A time-line of the Italians

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(Copyright © 1999 Piero Scaruffi)


See the timeline of the Roman Empire
See the timeline of the Barbars
See the timeline of the Holy Roman Empire
See the timeline of Christianity
568: Alboin's Lombards invade northern Italy
588: Byzantium regains Genova/Genoa
697: the republic of Venezia/Venice is founded by refugees fleeing the Lombars and who appoint a common leader, the "Doge"
739: Pope Gregory III asks Charles Martel for help against the Lombards in Italy
750: Venezia establishes trade relations with Constantinople and Egypt
751: the Lombards under king Aistulf conquer Ravenna from the Byzantines
756: Pepin III defeats the Lombards and conquers Ravenna but leaves the conquered territories to the Pope, thereby founding the Papal State and establishing a temporal power for the Pope
800: Venezia's main trade is the slave trade (mainly Slavs)
812: a peace treaty between Charlemagne and the Eastern Roman Empire surrenders Venezia to the Eastern empire but grants Venezia the right to trade with the Holy Roman Empire
814: the Palazzo Ducale is begun in Venezia
827: an Arab tribe, the Saracens, invades Sicily
840: the Frankish king Louis dies and civil war erupts among his three sons who have inherited most of France and northern Italy (Lothar, the new emperor), Aquitaine (Pepin), eastern Bavaria (Louis II), western Bavaria (Charles II le Chauve)
843: at the Treaty of Verdun the Holy Roman Empire is divided among Charles II le Chauve (western France), Lothar (Netherlands, eastern France and northern Italy, renamed Lotharingia/Lorraine) and Louis/Ludwig II (western Germany)
843: Genoa proclaims its independence from the Frankish empire
846: Muslims raid Rome
855: Lothar dies and his kingdom is split between his sons (Lotharingia to Lothar II and Burgundy to Charles) while Louis II becomes emperor and inherits northern Italy
875: Louis II dies and Charles II le Chauve invades Italy and becomes emperor
878: the Arabs capture Sicily and make Palermo their capital
888: Charles III is deposed by the nobles and the Frankish Empire is divided between East (Germany and northern Italy), ruled by Arnulf, and West (France), ruled by Odo Capet
888: north Italy declares its independence under Berengar I
889: Venezia becomes independent
922: Magyars raid Italy
951: Otto I invades northern Italy and declares himself king of Italy, thus uniting the crowns of Germany and Italy
962: Otto I invades Italy and is crowned emperor by the Pope in Rome
991: Venezia signs a commercial treaty with the Arabs
1000: Venezia (under Pietro Orseolo II) invades Dalmatia
1000: 7 million people live in France, 7 million in Iberia, 5 million in Italy, 4 million in Germany, 2 million in Britain
1002: Venezia defeats the Arabs and expands in the Adriatic Sea
1049: the Norman warlord Robert Guiscard conquers Puglia from Byzantium
1052: Firenze/Florence under countess Matilda concentrates government in the hands of the great guilds
1061: Genova and Pisa attack the Muslims in Sardegna/Sardinia and Corsica
1072: the Normans conquer Sicily, Calabria and Napoli, and establish a kingdom over southern Italy (the last Byzantine territories in Italy are lost)
1085: Heinrich IV invades Italy and drives Pope Gregory VII out of Rome, and the Pope dies in exile
1087: Pisa and Genoa destroy the Islamic city of Mahdia in North Africa
1088: Irnerius founds a school of law at Bologna, the first university in Europe
1091: the Normans defeat the Arabs and extend the Kingdom of Sicily over most of Italy
1094: San Marco cathedral of Venezia
1130: Norman duke Ruggero II is proclaimed king of Sicily
1138: Firenze declares itself an independent commune
1153: Bologna proclaims its independence form the Holy Roman Empire
1162: Friedrich I "Barbarossa" raids Rome and Milan
1173: work begins at the Tower of Pisa
1174: Padova becomes a free commune
1176: the Italian communes defeat Holy Roman Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa of Germany at the battle of Legnano
1179: works begins at the Naviglio Grande of Milan, which will be completed in 1257
1182: the cathedral of Monreale is inaugurated
1183: the peace of Constance grants northern Italy autonomy within the empire
1194: the German emperor Heinrich VI conquers southern Italy and Sicily from the Normans
1200: Venezia has 80 thousand people
1204: The Crusaders, led by the Doge of Venezia, sack Constantinople and set up a Latin kingdom, while Venezia acquires territories in the Mediterranean and Black Seas
1208: Ferrara appoints a count of Este as its leader
1211: Venezia occupies Crete
1254: Friedrich II's illegitimate son Manfred seizes southern Italy
1252: Firenze coins its own currency
1255: Venezia and Genoa go to war
1264: Charles of Anjou, brother of Louis IX, defeats Manfred and is crowned king of Sicily, thus ending German rule, causing the decline of the German empire and asserting French primacy over Europe
1266: the Polo brothers travel from Venezia to China
1272: the cathedral of Pisa is inaugurated
1273: Costantinople grants Pera to Genova
1277: a Visconti first rules Milan
1277: Genoa opens a direct sea link with the Flanders
1281: Alessandro della Spina and Salvino degli Armati invent spectacles in Firenze
1282: Sicily rebels against Charles of Anjou ("War of the Sicilian Vespers") and accepts Pedro of Aragon as king, while Charles remains king of Naples
1284: Salvino D'Armate invents the eye glasses
1284: Venezia introduces the gold coin "ducato'
1284: Genova defeats Pisa at the Battle of Meloria
1291: Benedetto Zaccaria of Genova destroys the Moroccan fleet at Gibraltar, thus opening the route from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic coast
1293: Genova and Castilla defeat a Muslim fleet and open the Gibraltar Strait to Genoa's ships
1295: Federico III of Aragon becomes king of Sicily
1297: Arnolfo di Cambio designs the cathedral of Firenze
1297: A regular maritime connection is established between Genova in Italy and Bruges in the Flanders
1298: the fleet of Venezia is destroyed by Genova
1298: while in a Genovese jail, Marco Polo writes the story of his travels in Asia
1300: Venezia has 160 thousand people
1312: the archbishop Otto Visconti establishes the Visconti family at the head of the city of Milan
1325: Bologna is defeated by Modena and asks for the protection of the Pope
1327: German emperor Ludwig IV invades Italy and appoints pope John XXII
1328: Luigi Gonzaga becomes dictator of Mantova
1335: Milan erects the world's first public clock
1337: Federico III of Sicily dies
1338: Padova accepts Venezia's domination
1339: Simone Boccanegra leads a revolution in Genova
1343: count Amadeo di Savoia expands Savoia by annexing Geneve, Lausanne and Torino/Turin (which becomes the new capital)
1345: Ponte Vecchio is built in Firenze
1350: the Tower of Pisa is inaugurated
1369: Lucca declares its independence
1375: Perugia declares its independence
1378: Genova attacks Venezia
1379: Venezia uses the cannon to defeat Genova
1381: The peace of Torino between Venezia and Genova de facto turns the Mediterranean trade into a Venetian monopoly
1386: work at the Duomo begins in Milano
1386: The Mongols lose China and start a chain reaction along the overland route that used to connect Italy to China
1393: The Este rule over Ferrara, Modena, Reggio, Parma
1395: Gian Galeazzo Visconti is appointed duke by the emperor and expands the state of Milan in central Italy
1404: Venezia annexes Padova
1406: Firenze annexes Pisa
1413: the Rialto Bridge in built in Venezia
1414: Joanna II of Anjou becomes queen of Napoli
1416: Amadeus VIII obtains the duchy of Savoy from emperor Sigismund
1423: Venezia opens a "lazaretto" for infected people
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1434: banker Cosimo de' Medici seizes power in Firenze
1435: Joanna II of Anjou dies and Alfonso V of Aragon fights the Anjou over the succession to the throne
1442: Sicily is won by Alfonso V of Aragonia and unified with Naples
1447: the warlord Francesco Sforza seizes power in Milan from the Visconti family
1454: Venezia has expanded on the mainland, annexing Padova, Vicenza, Verona, etc
1454: the Ottomans grant Venezia the right to trade in Ottoman lands, the only western power allowed to do so
1458: Fernando II inherits Napoli and Sicily from Alfonso V of Aragonia
1463: Venezia at war with the Ottomans
1464: the first printing press in Italy opens in the monastery of Subiaco
1468: Fernando II becomes king of Sicily
1469: Lorenzo Medici succeeds to his father Cosimo
1471: a printing press opens in Firenze
1477: German king Maximilian I inherits parts of Germany, Italy, Spain, Holland
1479: Venezia loses most of her territories along the Aegean Sea to the Ottomans
1479: Fernando II becomes king of Aragon
1492: the Italian explorer Cristoforo Columbo lands in America on behalf of Spain, thinking he has reached Asia
1492: Lorenzo Medici dies
1494: Charles VIII of France invades Firenze, Rome, Napoli, but a league of Milan, Venezia, German emperor Maximilian, pope Alexander VI and Fernando II of Aragonia, led by Francesco Gonzaga, forces him to retreat
1494: Fernando II of Napoli and Sicily dies
1494: Firenze overthrows the Medici family and Savonarola seizes the power in the newly formed republic (beginning of the "wars of Italy")
1494: Lodovico Sforza seizes power in Milano
1497: the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci sails to America on behalf of Spain
1497: Leonardo da Vinci paints "The Last Supper"
1498: Savonarola is burned at the stake in Firenze
1499: French king Louis XII invades Italy and captures Milan
1500: Pisa builds ditches around walls to make it harder for enemies to attack
1500: Cesare Borgia leads the Papal army to reconquer the old Papal states, and fight the Orsini and Colonna families
1500: Youstol Dispage dies
1501: the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci sails to Brazil on behalf of Portugal and realizes that he is exploring a new continent
1501: Lucrezia Borgia, daughter of the Pope, marries Alfonso I d'Este
1501: France invades southern Italy
1503: Napoli and Sicily are reconquered by Fernando of Aragonia
1505: Alfonso I d'Este becomes duke of Ferrara
1508: the League of Cambrai (Pope, Spain, France and the Emperor) defeats Venezia
1511: Peope Julius II assembles a "holy league" with Venezia, Spain, England and Germany to expel France from Italy
1512: at the Congress of Mantova the Medici family is restored in power in Firenze, the Pope regains the Papal states, Milano is returned to the Sforzas, and France is all but expelled from Italy
1513: Niccolo` Machiavelli publishes "Il Principe", a treaty on politics
1513: Giovanni de' Medici is elected pope Leo X
1515: Francois I becomes king of France, invades Italy and reconquers Milano
1516: Fernando II of Aragon dies and is succeeded by his grandson Carlos I
1516: Italy is divided into two spheres of influence, French in the north and Spanish in the south ("Peace of Noyon")
1519: German emperor Maximilian dies and is succeeded by Karl V/Carlos I
1521: Karl V of Germany (Carlos I of Spain) reconquers Milano from Francois I of France
1522: the plague reduces the population of Roma to 55,000
1524: the Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano sails up the coast of north America and discovers New York
1525: Karl V/Carlos I defeats the invading French army led by Francois I in person at the battle of Pavia
1526: king Francis I of France is defeated by the German army at the battle of Pavia and has to surrender Milan (now a duchy) to Karl V, who is emperor and king of Spain and thus rules over most of Italy (end of the "wars of Italy")
1527: Karl V's army of Protestant mercenaries and Catholic regulars raid, loot and burn Rome
1528: Andrea Doria seizes power in Genova and switches alliance from France to Spain
1529: the peace of Cambrai assigns Burgundy to France and Italy to Karl V/Carlos I
1530: the Medici family is overthrown and Firenze becomes an archduchy of the German empire (only Venezia and Roma remain independent states)
1530: Carlos I of Spain grants the island of Malta (part of the kingdom of Sicily) to the Order of Knights of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem
1534: Perugia is taken by the Popes
1534: Alfonso I d'Este dies
1535: Milano's occupation by Spain begins
1556: Karl V abdicates to retire to a Spanish monastery and the empire is divided between his son Felipe II (Spain, southern Italy and the Low Countries) and his brother Ferdinand I (Germany), who assumes the title of emperor
1571: in the battle of Lepanto an army formed by the Pope, Spain, Venezia and Genova destroys the Ottoman navy, thus halting Ottoman expansion in the Mediterranean
1582: the gregorian calendar is adopted in Spain, Italy and Portugal
1582: Gasparo Scaruffi proposes a European currency
1598: the Pope annexes Ferrara and ends the Este's rule over Ferrara
1600: Jacopo Peri's "Euridice" is the first opera
1603: Accademia dei Lincei in Roma/Rome
1610: the Italian scientist Galileo uses a telescope to explore the Moon, the Milky Way and Jupiter
1630: the plague spreads in Italy
1632: Galileo publishes his "Dialogue" in which he defends Copernicus
1637: the Teatro Tron opens in Venezia, the first opera house in the world
1644: the Italian physicist Evangelista Torricelli invents the barometer
1669: Venezia loses Crete
1693: Arcangelo Corelli composes the first concerto
1700: The population of Italy is about 14 millions
1706: Austria captures Milano from Spain
1709: Bartolomeo Cristofori invents the piano
1713: Britain and France sign a peace treaty ("Treaty of Utrecht") that hands Spanish territories (Milan, southern Italy) to Austria and Sicily to the Savoy duke Vittorio Amedeo II of Piedmont
1713: Austria annexes most of Lombardy (including Milan) while Savoy gets the rest
1718: Spain invades southern Italy
1720: and the Quadruple Alliance (Britain, France, Austria and Savoy) defeats Spain
1720: the Savoy duke trades Sicily for Sardinia with Austria
1734: Carlos, son of Spain's king Felipe V, a Bourbon, conquers Napoli and Sicily from Austria and founds the independent Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
1736: the last Medici dies, and Tuscany is inherited by Austria's Franz I Hasburg
1772: Venezia/Venice frees the Jews
1778: Milan inaugurates its opera theater, the Scala
1796: Napoleon conquers northern Italy, end of Milano's occupation by Austria, end of Genova's independence
1797: Napoleon conquers Venezia, ending its millenary independence, and trades it with Austria for Lombardy
1800: Napoleon annexes Piedmont, Tuscany and the Papal state to France
1800: the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta invents the battery
1800: The population of Italy is about 18 millions
1810: Jews are emancipated in Roma
1815: Austria regains Tuscany, Lombardy and Venezia, while Piedmont and the Papal state regain their independence
1820: The Camorra (a mafia organization) is founded in Napoli/Naples
1849: Antonio Meucci invents the telephone
1859: Napoleon III of France and Vittorio Emanuele II defeat Austria and Piedmont annexes Lombardy, Tuscany and most of the States of the Church
1861: Garibaldi invades southern Italy, defeats the Bourbons and delivers it to Piedmont's king Vittorio Emanuele II, who becomes king of Italy with capital in Torino, ruling over the entire peninsula except for the Papal state of Rome and for the Austrian territory around Venezia, a country in which 75% of people are illiterate
1862: the first mass killing by the Mafia is carried out in Sicily
1866: Italy allies with Prussia in the "Seven Weeks' War", defeats Austria and annexes Venezia
1870: Italy conquers Rome from the Pope and declares Rome its capital, while the Pope retreats to the Vatican
1872: Pirelli is founded
1882: Italy enters the Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria
1885: an international conference at Berlin awards Congo to the king of Belgium, Mozambique and Angola to Portugal, Namibia and Tanzania to Germany, Somalia to Italy, most of western Africa to France, and Egypt, Sudan, Nigeria, Uganda, Kenya, South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana to Britain
1890: On average 280 thousand Italians leave Italy every year
1896: Ethiopia defeats the invading Italian army at Adua
1896: Guglielmo Marconi files a patent for wireless cable
1897: A recession causes socialist protests in the north
1899: Fiat builds the first Italian car
1900: King Umberto I is assassinated by an anarchist
1900: The population of Italy is 32.4 million
1901: Guglielmo Marconi conducts the first transatlantic radio transmission
1904: The Catholic Church allows Catholics to vote in national elections
1904: The Socialists organize the first nation-wide strike
1905: Desiderio Pavoni founds a company to make expresso machines
1907: Arnoldo Mondadori founds a publishing house
1909: Filippo Tommaso Marinetti publishes the manifesto of Futurism
1911: the first bomb ever dropped from an airplane is dropped by Italy over Libya in the war against the Ottoman Empire, during which half the population of Libya is either killed or exiled by 1918
Oct 1911: Italy attacks the Ottoman province of Libya
1911: The first trial against the Camorra is held
1912: Italy grants voting rights to almost every male citizen
Oct 1912: Italy takes Libya and the Dodecanese islands from the Ottoman Empire
1913: 873 thousand Italians emigrate abroad
1914: World War I breaks out in the Balkans, pitting Britain, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, USA and Japan against Austria, Germany and Turkey
1916: Zanussi is founded
1918: World War I ends with the defeat of Germany (which has to cede several regions to France and Poland, and all the African colonies) and Austria (which has to cede regions to Italy)
1919: Alfonso Bialetti founds his factory
1921: Guccio Gucci opens a boutique of fashion design in Firenze/Florence
Jul 1922: The Socialists organize a general strike
Oct 1922: Mussolini, leader of the Fascist party, seizes power in Italy
1923: Italian fashion shoemaker Salvatore Ferragamo moves to Hollywood
Apr 1924: Mussolini's Fascist Party wins national elections in Italy
1927: There are 4 million Italians in the USA, 1.5 million in Argentina and 1.5 million in Brazil
1928: Umberto Nobile's dirigible flies over the North Pole
1929: Mussolini signs a Concordat with the Pope that creates the independent state of the Vatican
1930: most immigrants to the USA are Italians
1930: Britain, Japan, France, Italy and the USA sign the London Naval Treaty, an agreement to reduce naval warfare
1931: After 20 years of fighting Italy conquers the whole of Libya
1933: Bialetti introduces the Moka Express, invented by Luigi De Ponti
Oct 1935: Italy invades Ethiopia
1936: Fiat introduces the 500 ("Topolino"), designed by Dante Giocosa (mechanics) and Rudolfo Schaffer (body)
1938: The world's first major film festival is held in Venezia
1939: Mussolini and Hitler sign the "pact of steel"
See the timeline for World War II
1939: Italy invades Albania
1940: Italy enters World War II on the side of Hitler
1940: Italy, Germany and Japan sign the pact of the "axis"
1943: Britain and USA invade Sicily and Italy surrenders
1945: Mussolini is captured by Italian partisans and executed
1946: the first motoscooter, Piaggio's Vespa, designed by Corradino D'Ascanio, debuts in Italy
1946: Enzo Ferrari founds a company to build Grand Prix cars
1948: the Christian Democrats win the first elections in Italy
1949: Fausto Coppi is the first cyclist to win both the Tour and the Giro in the same year
1950: Olivetti introduces the Lettera 22, a portable typewriter designed by Marcello Nizzoli
1951: Juan Manuel Fangio, driving an Alfa Romeo, wins his first Formula One championship
1952: Ferrari wins its first Formula One championship
1953: Italy's economy starts growing at a rapid pace (the "Miracolo Economico")
1954: neo-fascist Pino Rauti founds "Ordine Nuovo"
1955: The publishing house Feltrinelli is founded
1955: Fiat introduces the 600, designed by Dante Giacosa, the first compact car
1957: Italy, Germany, France and others found the European Community
1957: Fiat introduces the 500
1957: Enrico Mattei coins the expression "Seven Sisters" referring to the seven major Anglosaxon oil companies (the four owners of Aramco, Gulf, Shell, BP)
1960: the football program "Tutto il Calcio Minuto per Minuto" debuts on national radio
1963: Lamborghini is founded
1963: The Vajont dam collapses killing 1,900 people
1963: Camorra's boss Raffaele Cutolo is jailed in Napoli, but creates a new Camorra organization from jail
1965: the Duomo of Milan is completed after six centuries of work
1965: European computer manufacturer Olivetti introduces the first affordable programmable electronic desktop computer, the P101
1965: Piergiorgio Perotto at Olivetti invents the first desktop computer ("Programma 101")
1968: Student riots in France escalate into a national uprising, soon followed by similar protests in Germany and Italy
1969: a bomb by fascist terrorists (Franco Freda's "Ordine Nuovo") kills 17 people in Milano, while three more bombs blow up in Roma and Milano, but the investigators accuse anarchist Pietro Valpreda of the crime
1969: Adriano Sofri and others found the left-wing group of "Lotta Continua", Antonio Negri and others found "Potere Operaio"
1971: Lamborghini introduces the "Countach"
1972: the Brigate Rosse (Red Brigades) carry out their first kidnapping and their first bank robbery
1974: fascist terrorists blow up a train killing 12 people
1974: Giorgio Armani opens a boutique of fashion design in Milano
1976: entrepreneur Silvio Berlusconi launches a private tv station
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1978: the Red Brigades terrorize Italy
1978: Gianni Versace opens a boutique of fashion design in Milano
1980: an Italian passenger airplane is downed in mysterious circumstances in the Gulf of Ustica
1980: The first mosque is built in Italy
1980: fascist terrorists kills 85 people at the Bologna train station
1980: Silvio Berlusconi founds Italy's first private national network, Canale 5
1982: Roberto Calvi, a Vatican-linked financier, is found hanged under a bridge in London
1983: The police arrest 1,000 Camorristas while power shifts from Cutolo to Carmine Alfieri
1984: Ferrari introduces the "Testarossa"
1984: Eight Camorristas are killed in the Torre Annunziata massacre among rival gangs
1986: A referendum shuts down Italy's nucler power plants, turning Italy into the world's biggest importer of electricity
1986: A "maxi-trial" sends scores of Mafia members to jail
1987: Italians vote against nuclear power
1992: the Mafia kills top figures of the Italian government in Sicily
1992: Camorra's boss Carmine Alfieri is arrested
1992: Italian magistrates begin arresting politicians for "Tangentopoli" (Bribesville), corruption scandals multiply and "Mani Pulite" ("clean hands") investigations spread throughout the political system
1993: the head of the Mafia, Salvatore Riina, is captured in Italy and the Mafia declines
1993: investigations by magistrates reveal widespread corruption in the Christian Democratic party and cause the collapse of the political order
1994: Italy's richest man, Silvio Berlusconi, who is under investigation for bribes, wins the elections
1994: Camorra's bosses Carmine Alfieri and Pasquale Galasso cooperate with the authorities and reveal that politicians (including at least one former minister) helped the Camorra
Feb 1998: 20 people are killed by a US military jet that accidentally hits an aerial tramway in northern Italy
1999: a common currency, the euro, is introduced in some European countries (one euro is worth $1.1591)
2003: a heatwave kills 15,000 people in France, at least 6,000 in Spain, 7,000 in Germany, 2,000 in Britain and 20,000 in Italy
2003: Toto Riina, the boss of all Mafia bosses, is arrested
2004: Parmalat, which accounts for almost 1% of Italy's GDP, collapses due to mismanagement
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2005: after more than ten trials, nobody is convicted of the 1969 terrorist attacks
2005: Italy enters a recession
2005: More than 100 killings over two years in Napoli are blamed on the Camorra
2005: Prime minister Silvio Berlusconi is acquitted of past frauds, thanks to laws that he himself introduced after he became prime minister
2006: An Italian minister is forced to resign after provoking Muslims riots
2006: Silvio Berlusconi loses national elections to Romano Prodi
2006: Bernardo Provenzano, head of the mafia, is arrested in Sicily after a man hunt lasted 43 years
2006: Italy wins its fourth world cup
2007: Spain's per-capita income passes Italy's
2008: Berlusconi wins elections and becomes prime minister again
2008: Italy's enters the fourth recession in seven years and its deepest since 1992
2008: African immigrants riot after six of them are killed by Camorra hitmen
2009: Fiat buys Chrysler
2009: The average Fiat worker in Italy assembles 30 cars per year compared with 100 in the Polish factories while making three times more per year
Jan 2010: African immigrants riot in the southern Italian town of Rosarno against the local mafia
Dec 2010: Government debt reaches 1.75 trillion euros ($2.3 trillion), Europe's biggest
Jan 2011: Silvio Berlusconi is accused of sex with an underage prostitute and abuse of power
Aug 2011: World stock markets crash for fear of the national debt of Spain, Italy, Greece, Portugal and Ireland
2010: Italy's prime minister Berlusconi faces four criminal trials on charges of bribery, tax dodging, embezzlement and patronising an underage woman for sex
2010: Germany's unit labor cost in the 2000s has declined by 3% while the unit labor cost in France, Greece, and Spain went up by over 20% and in Italy by over 40%
2011: Italy's parliament appoints Mario Monti in charged of a non-political government to rescue Italy from a financial crisis
2011: Italy's youth unemployment hits 31% while its national debt is 123% of GDP
Apr 2012: More than 20 entrepreneurs commit suicide in the first four months of 2012 after their businesses fail
Feb 2012: The party of comedian Beppe Grillo wins the most votes
Oct 2013: About 400 illegal immigrants from Africa die when a boat sinks off the coast of Lampedusa
2013: Silvio Berlusconi is sentenced first to four years in jail for tax fraud and then to seven years for having sex with an underage girl
2013: Italy's economy has shrunk by 9% since 2007 and unemployment among young people (15-24 years old) is 40%
Feb 2014: The 39-year-old former mayor of Firenze/Florence, Matteo Renzi, becomes Italy's youngest-ever prime minister

World News | Politics | History | Editor
(Copyright © 1999 Piero Scaruffi)