new temple to Apollo is built at Delphi
325 BC: earliest papyrus written in Greek
324 BC: Alexander invades the Punjab in India
324 BC: comedies of Menader
323 BC: Alexander dies, is succeeded by Antipater but the empire rapidly collapses
317 BC: Cassander kills Alexander's son and seizes power in Greece and Macedonia
310 BC: the scientist Aristarchus believes in a heliocentric world
300 BC: Euclid writes the Elements of Geometry
300 BC: epicureanism (Epicurus) and stoicism (Zeno)
297 BC: Cassander dies
290 BC: the Colossus of Rhodos is built
279 BC: the Gauls invade Greece
277 BC: Antigonus II Gonatos defeats the Gauls and becomes king of Macedonia
274 BC: Pyrrhus invades Macedonia and Greece
272 BC: Antigonus II Gonatos defeats Pyrrhus
261 BC: Antigonus II Gonatos conquers Athens
250 BC: scientist Archimedes
239 BC: Antigonus II Gonatos dies and is succeeded by Demetrius II
229 BC: Athens achieves independence
216 BC: Philip V of Macedonia allies with Hannibal of Carthage
197 BC: Philip V of Greece is defeated by the Romans at Kynoskephalai
179 BC: Philip V dies and is succeeded by Perseus
168 BC: the Romans defeat Perseus and end the Antigonid dynasty
149 BC: the Romans annex Macedonia as a province
89 BC: Mithriades VI of Pontos leads a revolt against Rome
86 BC: Roman general Sulla defeats Mithridates and burns Athens
30 BC: the Romans conquer all of Greece
49 AD: Paul preaches Christianity in Greece
50 AD: "Lacoon"
100: historian Plutarch
100: Hippalos discovers the secret previously known only by Arab seame about the effects of the monsoons on sea travel, which causes an increase in voyages to India
393: Theodosius forbids the Olympic Games because pagans and shuts down the temple of Zeus at Olympia
462: the statue of Zeus, moved from Olympia to Constantinople, is destroyed by a fire
529: Roman emperor Justinian shuts down the Academia of Plato

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(Copyright © 1999 Piero Scaruffi)