A time-line of the Mongols

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(Copyright © 1999 Piero Scaruffi)


450BC: Turkic-speaking tribes migrate from Siberia to the steppes north of the Aral and Balkash lakes where they give rise to the Huns
250BC: China repels an invasion by the turkic-speaking Hsiung-nu
220BC: the Hsiung-nu defeat the Yuezhi, who are forced to move south towards Iran and India
209BC: first Hun (Hsiung-nu?) state
200BC: the Hsiung-nu conquer northern and western China
48AD: the Chinese drove the Hsiung-nu out of China
50AD: the Xianbei (mounted archers) invade north China
350: the Chinese repelled an invasion by the Ruruan (Juan-Juan), who in turn drove the Hsiung-nu west toward the Ural Mountains and the Caspian Sea
350: the turkic-speaking Huns move west towards Europe, settling in the plains between the Ural and the Carpathian mountains
450: the mongolian Ruruan (Juan-Juan) empire controlled territories from Manchuria to lake Balkas
451: Attila invades the Roman empire
552: the turkic-speaking khanate of Boumin or Kok ("Khan of the blue Turks") defeats the Mongols and extends its empire from Manchuria to the Aral sea (Western and Eastern Khanate)
580: Tardu unifies the Turks
601: Turks under the command of Tardu siege China's capital Xian
629: the Chinese Tang begin anti-Turk campaigns
651: the Tang annex the Western Khanate
686: the mongolian Kitan from Manchuria raid China
744: the Chinese Tang dismantle the Turk empire
744: the turkic-speaking Uigurs, thanks to their alliance with the Tang, conquer the Eastern Khanate and expand from Lake Balkash to Lake Baykal, with capital in Kara-Balgasun (first turkic alphabet)
745: the turkic-speaking Uigur empire is founded in Mongolia
846: the Kirghiz drive the Uighurs west to the Tarim Basin
925: the mongolian Kitan expand towards eastern Mongolia (driving away the kyrgiz), most of Manchuria (their homeland, where they ruled over the Jurchen), and most of northern China, and establish the Liao dynasty
1100: the turkic-speaking Seldjuks expand in Persia, Mesopotamia and Turkey
1115: the Jurchen (Manchu) overrun the Kitan and found the Jin dynasty
1124: Yeh-lu Ta-shih leads the remnants of the Kitan army to found the Karakitai dynasty (Western Liao)
1130: the Kitan are driven southwest, defeat the Seljuk and establish the Karakitai state
1135: Mongols led by Kabul Khan raid northern China
1141: the Karakitai defeat the Seljuqs at the battle of Qatwan, thus destroying Seljuq power in Central Asia
1190: Temujin (Genghis Khan) Becomes king of the Mongols
1206: Temujin (Genghis Khan) unifies all mongol and tatar tribes
1210: Temujin (Genghis Khan) conquers the kingdom of Xi Xia
1215: Temujin (Genghis Khan) conquers the kingdom of the Jin/Jurchen
1218: the Mongols conquer the kingdom of Kara-Khitai (Kitan/Liao)
1219: Temujin (Genghis Khan) conquers the Khwarizm/Khwarezmian empire (Uzbekistan) of Ali ad-Din Muhammad
1220: the Mongols conquer Merv (Turkmenistan)
1221: the Mongols conquer Herat (Afghanistan), while an expedition led by Jebe and Subedei venture west into the Caucasus and Russia, signing a peace treaty with Venice
1223: Jebe's and Subedei's western Mongol expedition defeats a coalition of Russian princes on the Kalka river and then the Bulgars, but then retreats
1224: Genghis Khan splits his empire into khanates ruled by his four sons Jochi (western part), Ogedei (southern Siberia and western Mongolia), Chaghatay (Transoxania and Kara-Khitai), Tolui (the traditional Mongol lands)
1225: Jochi dies and his son Batu inherits his khanate and assigns the eastern part to his brother Orda
1226: the Jurchen invade northern China and Korea
1226: Genghis Khan attacks the Soong state
1227: Genghis Khan dies and is succeeded by Ogedei who rules over Chaghatay's khanate in West Turkestan, Tolui's Eastern Mongolia, Batu's Blue Horde in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, and Orda's White Horde in Kazakhstan
1231: the Mongols invade Korea
1235: Ogedei moves the Mongol capital to Karakorum (Tumen Angalant palace)
1237: the Mongols, led by Batu and Subedei, destroy the northern Bulgars and invade Russia (Riazan, Suzdal)
1238: the Mongols, led by Batu and Subedei, take Valdimir
1240: Batu's Mongols ("blue horde") take Kiev and Chernigov
1241: Batu's Mongols raid Hungary but are repelled
1241: Mongols under the command of Chagatai's son Baidar and Ogedei's son Kadan invade Poland and defeat a joint army of Henry of Slesia and the Teutonic Knights at the battle of Liegnitz/Wahlstatt while Kuyuk's Mongols destroy the army of Transylvania and Batu's and Subedei's Mongols defeat the Hungarian army at the battle of Mohi
1241: Ogedei puts Baiju in charge of the expansion in Persia
1241: Ogedei dies, the Mongols retreat from Europe and Ogedei's widow Toregene takes over as regent
1241: Batu's younger brother Shayban raids Hungary and then splits, establishing the Shaybanid Horde
1242: Batu establishes his capital at Sarai on the Volga
1246: the papal envoy Giovanni da Pian del Carpine brings a message to the Mongol chief
1246: Ogedei's son Guyuk/Kuyuk, a baptized Christian, becomes the third grand khan (khagan)
1246: Kuyuk puts general Eljigidei in charge of a campaign into Syria and Iraq, replacing Baiju
1251: Tolui's son Mongke/Mangku becomes the fourth grand khan (khagan)
1251: Mangku's brother Hulegu leads the Mongol invasion of Persia and establishes the Ilkhanate
1253: Hulegu's army leaves from Karakorum towards Syria
1254: Flemish Franciscan friar Wilhelm of Rubruck visits Mangku in Karakorum (the first westerner to describe the Mongol capital)
1255: Batu dies and is succeeded by his Christian son Sartak
1256: Sartak dies and is succeeded by his uncle Berke, a Muslim convert
1256: Hulegu invades Syria and destroys the Ismaili order of the Assassins
1257: Mongols led by Mangku's brother Kublai conquer China all the way to Hanoi
1258: Hulegu's Christian army defeats the Abbasids and capture Bagdhad, which becomes the capital of the Ilkhanate, and return Damascus to Christianity
1259: Berke's Mongols under general Burundai defeat Danylo of Galicia and Mendovg of Lithuania and raid Poland
1259: Mangku dies and both Hulegu and Berke have to abandon their campaigns for the election of the new grand khan (khagan) that pits two of Mangku's (and Hulegu's) brothers, Ariq Boke (supported by Berke) and Kublai (supported by Hulegu)
1260: while Hulegu is traveling to Karakorum for the election of the new grand khan (khagan), the Mamluks defeat the Christian army of the Mongols at the battle of Ain Jalut, annex Syria and expel the last Crusaders
1260: Kublai is appointed khagan with Hulegu's support and declares Buddhism the state religion
1262: Berke's Mongols ally with the Mamluks of Egypt against Hulegu's Mongols and invade Georgia
1263: Hulegu assumes the title of "Ilkhan" as ruler of Persia
1264: Kublai captures Ariq Boke, thus ending the Mongol infighting
1265: Hulegu dies and is succeeded by his son Abaka, who kills Berke in battle and moves the capital to Tabriz
1266: Berke's son Timur-Mangku becomes the new leader of the Golden Horde in Russia
1267: Kublai Khan moves the Mongol capital to Dadu (Beijing) and founds the Yuan dynasty
1271: prince Edward of England allies with Abaka's Mongols but they are defeated by Baybars' Mamluks
1274: Kublai Khan fails to invade Japan
1277: the Mongols invade Burma
1280: Abaka's Mongols invade Syria but are defeated again by the Mamluks at the battle of Hims
1282: the new Shaybanid khan Uzbek converts the Shaybanid horde to Islam and his horde becomes known as the Uzbeks
1282: Abaka dies and is succeeded by his Muslim brother Taghudar as leader of the Il-khanate
1284: the Uighur empire is absorbed into the Chagatai Khanate
1284: Taghudar is overthrown by Abaka's Buddhist son Argun as leader of the Il-khanate
1285: the Golden Horde launches another campaign in Eastern Europe
1287: the Golden Horde fails to conquer Eastern Europe and retreats
1293: Kublai Khan fails to invade Java
1294: Kublai Khan dies and the empire fragments in khanates: Sarai in the west (descendants of Batu, the "Golden Horde"), Beijing in the east (the Yuan), Sultaniyeh in Persia (the Ilkhan Sultanate, descendants of Hulegu) and the Chaghatai Khanate in the center
1295: Argun dies and his son Ghazan, the new Ilkhan, converts to Islam
1304: Oljeitu, the Ilkhan, proclaims himself a shiite
1304: Mongols under Ali Beg invade India but are repelled by the Delhi sultanate
1313: warlord Uzbek leads a group of Islamic Mongols in Central Asia
1316: Oljeitu, the Ilkhan, builds a new capital, Sultaniyeh, and his own domed mausoleum
1327: Chagatay khan Tarmashirin converts to Islam
1328: the Mongols invade India but are repelled by the Delhi sultanate
1335: Abu Said dies and the Ilkhan khanate ends
1342: Shaybanid khan Uzbek dies
1350: the Shaybani horde (southeast of the Urals) renames itself Uzbek
1365: the turkic-speaking Aksak Temur/Timur/Tamerlane overthrow the Chaghatai khanate and conquers Persia
1368: the Ming dynasty is founded by a Chinese peasant and former Buddhist monk turned rebel, Chu Yuanchang, under whose leadership China regains independence from the Mongols
1370: Timur makes Samarkand his capital
1378: union of White Horde and Blue Horde into the Golden Horde (Kipchak Khanate) under Toqtamish, with capital in Sarai Berke
1380: Dmitrii Danilovic of Moscow, leading a coalition of Russian cities (except Tver and Novgorod), defeats the Mongols at Kulikovo
1384: Timur captures Herat and Sultaniyeh (the Ilkhan)
1388: the Ming defeat the Yuan and destroy Karakorum
1391: Timur defeats the "Golden Horde" and reaches the Black Sea
1395: Timur sacks Baghdad
1395: the Khazak horde seizes Khazakstan from the Chagatai and Golden hordes
1398: Timur invades India and sacks Delhi, causing demise of the Delhi Sultinate
1400: Timur/Tamerlane lays siege to Damascus
1402: Timur defeats the Ottomans at Ankara and captures Ottoman sultan Beyazid I who dies in captivity
1405: Timur dies (buried in Samarkand) on his way to conquer China and his empire disintegrates
1407: Timur's son Shah Rukh re-conquers most of Timur's empire
1409: Shah Rukh moves the Timurid capital to Herat
1417: Shah Rukh is succeeded by his son Ulugh Beg in Transoxania, a patron of art, philosophy, music and science
1420: Ulugh Beg begins to build the Registan in Samarkand
1430: part of the Golden Horde splits off to form the Khanate of the Crimea under Hajji Giray Khan
1440: the Uzbeks move south to Transoxiana under Abu al-Khayr
1449: Ulugh Beg, who is ruling over Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, and southern Kazakhstan, is murdered by his own son Abdal-Latif Mirza
1445: part of the Golden Horde splits off to form the Khanate of Kazan
1451: Abu Said rules the Timurids
1451: Muhammad Shaybani becomes the khan of the Uzbeks
1460: the Turcomans invade Persia and Mesopotamia
1466: Dayan Khan unifies the Mongolian tribes again in Mongolia
1466: part of the Golden Horde splits off to form the Khanate of Astrakhan, that rules over Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan
1468: the Kazaks split from the Uzbeks, who become Shaybanid with capital in Bukhara (descendants of Shayban, grandson of Genghis Khan)
1469: Abu Said dies and the western Timurid empire (the Ilkhan) dissolves while Timurid sultan Husayn Bayqara turns Herat into a Turkish literary center
1473: The Ottomans defeat the White Horde of Mongol khan Uzun Hasan and conquer Anatolia west of the Euphrates
1478: Husayn Bayqara rules the Timurids from Herat
1480: Ivan III liberates Russia from the Mongols
1497: Babur, a Turkic descendant of both Genghis Khan and Timur, becomes the ruler of Ferghana and founds the Mughal (Mogul) dynasty
1500: the Uzbeks cross the Syr Darya river and enter Transoxiana
1502: the Golden Horde is destroyed by the Crimean Khanate
1504: Babur conquers Kabul
1505: the Shaybanid Horde (Uzbeks) under Muhammad Shaybani expel the Timurids from Transoxiana and capture Samarkand
1506: the Uzbek Shaybanids capture Bukhara (Uzbekistan) and Herat (Afghanistan), bringing to an end the Timurid dynasty and forcing Babur to flee
1510: the Uzbek khan Muhammad Shaybani dies in battle against the Safavids at Merv
1514: under the eastern Chagataid Khan Sayid the capital moves from Ili to Kashgar
1522: Babur captures Kandahar
1526: Babur captures Delhi from Ibrahim, the sultan of Delhi, and founds the Mogul empire in India
1530: Babur dies and his son Humayun succeeds him
1538: Abdullah Shaybanid II expands the Shaybanid (Uzbek) empire and moves the capital to Bukhara
1540: Babur's son Humayun loses the empire to Afghan Leader Sher Shah and goes into exile in Persia
1543: Dayan dies and the Mongol empire disintegrates again
1552: Russian conquers the khanate of Kazan
1555: the Mogul king Humayun reconquers India
1556: Russian conquers the khanate of Astrakhan
1556: the Mogul king Humayun dies and his son Akbar becomes the ruler of India
1578: Altan Khan converts to Buddhism
1598: Abdullah Shaybanid II of the Uzbeks dies and the Astrakhanid dynasty inherits power in Transoxiana, retaining the in Bukhara
1619: the Shaybanid (Uzbek) khan Yalangtush Bahador begins construction of the Sher Dor madrasa in Samarkand's Registan
163#: the Oyrats conquer the Kazaks
1646: the Uzbeks begin construction of the Tilla Kari madrasa in Samarkand's Registan
1731: Russians help the Kazaks against the Oyrats and de facto annexes Kazakstan
1740: the Astrakhanid dynasty collapses
1776: Timur Shah Durrani moves the Durrani capital from Kandahar to Kabul
1858: collapse of the Mogul empire in India
THE GREAT KHANS
1206 - 1227 Genghis Khan
1229 - 1241 Ogedei/Ogadai Khan
1241 - 1246 Toregene Khatun
1246 - 1248 Guyuk Khan
1248 - 1251 Oghul Ghaymish
1251 - 1259 Mangku Khan
1260 - 1294 Kublai Khan
1294 - 1307 Temur Oljeytu Khan
1307 - 1311 Hai-Shan
1311 - 1320 Ayurbarwada
1320 - 1323 Shidebala
1323 - 1328 Yesun-Temur
1328 - 1329 Jijaghatu Toq-Temur
1329 - 1332 Jijaghatu Toq-Temur
1332 - 1333 Irinchibal
1333 - 1370 Toghan-Temur
1370 - 1388 Togus-Temur

MUGHULISTAN
1227 - 1244 Chaghatay
1244 - 1246 Qara Hulegu
1246 - 1251 Yesu Mangku
1251 - 1252 Qara Hulegu
1252 - 1260 Orqina Khatun
1260 - 1266 Alughu
1266 - 1271 Baraq / Ghiyath ad Dîn
1271 - 1272 Negubey
1272 - 1282 Buqa / Toqa Temur
1282 - 1306 Du'a
1306 - 1308 Konchek
1308 - 1309 Taliqu
1309 - 1320 Esen Buqa
1320 - 1326 Kebek
1326 - 1334 Tarmashirin Ala ad Din
1334 - 1338 Changshi
1338 - 1342 Yesun Temur
1342 - 1343 Muhammad
1343 - 1346 Qazan
1346 - 1358 Danishmendji
1359 - 1363 Tughluq Temur
1363 Timurids

THE ILKHANS

1231 - 1256 Tolui
1256 - 1265 Hulegu
1265 - 1282 Abaqa
1282 - 1284 Ahmad Teguder
1284 - 1291 Arghun
1291 - 1295 Gaykhatu
1295 - 1304 Ghazan
1304 - 1316 Oljeitu/ Muhammad Khudabanda
1316 - 1335 Abu Said Ala
1335 - 1336 Arpa Keun
1336 - 1337 Musa
1337 - 1338 Muhammad
1338 - 1353 Jalayirids
1387 Timurids

THE BLUE HORDE
1227 - 1256 Batu
1256 - 1257 Sartaq
1257 - 1267 Berke
1267 - 1280 Mangku Temur
1280 - 1287 Tode Mangku
1287 - 1291 Tole Buqa
1291 - 1313 Toqta
1313 - 1341 Muhammad Özbeg
1341 - 1342 Toni Beg
1342 - 1357 Jani Beg
1357 - 1359 Berdi Beg
1378 Golden Horde

THE WHITE HORDE
1226 - 1280 Orda
1280 - 1302 Kochu
1302 - 1309 Buyan
1309 - 1315 Sasibuqa ?
1315 - 1320 Ilbasan
1320 - 1344 Mubarak Khwaja
1344 - 1374 Chimtay
1374 - 1376 Urus
1376 - 1377 Toqtaqiya
1378 Golden Horde

THE GOLDEN HORDE
1378 - 1395 Toqtamish
1395 - 1419 Edigu
1395 - 1401 Temur Qutlugh
1401 - 1407 Shadî Beg
1407 - 1410 Pulad Khan
1410 - 1412 Temur
1412 - 1414 Karim Berdi
1414 - 1417 Kebek
1417 - 1419 Yeremferden ?
1419 - 1422 Ulugh Muhammad
1419 - 1422 Dawlat Berdi
1422 - 1433 Baraq
1433 - 1435 Sayyid Ahmad I
1435 - 1465 Kuchuk Muhammad
1465 - 1481 Ahmad
1481 - 1498 Shaykh Ahmad
1481 - 1499 Murtada
1499 - 1502 Shaykh Ahmad
1502 Khans of Crimea

ASTRAKHAN
1466 - 1490 Qasim
1490 - 1504 Abd al Karim
1504 - 1532 Qasay
1532 - 1534 Aq Kobek
1534 - 1538 Abd al Rahman
1541 - 1544 Aq Kobek
1538 - 1541 Shaykh Haydar
1544 - 1554 Yaghmurchi
1554 Russia: Ivan IV

KAZAN
1437 - 1445 Ulugh Muhammad
1445 - 1462 Mahmud
1462 - 1467 Khalil
1467 - 1479 Ibrahim
1479 - 1484 Alî
1484 - 1485 Muhammad Amin
1485 - 1487 Alî
1487 - 1495 Muhammad Amin
1495 - 1496 Mamuq
1496 - 1502 Abd al Latif
1502 - 1518 Muhammad Amin
1519 - 1521 Shah Alî
1521 - 1524 Shah Alî
1524 - 1531 Safa Giray
1531 - 1533 Jan Alî
1533 - 1548 Safa Giray
1549 - 1551 Ötemish
1551 - 1552 Shah Alî

CRIMEA
1449 - 1456 Hajji Giray I
1456 - 1466 Hajji Giray I
1466 - 1467 Nur Dawlat Giray
1467 - 1474 Mengli Giray
1474 - 1475 Nur Dawlat Giray
1475 - 1476 Mengli Giray
1476 - 1478 Nur Dawlat Giray
1478 - 1514 Mengli Giray
1514 - 1523 Muhammad Giray I
1523 - 1524 Ghazi Giray I
1524 - 1532 Sa'adat Giray I
1532 - 1551 Sahib Giray I
1551 - 1577 Dawlat Giray I
1577 - 1584 Muhammad Giray II
1584 - 1588 Islam Giray II
1588 - 1596 Ghazi Giray II
1596 - 1608 Ghazi Giray II
1608 - 1610 Salamat Giray I
1610 - 1623 Jani Beg Giray
1623 - 1624 Muhammad Giray III
1624 - 1627 Muhammad Giray III
1627 - 1635 Jani Beg Giray
1635 - 1637 Inayat Giray
1637 - 1641 Bahadur Giray I
1641 - 1644 Muhammad Giray IV
1644 - 1654 Islam Giray III
1654 - 1666 Muhammad Giray IV
1666 - 1671 Âdil Giray
1671 - 1678 Salim Giray I
1678 - 1683 Murad Giray
1683 - 1684 Hajji Giray II
1684 - 1691 Salim Giray I
1691 - 1692 Safa Giray
1692 - 1699 Salim Giray I
1699 - 1702 Dawlat Giray II
1702 - 1704 Salim Giray I
1704 - 1707 Ghazi Giray III
1707 - 1708 Qaplan Giray I
1708 - 1713 Dawlat Giray II
1713 - 1716 Qaplan Giray I
1716 - 1717 Dawlat Giray III
1717 - 1724 Sa'adat Giray III
1724 - 1730 Mengli Giray II
1730 - 1736 Qaplan Giray I
1736 - 1737 Fath. Giray II
1737 - 1740 Mengli Giray II
1740 - 1743 Salamat Giray II
1743 - 1748 Salim Giray II
1748 - 1756 Arslan Giray
1756 - 1758 Halim Giray
1758 - 1764 Qirim Giray
1764 - 1767 Salim Giray III
1767 - 1768 Maqsud Giray
1768 - 1769 Qirim Giray
1769 - 1770 Qaplan Giray II
1770 - 1771 Salim Giray III
1771 - 1772 Maqsud Giray
1772 - 1775 Sahib Giray II
1775 - 1777 Dawlat Giray IV
1777 - 1782 Shahin Giray
1782 - 1783 Bahadur II Giray
1783 - 1787 Shahin Giray
1783 Russia: Katerina II

(Excerpted mainly from this page)


World News | Politics | History | Editor
(Copyright © 1999 Piero Scaruffi)