A time-line of Russia

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(Copyright © 1999 Piero Scaruffi)

A timeline of Russia and former Soviet republics


c800: the Varingian Rus (Vikings?) reach the lands around Kiev from the north
860: a Rus fleet attacks Byzantium
c862: the Rus viking Ulrich founds Novgorod
863: Cyril and Methodius from Byzantium write the Slavic bible
c879: the Rus Viking Rurik/ Riurik founds Kiev
c882: Rurik's son Oleg of Russia captures Kiev from the Khazars
c900: Oleg unifies the Baltic city of Novgorod with the duchy of Kiev
911: the Rus and the eastern Roman empire sign a treaty
911: the Rus raid Caspian communities by ship
913: Rurik's son Igor becomes the ruler of Kiev-Novgorod
921: Rurik's son Igor moves the capital of the duchy from Novgorod to Kiev
941: Igor attacks Byzantium but is defeated
944: Igor signs a treaty with Byzantium
945: Igor is assassinated and is succeeded by his widow Olga
945: Igor is assassinated and is succeeded by his widow Olga
962: Olga is succeeded by her son Svyatoslav becomes ruler of Kiev
964: Svyatoslav launches a military campaign against the Eastern tribes, conquering the Volga Bulgars
968: Khazars are defeated at Sarkel by Svyatoslav of Kiev and the Khazar empire is destroyed, leaving Kiev with the entire Volga-Caspian trade route
969: Svyatoslav puts his son Vladimir in charge of Novgorod
971: Svyatoslav of Kiev signs a treaty with Byzantium surrendering the Balkans and Crimea
972: Svyatoslav dies and his sons start a civil war
980: Vladimir of Novgorod conquers Kiev and creates a unified Rus with capital in Kiev, and launches a campaign to conquer the Baltic people
988: Vladimir, now the Rus ruler of Kiev-Novgorod, a kingdom that extends from Ukraine to the Baltic Sea (the largest European state), marries the sister-in-law of the Byzantine emperor Basil II, converts his people to Christianity (the Greek-Orthodox brand of Christianity) and builds the first church (Church Of the Holy Virgin), while the Patriarch of Byzantium appoints a primate of Russia who is a Greek
996: the Church of the Assumption ("Church of the Tithes") is completed
1015: Vladimir dies and a new civil war erupts
1018: There are already almost 400 churches in Kiev
1019: Yaroslav I prevails in the civil war and becomes the new ruler of Kiev
1024: Suzdal is founded
1026: Yaroslav divides the kingdom with his brother Mstislav (who obtains the territory east of the Dniepr with capital in Chernigov)
1030: Yaroslav, the Rus ruler of Kiev-Novgorod, builds Hagia Sofia (St Sophia) in Kiev
1035: the city of Cernigov builds the Church of the Transfiguration
1036: Mstislav dies and Yaroslav becomes the sole ruler of Kiev and Chernigov
1037: Yaroslav defeats the steppe people Pechenegs
1045: Yaroslav of Kiev issues the "Russkaia pravda" to regulate the princes of the confederation of Kiev
1047: St Sophia is completed in Kiev
1050: the ascetics Anthony and Theodosius found the Monastery of the Caves (Pecherska Lavra) in Kiev
1050: Hilarion is the first native Rus to head the church of Kiev ("metropolitan")
1054: Yaroslav dies after marrying his sister to the Polish king, three of his sons to European princesses and three of his daughters to European kings, and after splitting the kingdom among his sons: to Iziaslav the capital Kiev and Novgorod, to Svjatoslav the city-state of Chernigov, to Viacheslav the city-state of Smolensk, to Igor Vladimir-in-Volynia, and to Vsevolod the Pereiaslavl, Rostov-Suzdal and the Volga River region
1061: The Cumans attack Kievan territory
1093: Svyatopolk succeeds Vsevolod as ruler or Kiev but Vsevolod's son Vladimir Monomakh initiates a campaign to unite Kiev and northeastern Rus
1108: the city of Vladimir is founded by Monomakh
1111: Vladimir Monomakh defeats the Cumans at Salnitsa
1113: Monomakh is proclaimed prince of Kiev
1125: Monomach dies and is succeeded by his son Mstislav in Kiev
1132: Mtislav dies and Monomakh's sixth son Yury Dolgoruky, lord of the Kievian province of Suzdal, tries to seize power in Kiev but the state disintegrates in a loose federation of city-states
1147: the Russian city of Moscow is founded
1154: Yury Dolgoruky is accepted as grand prince of Kiev
1156: Yury Dolgoruky builds the first (wooden) kremlin in Moscow
1157: Yury Dolgoruky dies and his eldest son becomes the grand prince of Kiev
1169: Another of Yury's sons, Andrei Gleb Yuriyevich of Rostov-Suzdal, wins the civil war and becomes grand prince of Kiev, but then moves the capital to Vladimir
1174: Yury Dolgoruky's tenth son Vsevolod III becomes the grand prince of Kiev
1176: Yury Dolgoruky's tenth son Vsevolod III becomes the grand prince of Kiev
1185: Igor Svyatoslavich, prince of Novgorod-Seversk, is defeated by the Cumans
1197: Roman unifies Galicia and Volynia
1200: Vsevolod III proclaims himself grand prince of Kiev and grand prince of Vladimir-Suzdal
1212: Vsevolod III dies
1215: Yury II founds the eastern-most of the Russian princedoms, Nizhny-Novgorod, on the Volga and Oka rivers
1221: Roman's son Danylo becomes prince of Galicia
1222: Yaroslav II becomes prince of Novgorod
1223: a first Mongol horde defeats a coalition of Russian princes on the Kalka river
1236: Yaroslav II moves from Novgorod to Kiev, leaving his son Alexander in charge in Novgorod
1237: the Mongols invade Russia
1238: Yaroslav II becomes prince of Vladimir
1240: Novgorod prince Alexander "Nevsky" defeats the Swedes on the Neva river
1240: Mongol leader Batu raids Kiev, destroying the Church of the Assumption, the Rurikid princes becomes subjects of the Mongols, and Moscow becomes the new center of Russian culture
1243: Yaroslav II of Vladimir accepts to become a vassal of the Mongols
1246: Yaroslav II of Vladimir dies and the Mongols split his duchy between his children Alexander Nevsky (Kiev) and Andrej (Vladimir, Suzdal)
1248: Andrej rebels and the Mongols, after defeating him, install Alexander "Nevsky" as prince of Vladimir
1253: Danylo Halitski of Galicia is crowned king by the Pope
1256: Danylo Halitski of Galicia founds Lviv
1264: Danylo Halitski of Galicia dies and is succeeded by his son Lev
1283: Daniil, youngest son of Alexander Nevsky, becomes the first prince of Moscow
1301: Lev of Galicia dies
1303: Daniil of Moscow dies and is succeeded by his son Yuriy
1303: under the leadership of Iurii Danilovic, the princes of Moscow refuse to recognize the Rurikid heir and convince the Mongols to accept the Danilovic dynasty
1303: Youstol Dispage Fromscaruffi dies
1304: Michail of Tver becomes grand prince
1310: the city of Novgorod builds the fortress Karela in Finland to protect from Swedish invasions
1319: The grand prince Michail is killed by the Mongols, while Yuriy of Moscow marries a sister of the Mongol khan and is appointed grand prince, the first prince of Moscow to become grand prince
1325: Ivan I becomes ruler of Moscow-Vladimir
1326: prince Ivan Danilovic builds five stone churches inside Moscow's kremlin
1328: the Metropolitan moves the capital of the Russian church from Vladimir to Moscow, beginning the shift of power towards Moscow
1328: the prince of Moscow, Ivan I, is appointed grand prince by the Mongols
1341: Ivan I of Moscow dies and is succeeded by his son Simeon
1350: Sergius of Radonezh founds the Monastery of the Holy Trinity (at Sergiev Posad), the new center of Russian christianity
1353: Simeon of Moscow dies and is succeeded by Ivan II
1359: Ivan II of Moscow dies and is succeeded by the nine-year old Dmitrii
1368: Lithuania tries to invade Moscow
1372: Lithuania tries again to invade Moscow
1380: Dmitrii Danilovic of Moscow, leading a coalition of Russian cities (except Tver and Novgorod), defeats the Mongols at Kulikovo
1386: Galicia is conquered by Poland
1389: Cyprian becomes metropolitan of Lithuania and Kiev
1389: Dmitrii of Moscow dies and is succeeded by his ten-year old son Basil I
1425: Basil I of Moscow dies and is succeeded by his son Basil II
1430: part of the Golden Horde splits off to form the Khanate of the Crimea under Hajji Giray Khan
1439: the Orthodox Church of Russia refuses a fusion with Roman catholicism
1443: The Orthodox Church of Russia declares its independence from Byzantium
1444: the Cossacks are first mentioned in a chronicle
1445: part of the Golden Horde splits off to form the Khanate of Kazan
1452: Basil II grants a Mongol the principate of Kasimov, the first time that a Mongol accepts to be a subject of a Russian prince
1453: when the Ottoman Turks conquer Byzantium, Orthodox Church of Russia splits from Byzantium
1461: the Orthodox Church of Russia changes the title of the metropolitan of Kiev to "patriarch of Moscow and all Russia"
1462: Basil II dies and Ivan III becomes ruler of Moscow and re-organizes Moscow as an absolutist state
1466: part of the Golden Horde splits off to form the Khanate of Astrakhan
1471: Ivan III of Moscow annexes Novgorod
1472: Ivan III of Moscow marries Sophia Paleologa, niece of the last emperor of Byzantium
1475: The mestnichestvo is instituted in Moscow (only nobles can aspire to top political and military positions) to reinforce Russia's claim to being Byzantium's heir ("the third Rome")
1478: Ivan III of Moscow annexes Novgorod
1480: Ivan III of Moscow assumes the title of Tsar of Russia
1485: Ivan III of Moscow annexes Tver
1485: Construction of the new Kremlin begins in Moscow
1493: Ivan III of Moscow declares himself heir to the Kievan state
1498: The grand prince of Moscow, Ivan III, is crowned as "czar" (successor to the Byzantine emperor) of Moscow
1500: Ivan III of Moscow defeats Lithuania at the battle of Vedrosha, and the princes of Novgorod, Chernigov and Starodub secede from Lithuania and join Muscovy
1505: Ivan III dies and is succeeded by Basil III
1514: Moscow captures Smolensk
1532: Basil III conquers the Tatar kingdom of Kazan
1533: Basil III dies and is succeeded by his three-year old son Ivan IV, with queen a Russian of Lithuanian origin, as regent
1538: Queen Helen is poisoned
1547: The 16-year old Ivan IV is crowned as czar and marries Anastasia Romanov
1550: Ivan IV enacts a new code of law and reforms the army to emphasize artillery
1555: Ivan IV signs a commercial treaty with England
1556: Ivan IV the Terrible conquers the Mongol khanate of Astrakhan, i.e. Russia reaches the Caspian Sea
1558: Ivan IV attacks the Livonian Order
1558: Ivan IV the Terrible grants the Stroganovs territory west of the Urals and the Stroganovs hire Cossacks to subdue the Tatars
1561: Poland-Lithuania and Muscovy destroy the Livonian Order
1563: Muscovy seizes the old territory of the Livonian Order from Poland-Lithuania
1565: Ivan IV begins a reign of terror
1571: the Tartar khanate of Crimea raids Moscow
1579: The Stroganovs organize an expedition against the khanate of Siberia
1580: Ivan IV's son Fodor marries Boris Godunov's sister Irina
1581: Ivan IV kills his own son and heir
1582: Russia cedes Baltic land to Poland
1582: The Stroganov army conquers the capital of the khanate of Siberia
1583: Russia cedes Baltic land to Sweden
1581: Cossacks begin colonizing Siberia
1584: Ivan the Terrible dies and is succeeded by his son Fodor, who appoints Boris Godunov (an ethnic Mongol) as his adviser
1586: Georgia requests annexation to Muscovy
1588: Boris Godunov is the de-facto ruler of Russia
1589: The patriarchate of Moscow is created
1591: The Tatars sack Moscow
1591: Fodor's brother and only male heir Dmitrii is assassinated in Uglich
1595: Muscovy regains from Sweden the territories ceded in 1583
1598: Fodor, the last Rurikid, dies without an heir and a council elects Boris Godunov as czar
1598: the king of the Tatars is finally defeated by the Cossacks
1601: A famine kills more than one million people in Russia
1605: Helped by Polish volunteers, a pretender who claims to be the assassinated Dmitrii kills Boris Godunov and seizes power
1606: Czar Dmitrii marries the Polish aristocrat Marina Mniszech, but is killed by prince Basil Shuisky who becomes czar Basic IV
1606: A rebellious army of serfs, peasants and slaves from the South led by prince Shakhovskoy reaches the gate of Moscow
1607: The Muscovite army defeats Shakhovskoy's rebels
1608: Another false Dmitrii organizes a rebellion with headquarters in Tushino
1610: Sweden helps Russia defeat the Tushino rebels but Tushino asks Polish king Sigismund III's son Wladislaw/Ladislaus to become their new czar, Poland invades Russia to counter Sweden's intervention, Basil is forced by the people of Moscow to resign and Moscow lets the Polish troops in
1611: Patriarch Hermogen inspires Procopius Liapunov, prince Dmitrii Trubetskoy and Ivan Zarutsky's cossacks to take up arms against the Polish occupier, but Liapunov is killed by cossacks, while Poland captures Smolensk and Sweden captures Novgorod
1612: Moscow is liberated from Polish occupation by an army of Russian patriots and inspired by the patriarch
1613: a council of clergy, nobles, landowners and peasants elects the 16-year old Mikhail Romanov as czar and inaugurates the Romanov dynasty, but most Russian cities have been devastated by the civil war and by the invasions of Poland and Sweden
1614: Zarutsky and Marina Mniszech are captured by the Russians
1617: The peace treaty of Stolbovo Russia loses Karelia to Sweden but regains Novgorod
1619: Michail Romanov's father Philaret is made patriach
1619: The first Russian envoy reaches the court of China
1624: Peasant rebellions led by Cossacks in Ukraine against Polish rule
1627: Russia builds a fort at Krasnoiarsk
1632: Russia builds a fort at Iakurst
1633: The patriarch Philaret dies and czar Michail Romanov becomes the sole ruler of Russia
1639: the Cossacks reach the Pacific Ocean
1643: Russians discover Lake Bajkal
1645: The czar Michail dies and his son Alexis succeeds him
1648: The people of Moscow revolts when a tax on salt is introduced
1648: the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev discovers that a straight separates Asia from America
1648: Ukraine rises up against Polish occupation
1648: Jews are mascred in Ukraine
1649: A council compiles a new code of law, the "Ulozhenie", that de facto legalizes serfdom
1651: Russia's eastward expansion reaches Lake Bajkal
1652: Nikon of Novgorod becomes patriarch and assers that the Church is superior to the state
1652: The czar creates a German ghetto in Moscow to house the foreign businessmen
1653: The patriarch Nikon enacts religious reforms that cause a religious civil war ("raskol")
1654: An assembly of Ukrainian nobles and landowners declares the secession of Ukraine from Poland-Lithuania and demands integration into Russia, Russia declares war on Poland and captures Minsk and Vilna
1655: Sweden invades Poland-Lithuania ("First Northern War"), causing the death of millions, while Russia, Denmark, and the Empireside with Poland-Lithuania
1656: Russians found the trading post of Nerchinsk at the border with China
1662: People revolt because of inflation ("copper coin revolt")
1664: A Western-style postal service is inaugurated
1667: The peace treaty of Andrusovo limits Poland to western Ukraine while Russia obtains eastern Ukraine (including Kiev) and regains Smolensk, with the Dniepr as the natural border between Russia and Poland
1667: A peasants revolt is led by the cossack Stephan Razin
1667: Patriarch Nikon is deposed by a council of the Church, that on the other hand upholds his reforms, the beginning of a decade of religious strife and persecution
1671: Stephan Razin is hanged in Moscow
1671: Alexis marries Nathalie Naryshkima
1672: Opponents of the Church's reforms burn themselves (more than 20,000 will do so in the next 20 years)
1672: The czar establishes a Western-style court theater
1676: The czar Alexis dies and is succeeded by his eldest son Fyodor III/Theodor III
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1682: The mestnichestvo is abolished
1682: The czar Fyodor dies without an heir and a coup led by his sister Sophia installs her brother Ivan as czar instead of the ten-year old half-brother Pyotr/Peter, son of Natalya Naryshkina
1686: Russia and Poland sign a treaty of "eternal peace"
1687: A Russian invasion is defeated by the Crimean Tatars
1689: A second Russian invasion is defeated by the Crimean Tatars, a defeat that causes Sophia's downfall and the election of Pyotr/Peter "the Great" to czar, with his mother Natalya/Nathalie as regent
1689: China signs a border treaty with Russia (first bilateral agreement with a European power), the treaty of Nerchinsk, to settle the border between Russian Siberia and Chinese Manchuria, declaring Outer Mongolia a neutral land (partition of the steppe world between Russia and China)
1694: Pyotr's mother Nathalie Naryshkima dies, leaving Pyotr as the real ruler of Russia
1695: Russia attacks Turkey
1697: Pyotr visits Western Europe
1699: Denmark, Poland and Russia attack Sweden, but Charles XII's army invades Poland, Saxony and Ukraine
1699: Aleksandr Menshikov, a former Preobrazhensky guard, becomes Pyotr's favorite advisor
1700: Russia and Turkey sign a peace treaty, granting Azov to Russia, and Russia allies with Poland against Sweden
1700: The patriarch Hadrian dies and Pyotr keeps the seat vacant for twenty years
1700: Russia adopts the Julian calendar
1701: The School of Mathematics and Navigation is inaugurated
1702: The first Russian newspaper is published, "Vedomosti/ News", edited by the czar in person
1703: Pyotr founds Sankt Peterburg (later renamed Petrograd)
1703: The first Russian newspaper is published, "Moskovskie-novosti/ News from Moscow"
1705: A revolt breaks out in Astrakhan
1706: Poland surrenders to Sweden, leaving Russia to fight alone
1707: Sweden, having defeated Poland, invades Russia
1707: Conrad Bulavin leads a rebellion of the Don cossacks
1707: The School of Medicine opens in Moscow
1709: Sweden is defeated by Russia at the battle of Poltava
1709: A canal is built to connect the Neva and the Volga
1710: Turkey declares war on Russia, while Russia captures Estonia from Sweden
1710: Pyotr introduces a simplified alphabet
1712: Pyotr moves the capital to St Petersburg
1712: Pyotr marries his lover Ekaterina, a Lithuanian woman of low origins
1714: Russian conquers most of Finland from Sweden
1717: Poland becomes a Russian protectorate
1717: A Russia expedition is massacred in Khiva, Central Asia
1718: Russia defeats the Khazak horde
1721: at the peace of Nystad, Russia obtains from Sweden some of its Baltic territories (Estonia and Livonia) but returns most of Finland
1721: the Patriarchate is abolished, hermitages are banned and the Russian Church is subjected to the czar
1722: Pyotr defeats Persia
1722: Russia's population is 13 million
1724: The Russian Academy of Sciences is founded
1724: Pyotr has his second wife Ekaterina crowned empress
1725: Pyotr the Great dies and is succeeded by his second wife Ekaterina I who prevails over Pyotr's grandson Pyotr, Pyotr's daughters Anna and Elizaveta and Ivan V's daughters Anna and Ekaterina thanks to support from the Preobrazhensky guards
1725: Russia has 13 million people
1726: Ekaterina creates a Supreme Secret Council headed by Aleksandr Menshikov, who appoints himself "generalissimus"
1726: Russia and Austria sign a treaty of alliance
1727: Russia and China sign the treaty of Kyakhta, defining their border and granting Russia a trading post in Kyakhta
1727: Ekaterina I dies and the Supreme Secret Council chooses Pyotr's 12-year old grandson Pyotr II to succeed her with the council itself as regent and Pyotr II has Menshikov exiled
1728: the Russian explorer Vitus Bering sails beyond Kamchatka
1730: Pyotr II dies of smallpox at 15 and the Supreme Secret Council chooses Ivan V's daughter Anna to succeed him, a childless noble from Latvia, but Anna immediately disbands the council, exiles its members and appoints Germans to the top positions, starting with her lover Ernst von Biron who launches a terror campaign ("Bironovshchina")
1731: A new law grants landlords the financial control of their serfs
1732: Pyotr I's daughter Elizaveta falls in love with Alexey Razumovsky, a former cossack shepherd from the Ukraine and now a court singer
1732: Anna moves the court to the Winter Palace
1732: Alaska is discovered
1733: Russia and Austria fight against France in the War of the Polish Secession
1735: Russia and Austria defeat France in the War of the Polish Secession
1736: Russia and Austria fight against the Ottoman Empire and France
1739: Russia and Austria defeat the Ottoman Empire and France
1740: Anna dies and is succeeded by the infant Ivan VI while the power is de facto in the hands of the "German party"
1741: the Russian explorer Vitus Bering reaches Alaska
1741: Pyotr I's daughter Elizaveta stages a coup that removes the German party from power, exiles Ivan VI and installs her as czarina, with her lover Alexey Razumovsky as main advisor
1741: Russia, supported by Austria, fights against Sweden, supported by France
1742: An expedition of 570 scientists sets out to map the northern shore of Siberia
1742: Russia orders the deportation of all Jews
1743: Russia defeats Sweden and conquers additional Finnish territory
1745: Anna's son Pyotr marries the princess Sophia von Anhalt-Zerbst, the daughter of a Prussian general, who converts to Eastern Orthodoxy and adopts the name Ekaterina
1753: Elizaveta commissions a new grandiose Winter Palace in St Petersburg
1755: The scientist Mikhail Lomonosov with help from Elizaveta's new favorite Ivan Shuvalov, founds the Moscow State University, the first Russian university
1755: The first Russian grammar is published by Lomonosov
1756: Friederich II of Prussia invades Saxony, starting the Seven Years' War, pitting France, Austria, Russia, Saxony, Sweden and Spain against Prussia and Britain
1762: Elizaveta dies and the new czar Pyotr III, a son of the "German" czarina Anna raised by Germans, switches alliance, joining (and saving) Prussia
Jun 1762: Ekaterina II stages a coup against her husband Pyotr III and becomes czarina
1762: Nobility is freed from the obligation to serve the czar and many noblemen are awarded country estates with thousands of serfs
1762: Russia has 19 million people
1763: Ekaterina enacts reforms that spread serfdom to the Ukraine
1764: Ivan VI is killed by the guards when conspirators tried to free him from prison
1764: Ekaterina expropriates the last lands owned by the Church
1767: Ekaterina enacts reforms inspired by the French Enlightenment but retains serfdom
1768: Jews are massacred during riots in Russia-occupied Poland
1768: Russia invades Ottoman territories in Bessarabia, the Balkans and the Crimean peninsula
1770: The Russian navy defeats the Ottoman navy at the Bay of Chesme, the first major naval victory by Russia
1772: a renegade cossack, Pugachev, leads a revolt
1772: The Jews of Poland are allowed to remain in what is now Russian territory
1772: a Polish rebellion is crushed by Russia that partitions one fourth of Poland with Prussia and Austria, obtaining White Russia and Latvia
1773: Emelian Pugachev, who proclaims himself emperor Pyotr III, leads a cossack rebellion along the Ural river that becomes a mass rebellion by serfs, miners and workers, promising the extermination of nobles and landlords
1773: Ekaterina ends the religious persecution of the Muslim Tatars
1774: Pugachev is defeated and executed
1774: The Russians defeat the Ottomans and obtain cities of the Black Sea and Caucasus, the first time that the Ottoman Empire loses Muslim subjects to a Christian power
1774: Grigori Potemkin's becomes Ekaterina's new lover and chief advisor
1775: Ekaterina enacts reforms to decentralize power to the provinces
1776: The Bolshoi Ballet is founded
1776: Ekaterina becomes famous for her yearly changes of favorite, but Potemkin remains the most powerful man in Russia
1779: Russia annexes the Crimea
1783: Ekaterina grants the right for everybody to open a publishing house, causing a boom in book publishing
1787: The Ottomans declare war on Russia, with Sweden supporting the Ottomans and Austria supporting Russia
1789: Nikolai Sheremetev owns one million serfs
1790: Russia's population is 36 million
1791: Jews are permitted to settle in some regions of Russia
1792: Russia defeats the Ottomans and obtains Southern Ukraine with the Dniester as the new border
1793: Ekaterina of Russia invades Poland, abrogates the constitution and partitions half of Poland between Russia and Prussia , obtaining western Ukraine and most of Lithuania
1794: Russia and Prussia invade Poland again to quell a national uprising
1794: Russia builds the port of Odessa in the southern Ukraine conquered from the Ottomans
1795: A third partition divides the whole of Poland between Russia (that takes all of Lithuania and Ukraine) and Prussia (that takes Warszaw), thereby removing Poland from the map
1796: Ekaterina the Great dies and is succeeded by her son Pavel
1796: Russia has 36 million people, 96% living in the countryside and 53% being serfs
1797: Pavel I enacts a succession law that automatically proclams as czar the oldest surviving male of a deceased czar
1798: Russia sends troops under general Suvorov to fight France in Italy, and Pavel is proclaimed Grand Master by the Knights of Malta after France invades Malta
1799: The Russian-American company is chartered
1800: Russian troops retreat from Italy to southern Germany
1801: Eastern Georgia asks to be annexed to Russia
1802: Pavel is assassinated by nobles just when he had ordered a cossack invasion of India and Alexander I becomes czar
1803: Moldavia and Wallachia princes loyal to Russia
1804: Persia declares war on Russia following Russia's annexaction of Georgia
1806: Russia and Britain declare war on the Ottomans
1808: Russia establishes the colony of Noviiy Rossiya in California
1809: Russia invades Sweden and Sweden cedes Finland to Russia
1810: Russia defeats the Ottomans and acquires Bessarabia
1812: the Russians defeat the Ottomans and annex Bessarabia (Moldovia) at the Peace of Bucharest
1812: Napoleon invades Russia and Russians burn Moscow
1813: Iran loses the war against Russia and recognizes Russian rule over Georgia and Azerbajan in the Caucasus (Treaty of Gulistan)
1814: Napoleon is defeated
1815: The population of Russia is 45 million
1820: Alexander's brother Constantine marries a Polish woman and renounces any right to the Russian throne
1821: Thaddeus Belingshausen discovers the Antarctic continent
1822: the ban on hermitages is repealed and a hermitage is built at Optina Pustyn
1822: Czar Alexander outlaws Masonry and all secret societies
1824: A treaty with the USA grants Oregon to the USA
1825: A treaty with Britain defines the borders of Russian Alaska
Dec 1825: Alexander I 1825 dies and is succeeded by Nicholas I against the supporters of Constantine, while the "Decembrist" revolt by aristocratic army officers who wants constitutionalism and abolish serfdom fails
Jun 1826: Russia fights a second war against Persia over Georgia
1826: Five decembrists are executed
Oct 1827: Britain, France and Russia defeat Egypt at the battle of Navarino
Feb 1828: Iran loses Armenia, and Russia annexes Armenia and Azerbaijan
Apr 1828: Russia attacks the Ottomans
1829: Russia defeats the Ottomans, gains control of Moldavia and Wallachia, and helps Serbia and Greece become independent
Nov 1830: Polish patriots rebel against Russian occupation
1831: The "Slavophiles" preach the superiority and historical mission of the Russian Orthodox church
1831: Cholera epidemics
1832: Russia declares Poland a region of the Russian empire governed by the czar's viceroy
1833: Russia, Austria and Prussia sign treaties of alliance
1834: Imam Shamil leads anti-Russian resistance in the North Caucasus
1835: A new code of law is enacted
1838: The first Russian railway is inaugurated
1839: The Pulkovo observatory opens in St Petersburg
1841: Russia, Britain, France, Austria and Prussia at the Straits Convention agree to ban all warships from the Ottoman straits, thus confining the southern Russian fleet to the Black Sea
1842: The anarchist Mikhail Bakunin leaves Russia for Western Europe
1847: The revolutionary Alexander Herzen flees abroad
1848: Russian troops defeat the Romanian revolution in Moldavia and Wallachia
1849: Russia helps Austria defeat a nationalist revolt in Hungary
1849: Dostoevsky is jailed for subversive activities
1849: The anarchist Mikhail Bakunin is arrested in Germany and imprisoned in Russia
1851: The population of Russia is 67 million
Oct 1853: Russia and the Ottoman empire begin the Crimean war
Mar 1854: Britain and France join the Ottomans against Russia in the Crimean war
1854: Russia annexes Khazakstan
1855: Russia and Japan establish diplomatic relations
Mar 1855: Nicholas I dies and is succeeded by Alexander II
Mar 1856: Russia's Black Sea fleet is destroyed and the treaty of Paris that ends the Crimean War gives the Ottomans a protectorate over Moldavia, Wallachia and Serbia
1858: Russia and China sign a border treaty
1859: Dostoevsky is released from detention
1859: Russia conquers Shamil, the headquarters of Muslim resistance in the Caucasus, and annexes Chechnya while thousands of Muslims migrate to Turkey
1860: Russia and China sign a border treaty that grants Russia the coast around the newly founded city of Vladivostok
Mar 1861: Alexander II abolishes serfdom, granting freedom to 20 million serfs and land to peasant communes
1861: The anarchist Mikhail Bakunin escapes from Siberia and returns to Western Europe
1861: University students protest against the government
1863: Russian ships help the Union win the civil war in the USA
Jan 1863: Polish patriots rise up against Russian occupation
1863: Nikolay Chernyshevsky publishes the political pamphlet "What is to be done" from prison
Jan 1864: Alexander II democratizes local government via the "zemstvo system", but representation is still proportional to landownership
Dec 1864: Alexander II enacts a reform of the legal system that makes the judiciary an independent branch of government
1864: Alexander II reorganizes military service, extending the draft to all Russians (not just the lower classes)
1864: Russia signs a treaty border with China that opens Central Asia to Russian expansion and also begins to expand into Iran's central Asian provinces
1865: Russia conquers Tashkent
1865: Russia turns the kingdom of Poland into the Vistula Province, forbids the use of the Polish and Lithuanian languages and persecutes the Catholic church
1866: the Ottoman protectorates of Moldavia and Wallachia unite in the federation of Romania
1866: The State Bank of Russia is created
1867: the USA buys Alaska from Russia
1868: Russia conquers Samarkand and Bukhara in Uzbekistan
1869: Dmitri Mendeleev publishes the periodic table of the elements
1871: The first oil well is drilled in the Caucasus (near Baku)
1871: Abd al-Qayyim Nasiri/ Qayum Nasiri opens a school in the land of the Tatars to modernize Islam (the "Jadid" movement or "New Method") and creates the Tatar alphabet
1873: Russia annexes Uzbekistan
1873: Russia recalls all the students who are in Switzerland
1875: Russia exchanges with Japan the Kurile Islands for the island of Sakhalin
1876: The revolutionary society "Land and Freedom" is founded
1876: Bulgarians rebel against the Ottomans and Serbia declares war on the Ottoman Empire, with help from Russian volunteers
1877: Russia declares war on the Ottoman Empire to defend Bulgaria and Serbia
1878: Russia defeats the Ottomans, but is stopped by Britain to protect its route to Indiaand to prevent uprisings by Indian Muslims, and the Congress of Berlin hands Cyprus to Britain and Bosnia to Austria, grants Montenegro, Serbia, and Romania independence and creates an autonomous Christian principality of Bulgaria within the Ottoman Empire
1878: Ludwig Nobel introduces the first oil tanker in the Caucasus
1879: A leftist fringe of "Land and Freedom" founds the revolutionary society "Will of the People"
1881: Persia loses Turkmenistan to Russia
1881: Alexander II is assassinated by nihilists of "Will of the People" and is succeeded by Alexander III, who enacts anti-terrorism laws that curb civil rights and freedom of the press
1881: A wave of anti-Jewish pogroms causes mass migrations of eastern European Jews (2.5 million Jews settle in the United States, thousands settle in Palestine)
1882: Russia abandons Turkestan which is annexed by China
1882: Youstol Dispage Fromscaruffi dies
1883: Alphonse Rothschild, a French Jew, loans money to build a railroad to Baku
1883: The Crimean Tatar Ismail Gasprinski founds the journal Tarjuman, the main vehicle for the Jadid movement
1884: Russia conquers Merv (Turkmenistan)
1884: Alexander III bans student organizations
1885: Russians and British compete for control of Central Asia, turning Britain into an enemy of Russia
1886: The Rothschild family founds the Black Sea Pyotroleum Company
1887: Alexander III introduces a quota for Jewish students in universities
1887: Ludwik Zamenhof invents esperanto
1888: The railway from Krasnovodsk to Samarqand is inaugurated
1890: The population of St Petersburg is 1,033,600
1890: Alexander III reorganizes the zemstvo system so that the aristocratic landowners prevail (zemstvo counter-reform)
1891: The great famine kills 500,000 people
1891: USA oil accounts for 78% of illuminating oil exports vs 29% of Russia
1892: Sergei Witte minister of finance and launches an ambitious program of industrialization
1892: Marcus Samuel, a British Jew, introduces an oil tanker that can sail through the Suez canal to Bangkok
1892: Russian botanist Dmitri Ivanovsky discovers the first virus, the tobacco mosaic virus
1894: Alexander III dies and is succeeded by his eldest son Nicholas II
1894: France and Russia sign an alliance
1895: Vladimir Ulyanov (Lenin) is arrested for revolutionary activities
1896: China grants Russia permission to build the Chinese Eastern Railway across Manchuria to Vladivostok
1898: Marxists groups unite in the Social Democratic Labour Party, while strikes and student riots spread
1898: Russia expands in northern China
1898: Konstantin Stanislavsky's Moscow Art Theater stages Anton Chekhov's "The Seagull"
1898: China grants Russia a lease for Port Arthur in Manchuria
1899: Russia enacts reforms to "Russificate" Finland
1900: The population of Russia passes the 100 million mark and Moscow passes one million, and there are now two million industrial workers
1901: Tolstoj is excommunicated by the Russian church for advocating the true spirit of the gospels and separation from the state
1901: Radical Marxists organize the Social Revolutionary Party
1901: The Russian Orthodox Church excommunicates Lev Tolstoy
1902: Social Revolutionaries carry out political assassinations
1903: Sergei Witte is dismissed by Nicholas II
1903: Maksim Gorky's play "The Lower Depths" stages thieves, prostitutes and tramps
1903: The Social Democratic Labour Party splits into Bolsheviks (led by Vladimir Ulianov "Lenin") and Mensheviks (led by Julius Martov)
1903: A pogrom in Kishinev
1904: the Trans-Siberian Railroad is completed
Feb 1904: Japan attacks Russia in Manchuria and Korea
May 1905: after Japan destroys the Russian fleet at the battle of Tsushima, Russia withdraws from Manchuria, loses Sakhalin, and recognizes a Japanese protectorate over Korea (treaty of Portsmouth), the first time that a non-European country defeats a European power
Jan 1905: Cossacks fire on peaceful protesters led by priest Georgy Gapon in St Petersburg
1905: Protesters march on the Winter Palace and "soviets" (worker's councils) are set up
Oct 1905: responding to a general strike, Czar Nicholas II issues the October Manifesto, a sort of constitution that establishes Russia's first parliament (Duma)
1905: Nicholas II falls under the spell of Rasputin, a Siberian peasant who pretended to be a healer and a prophet
1905: Leon Trotsky develops the theory of "Permanent Revolution"
1905: The liberals organize the Cadets Party that favors a constitutional democracy
May 1906: The first duma convenes, with the largest block being won by the Cadets (38%)
1906: The Orenburg-Tashkent railway is inaugurated leading to a boom in Russian colonization of Turkestan
Aug 1906: The czar dissolves the duma
1906: More than 1,400 people are killed in terrorist attacks carried out by Social Revolutionaries
1906: Vsevolod Meyerhold produces Aleksandr Blok's play "Balaganchik"
1907: Britain and Russia sign a treaty (Convention of St Petersburg) dividing Iran, Tibet, Central Asia and Afghanistan into respective spheres of influence
1907: More than 3,000 people are killed in terrorist attacks carried out by Social Revolutionaries
Mar 1907: The second duma convenes, with a big increase for the leftist parties
Jun 1907: The czar dissolves the second duma and changes the electoral law so that the aristocratic landowners win 50% of the seats, and the Right becomes the main party, followed by the Octobrists
1909: Russian impresario Sergei Diaghilev founds the "Ballets Russes" in Paris
1910: The population of St Petersburg is 1,905,600
Nov 1910: Lev Tolstoy dies, possibly the most famous writer in the world
1911: Russia invades the northern provinces of Iran
1911: Igor Stravinsky composes the ballet "Petrushka", choreographed by Mikhail Fokine for Diaghilev with Vaslav Nijinsky as lead dancer
1911: Success of the "Amazons", female avantgarde painters (Alexandra Exter, Natalia Goncharova, Liubov Popova, Olga Rozanova, Varvara Stepanova, and Nadezhda Udaltsov)
1912: The elections to the duma are rigged to reduce the Octobrists
1912: Turkestan's cotton accounts for more than 60% of all Russian cotton
1913: Aleksei Kruchenykh writes a libretto in zaum language and Malevich designes the stage for Mikhail Matyushin cubist-futurist opera "Victory Over the Sun"
1914: World War I breaks out in the Balkans, pitting Britain, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, USA and Japan against Austria, Germany and Turkey (400,000 Russian soldiers die in 1914 alone)
1914: Lenin publishes the pamphlet "Imperialism: the highest stage of Capitalism"
1914: St Petersburg's name is changed to Petrograd
1915: At the Zimmerwald Conference, Vladimir Lenin causes the end of the Second International
1915: Vladimir Tatlin's art launches "Constructivism" in Russia
1915: Kazimir Malevich's art launches "Suprematism" in Russia
1916: Grigori Rasputin is murdered by a prince
1916: Russia has already suffered almost two million deaths in WWI
Mar 1917: Bending to riots by women, striking workers and defecting soldiers, Czar Nicholas II abdicates, thereby ending the Romanov dynasty ("february revolution")
(Click here for a more detailed chronicle of the revolution)
1917: Aleksandr Kerensky is appointed by the Duma as prime minister of the provisional government
1917: Bolsheviks overthrow the Kerensky government and install Lenin as leader of Russia ("october revolution")
Nov 1917: Muslims declare Turkestan independent
Dec 1917: Lenin sets up the terrorist police Cheka
Jul 1918: Czar Nicholas II, his wife and their children are killed by the secret police of the Bolsheviks
1918: The Svomas (Free State Art Studios) are inaugurated in Moscow
1918: Vladimir Mayakovsky's futurist play "Misteriya-Buff" is produced by Vsevolod Meyerhold with sets designed by Kazimir Malevich
1918: Lenin orders the secret police to arrest and/or kill the anarchists
1918: Lenin signs a truce with Germany and accepts territorial losses
1918: Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan proclaim their independence
Feb 1918: Russia reconquers Turkestan
1918: Lenin nationalizes the factories, collectivizes the farms and outlaws the church
1918: Civil war erupts between the Red Army of the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks (helped by Britain, Japan, USA)
1918: Lenin changes the name of the Bolshevik party to Russian Communist Party
1918: Moscow replaces St Petersburg as capital of Russia
1918: at the end of World War I, Romania gains Transylvania from Hungary and Bessarabia (Moldavia) from the Soviet Union thus doubling in size
Jun 1918: The Soviet Union begins to nationalize the industry
1919: the Armenian mystic Georges Gurdjieff establishes the "Institute for the Harmonious Development of Man"
Mar 1919: The first congress of the Third International convenes in Moscow
1919: China invades Mongolia
1920: Jozef Pilsudski defeats the Soviet army and Poland annexes western Ukraine and Belarus
Nov 1920: The British evacuate the Crimea and 150 thousand Russian refugees flee to British-controlled Istanbul
1921: The civil war ends with Lenin's victory (millions have died of starvation, the population of Petrograd has dropped from 2.5 million in 1917 to 0.6 in 1920)
Aug 1921: Persecuted by the authorities, the poet Blok dies
Feb 1921: Peasant riots and worker strikes spread in the Soviet Union
Mar 1921: following the insurrection of sailors at Kronstadt, Lenin enacts the New Economic Policy (NEP)
1921: the Mongolian communists expel the Chinese from Mongolia and install a dictatorship
1921: UKraine is annexed to the Soviet Union
1922: The Soviet Union is created by uniting Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Transcaucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbajan)
1923: The Soviet Union makes Khiva a separate republic
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1924: The Soviet Union reorganizes the Islamic lands of Turkestan into four republics, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan
1924: The Soviet Union adopts a constitution based on the dictatorship of the proletariat
May 1924: A treaty confirms Mongolia into the sphere of influence of the Soviet Union
Jan 1924: Lenin dies and is succeeded by Joseph Stalin, while the congress of the Community Party accepts Stalin's "communist in one country" policy against Trotsky's "permanent revolution" policy
Nov 1925: The poet Esenin commits suicide
1927: The Soviet Union launches a compaign of eradication of Islam
1927: The Soviet Union establishes the State University of Circus and Variety Arts to train performers for the Moscow Circus
1928: Stalin enacts the first Five-Year Plan for rapid industrialization of the Soviet Union
1928: The Soviet Union launches a campaign of forced sedentarization and collectivization of the Kazakh nomads
1929: Leon Bronstein (Lev Trotsky), who opposes Stalin, is deported to Turkey
1929: Muslim religious leaders are arrested or killed
Dec 1929: Stalin orders the persecution of "kulaks" (capitalist farmers), 15 million peasants are deported to the Arctic regions and 6.5 million die
1930: The poet Mayakovsky commits suicide
1931: the Soviet government destroys the Christ the Savior Cathedral
1932: one million people in Kazakhstan die of famine (caused by forced collectivization)
1932: anti-communist rebellion in Mongolia
1933: Four million people in Ukraine die of famine (caused by forced collectivization)
1933: The USA recognizes the Soviet Union and establishes diplomatic relations
1934: Stalin's main advisor, Sergei Kirov, is assassinated, prompting Stalin to begin the "great purge" of the Communist Party (thousands of communists are deported to "gulags")
1934: The "Union of Soviet Writers" is created to enforce "Socialist Realism" in the arts
1934: The Soviet Union joins the League of Nations
1935: the miner Aleksej Stakanov becomes a Soviet hero for his amazing productivity
1935: 94% of agricultural land has been collectivized while famine is killing millions
1935: The Soviet Union declares that the fascist states of Germany and Japan are the enemies
1936: the first show trial against communist leaders is held in Moscow (the defendants "confess")
Jan 1936: Stalin writes an article in the Pravda that attacks Shostakovic's opera "Lady Macbeth", the beginning of the anti-formalist campaign
1937: 2.5 million Soviet citizens are arrested and 700,000 are executed during the "great purges"
1938: Nicholas Bukharin "confesses" treason at a show trial
1938: the communist regime of Mongolia destroys 900 temples and kills thousands of Buddhists
Dec 1938: The poet Mandelstam commits suicide
1939: Laurenti Beria becomes head of the secret police
Aug 1939: The Soviet Union and Japan fight a border war at Nomonhan that leaves 18 thousand Japanese dead
1939: Stalin and Hitler sign a non-aggression pact including the partition of Poland (and assigns the Baltic states to the Soviet Union)
1939: World War II begins with the invasion of Poland by Germany
See the timeline for World War II
1939: Soviet troops invade eastern Poland
1939: Russian aviator Igor Sikorsky invents the helicopter
1940: The Soviet Union invades Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia
1940: Romania returns Bessarabia (Moldavia) to the Soviet Union
1940: Leon Trotsky is assassinated in Mexico City
1941: Germany invades the Soviet Union
Aug 1941: The poetess Tsvetaeva/ Cvetaeva commits suicide
1943: The Soviet Union launches a counteroffensive
1944: Finland surrenders Karelia to the Soviet Union
1944: eastern Galicia is conquered by the Soviet Union and eventually annexed to Ukraine
1945: Germany surrenders
1945: At the Yalta conference the Soviet Union, Britain and the USA partition Europe in spheres of influence
1945: Germany and Berlin are divided in four sectors, soon to be come "western" and "easter" (Russian) sectors
1946: the Soviet Union begins a secret program of biological weapons (plague, smallpox, anthrax) at Sverdlovsk
1946: Famine kills one million people in Russia and Ukraine
Aug 1946: The poetess Akhmatova is condemned as anticommunist
October 1946: The Greek communists start a civil war
February 1948: Communist coup in Czechoslovakia
June 1948: The Soviet Union enacts a blockade of West Berlin
September 1948: communist North Korea declares independence under its leader Kim Il Sung, chosen by the Soviet Union
November 1948: The Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee is disbanded
February 1949: The Pravda launches an antisemitic ("anticosmopolitan") campaign
June 1949: 30,000 Greeks are deported from Georgia to Kazakhstan
August 1949: Several leaders of the Communist Party in Leningrad are arrested, accused of a USA-funded conspiracy against Stalin (the "Leningrad Affair"), and many are executed after a secret trial
August 1949: Communists seize power in Hungary and enact a socialist constitution
August 1949: The Greek communists are defeated
1949: The Soviet Union detonates its first atomic bomb (based on American designs stolen by Klaus Fuchs)
1949: The Soviet Union forms the Comecom, an economic alliance of the communist countries
1949: 90 thousand people are deported from the Baltic republic to Siberia, as well as 94 thousand Moldavians and 60 thousand Greeks, Armenians and Turks from the Black Sea
1949: The communists win the Chinese civil war
1949: The Soviet Union explodes its first nuclear weapon
1950: The Soviet Union defeats the OUN in Ukraine
June 1950: communist North Korea (with approval from Stalin) attacks capitalist South Korea, but the invasion fails after USA intervention
May 1952: The leaders of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee are tried and 13 are executed after a secret trial
October 1952: The official propaganda reveals the Jewish conspiracy against the Soviet Union
January 1953: The "Doctors' Plot" (to assassinate the Soviet leaders) heralds a new wave of anti-semitic persecution
January 1953: The Gulag contain 2.7 million prisoners in 500 work colonies, 60 labor camps and 15 "special-regime" camps for political prisoners (mostly nationalists from Ukraine and Baltic republics) and more than one million people have died in it
March 1953: Stalin dies and an amnesty releases 1.2 million prisoners
June 1953: Beria is arrested
Feb 1954: The Soviet Union moves Crimea from Russia to Ukraine
March 1954: The KGB takes over the role of the NKVD
Feb 1955: Krushev defeats Malenkov and becomes the most powerful man in the Soviet Union
1955: The Soviet Union forms the Warsaw Pact to counterbalance NATO with Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Rumania
1955: Soviet violinist Oistrakh performs at New York's Carnegie Hall
1955: "Voice of America" begin broadcasting Willis Conover's jazz program
1955: the Soviet Union builds the world's first tokamak nuclear reactor in Moscow
Nov 1955: Krushev visits India
1956: The Boston Symphony Orchestra tours the Soviet Union
February 1956: Nikita Krushev denounces Stalin' crimes in a secret speech to the Communist Party and advocates peaceful coexistence with the capitalist world (beginning of the "Thaw")
October 1956: An anti-communist popular uprising led by Imre Nagy in Hungary is crushed by Soviet troops killing 2,800 people
Aug 1957: The Soviet Union launches its first intercontinental ballistic missile
1957: The "International Festival of Youth and Students" is held in Moscow, hearlding a cultural "thaw"
1957: A nuclear incident at the Kyshtym nuclear plant causes hundreds of cancer cases and contamination over hundreds of square kilometres
Oct 1957: The Soviet Union launches the first artificial satellite, the Sputnik
Nov 1957: The first World Conference of Communist Parties votes to hang Hungarian communist Imre Nagy (all vote in favor except the Polish leader Vladislav Gomulka)
1957: The Soviet Union tests the R-7 Semyorka, the first intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM)
July 1958: Bloody insurrection in Chechnya
1958: USA culture is exhibited at the "American Exhibition" in Sokolniki
1959: The communists led by Fidel Castro win the civil war in Cuba
1959: There are 24 million Muslims in the Soviet Union
Sep 1959: Krushev visits the USA
May 1960: The Soviet Union shoots down a U2 spy plane of the USA and captures its pilot
Apr 1961: Yuri Gagarin becomes the first astronaut
1961: Stalingrad is renamed Volgograd
1961: Yugoslavia leaves the Soviet camp and leads the non-aligned movement
Apr 1961: the Soviet Union builds a wall to isolate West Berlin and discourage people from fleeing East Germany
1962: Krushev and Kennedy risk a nuclear war over Cuba
Jun 1963: Valentina Tereskova becomes the first female astronaut
Oct 1964: While on vacation, Krushev is replaced by Leonid Brezhnev
1965: The Soviet Union funds and arms North Vietnam against the USA
1966: The Chinese Cultural Revolution further alienates Mao and the Soviet Union
August 1968: Soviet troops crush the democratic movement in Czechoslovakia
1969: Soviet and Chinese troops clash in Asia
1969: The Soviet Union plans an attack on China to remove Mao from power
1970: "Venera 7" makes the first landing of an Earth's spacecraft on another planet (Venus)
1970: There are 47 million Muslims in the Soviet UnionA, growing four times faster than the Christian population
1971: an outbreak of smallpox in Aralsk (Kazakstan) caused by a military program of biological weapons kills dozens of people
1971: "Mars 3" makes the first (successful) landing of an Earth's spacecraft on Mars
1972: Breznev signs the first arms-control treaty
1972: Breznev signs a treaty to ban biological weapons but secretely continues producing them
Jul 1975: The first joint Soviet-US mission in space (spaceships Apollo 18 and Soyuz 19 meet in space)
1978: A polish cardinal, Karol Joseph Wojtyla, is elected Pope John Paul II
1978: a Bulgarian dissident, Georgi Markov, is killed with poison by the Bulgarian secret service
December 1979: The Soviet Union invades Afghanistan
1979: Leonid Brezhnev is awarded the Lenin Prize for Literature (because his books "had an enormous influence on all types and genres of literature")
1979: the accidental release of a biological weapon causes an outbreak of pulmonary anthrax in Sverdlovsk
1979: Pope John Paul II visits Poland and supports the anti-communist movement
1980: Lech Walesa leads Polish workers in a strike
1980: The Soviet Union inaugurates the tallest dam in the world, the Nurek Dam, in Tajikstan
1981: a Bulgarian agent tries to kill the Pope
1982: Brezhnev dies
Sep 1983: Stanislav Petrov realizes that malfunctioning equipment and not an attack from the USA is responsible for a nuclear alarm and refuses to retaliate
Mar 1985: Mikhail Gorbachev becomes the new leader of the Soviet Union and removes foreign minister Andrei Gromyko
Apr 1985: Mikhail Gorbachev launches a campaign of economic restructuring ("perestroika")
1985: 21-year old Garry Kasparov becomes the youngest world champion of chess of all times
1986: A nuclear accident in Chernobyl kills 49 people and spreads nuclear radiations around Europe, with peaks of 100 times more radiation than the atom bombs dropped on Nagasaki and Hiroshima
1986: Russia launches the permanent space station MIR
1986: a nuclear reactor in Ukrainia (Chernobyl) explodes
1986: the US has 14,000 nuclear warheads and the Soviet Union has 11,000
1986: two Soviet ships collide in the Black Sea and 398 people die
1987: Gorbachev publicly criticizes Stalin
1987: Hungarian-born billionaire George Soros sets up the Soros Foundation to promote democracy in the Soviet Union
1987: Mikhail Gorbachev launches a campaign of political openness ("glasnost")
1989: the Soviet Union withdraws from Afghanistan
1989: the Soviet Union holds the first free elections since 1917
1989: In Poland the communist government and Solidarity agree to share power
1989: In East Germany mass demonstrations force the communist government to resign
1989: The Berlin Wall is destroyed by millions of ecstatic Germans, thus leading to the reunification of east and west Germany (november)
1989: The communist government of Bulgaria resigns
1989: The communist government of Czechoslovakia resigns
1989: John Paul II meets Gorbachev, the first meeting between a Pope and a Soviet leader
1989: The communist dictator of Romania is executed
1989: Armenia and Azerbaijan begin fighting over Nagorno-Karabakh
1990: Boris Yeltsin is elected president of the Russian Federation
1990: Lech Walesa elected president of Poland
1990: Hungary holds first free elections
1990: Lithuania declares its indipendence from the Soviet Union, soon followed by Estonia and Latvia
1990: A democratic revolution in Mongolia installs Punsalmaagiin Ochirbat as president
1990: Aleksy II (Mikhailovich Ridiger) becomes the first patriarch of the Russian Orthodox church since 1917 to be elected without government intervention
Aug 1991: A plot to overthrow the Gorbachev government is foiled by Boris Yeltsin
1991: Ukraine declares its independence
1991: Armenia declares its independence and Levon Ter-Petrossian is elected president
Dec 1991: The Soviet Union is dismantled and Russia becomes an independent federation under Boris Yeltsin (december)
1991: Chechnya declares independence from Russia, but Russia objects
1991: Chechen warlord Shamil Basayev hijacks a Russian plane to Ankara, demanding independence for his country
Nov 1991: The KGB is dismantled
Jan 1992: Yeltsin's economic reformist Yegor Gaidar enacts price liberalization that de facto abolishes the communist system
1992: Veteran Soviet soldier Jumabay Khojiyev changes his name to Juma Namangani and joins the Islamic rebels in Tajikistan
1992: Yeltsin cancels the secret program of biological weapons
1992: The provinces of South Ossetia and Abkhazia declare their independence from Georgia, igniting a civil war
1992: Yuri Luzhkov becomes mayor of Moscow
1992: Estonia's prime minister Mart Laar heads a young government (average age: 35) that introduces a flat income-tax, free trade and privatization
1993: Boris Yeltsin suspends the Supreme Soviet and uses the army to quell the revolt
1993: A new constitution is enacted, with a State Duma replacing the Supreme Soviet
1993: Russian troops invade the runaway republic of Chechnya
1994: a Russian astronaut spends more than one year in the MIR space station
1994: general Aslan Maskhadov leads the Chechen arym against Russia
1994: Leonid Kuchma is elected president of Ukraine and the world powers (Russia, USA, Britain) recognize Ukraine's borders including Crimea in return for Ukraine's denuclearization
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1994: a ferry capsizes in Estonia killing 1049 people
1995: Chechen separatists led by warlord Shamil Basayev take thousands of hostages in Russian villages (100 die when Russian soldiers free them)
1995: Russia and the USA begin a program designed by Thomas Neff to decommission 20,000 Soviet nuclear warheads and convert them into fuel for the nuclear power plants of the USA ("Megatons to Megawatts")
1995: The The Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation (FSB) is established, the successor to the KGB
1995: a Russian astronaut spends more than one year in the MIR space station
1996: Boris Yeltsin wins the first presidential elections of Russia since the demise of the Soviet Union
1996: Russia withdraws from Chechnya, after tens of thousands of people died, and leaves Chechnya de facto independent
1996: China, Russia and three (later four) former Soviet republics (Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan) form the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)
1996: Russia bans the death penalty
1997: general (and former rebel leader) Aslan Maskhadov is elected president of Chechnya
1997: Natsagiyn Bagabandi is elected president of Mongolia
1998: Russia joins the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)
1998: Juma Namangani and Tohir Yuldashev found the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan or IMU
1998: Armenian president Ter-Petrossian resigns and is prelaced by Robert Kocharyan
1998: the rouble collapses and Russia's GDP is down by 40% from its level in 1991
Nov 1998: Alexander Litvinenko and other FSB officers publicly accuse their superiors of ordering the assassination of Russian tycoon Boris Berezovsky
Feb 1999: Juma Namangani's Islamic militia IMU stages tries to assassinate Uzbekistan's president Karimov, killing mroe than 20 people
Mar 1999: Alexander Litvinenko is arrested and later flees to London
1999: general Aslan Maskhadov is ousted as president of Chechnya and returns to lead the guerrilla against Russia
1999: the prime minister of Armenia is assassinated and replaced by Andranik Markarian
Sep 1999: Chechen separatists are blamed for terrorist attacks on Moscow that kill nearly 300 people, although rumors surface that the attacks were work of the FSB
1999: Chechen separatists led by Shamil Basayev try to invade Dagestan
1999: Yeltsin resigns and appoints Vladimir Putin as his successor
1999: Russia has 2.7 million legally registered private enterprises
1999: Ukrainian and Russian arm dealers sell cruise missiles to Iran and China
Oct 1999: Russian removes Chechen president Aslan Maskhadov and begins a second invasion of Chechnya and a powerful Chechen clan led by Akhmad Kadyrov defects to the Moscow side and Akhmal's son Ramzan forms a militia to fight alongside Russia's state security service
1999: Nikolay Patrushev is appointed director of the FSB
2000: The sinking of the Kursk nuclear submarine and the fire that damages the Ostankino television tower mark the decline of Russia as a power
2000: Estonia declares Internet access a human right
2000: Alexei Kudrin is appointed finance minister
2000: Boris Berezovsky flees Russia and settles in Britain
Dec 2000: Juma Namangani's Islamic militia IMU joins the Taliban in Afghanistan
2000: the first suicide bombing in Chechnya
Aug 2000: A corruption scandal erupts about the Three Whales shopping mall, owned by a former FSB chief, Sergey Zuev
Dec 2000: The officer investigating the Three Whales scandal, Pavel Zaitsev, is arested
2001: Russia's share of the world's gross domestic product is only 1%
2001: there are 20 million Muslims in Russia (15% of the population)
Nov 2001: Juma Namangani, leader of the Islamic militia IMU, is killed by an air strike
2002: 120 Russians soldiers die when Chechen rebels shoot down a helicopter
2002: Chechen guerrillas directed by Basayev take 700 Russians hostage in a Moscow theater (129 die when Russian soldiers storm the theater with poisonous gas)
2002: suicide bombers kill 80 people in Grozny, the capital of Chechnya
2003: mass graves are discovered in Chechnya with thousands of bodies
2003: 59 people die in a bomb attack on Russians in Chechnya
2003: Chechen suicide bombers hit a rock concert in Moscow and kill 15 people
Jul 2003: Yury Shchekochikhin, a member of parliament who is investigating the Three Whales scandal, dies of a mysterious disease
2003: 50 people are killed in a suicide bombing at a military hospital in North Ossetia
2003: the FSB arrests Yukos' chief executive Mikhail Khodorkovsky (who owns 36.6% of the company), one of the richest men in the world
2003: Eduard Shevarnadze resigns as president of Georgia amid mass protests ("Rose Revolution")
2003: Chechen rebels blow up a train and kill 40 people
2003: between 1999 and 2003, Russia economy has grown by about 33%
2003: the Putin government acquires all national tv stations
2003: Viktor Cherkesov is appointed director of the Federal Drug Control Service
2004: Chechen terrorists bomb the Moscow underground, killing 39 people
2004: Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia join the European Union
2004: Chechen president Akhmad Kadyrov is killed by Chechen terrorists of Shamil Basayev's group in a spectacular stadium bombing
Mar 2004: terrorist attacks by the Islamic Jihad Union kill 47 people in Uzbekistan
2004: Chechen rebels kill 92 people in neighboring Ingushetia
2004: Chechen terrorists of Basayev's group blow up two Russian airplanes, killing 89 people
2004: Chechen terrorists led by Shamil Basayev take more than 1,000 hostages in a Beslan school and kill 331, mostly children
2004: Chechen leader Zelimkhan Yandarbiyev is assassinated by Russian agents in Qatar
2004: due to low birth rate and high death rate, the population of Russia declines by 3.5 million between 1991 and 2004
2004: pro-western opposition leader Viktor Yushchenko wins elections in Ukraine after rigged elections had initially favored pro-Russian candidate Viktor Yanukovych ("Orange Revolution")
2005: Chechen leader Aslan Maskhadov is killed by Russian forces
Jul 2005: the opposition in Kyrgyzstan forces the resignation of president Askar Akayev, who is replaced by Kurmanbek Bakiyev, the winner of national elections ("Tulip Revolution")
May 2005: 850 people die in anti-government protests in the Uzbek city of Andijan (the USA and Britain protest, China supports the crackdown)
Nov 2005: The European Union and the USA condemn Uzbekistan's crackdown on Islamic dissidents while Russia and China applaud it
2005: a Caspian oil pipeline opens that bypasses both Russia and the Arab countries
2005: Russia ends its de facto dollar peg and aligns the rouble with the euro
2005: four bombs explode in the southern republic of Dagestan and kill eight people
2005: USA television channel ABC interviews the most wanted terrorist in Russia, Shamil Basayev
2005: Russian cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev sets a new record for the most cumulative time in space (800 days)
2005: 50 Chechen militants are killed when they attack the southern Russian city of Nalchik
Mar 2005: former Chechen President Aslan Maskhadov is killed by Russian troops
2005: Nambaryn Enkhbayar is elected president of Mongolia
2005: Russia sells "defense" missiles to Iran
2005: a row between Russia and Ukraine causes shortages of Russian gas supplies to Europe
Dec 2005: Chechen prime minister Ramzan Kadyrov, the son of assassinated Chechen president Akhmad Kadyrov, introduces elements of Islamic law shariha in Chechnya
2006: Russia shuts down two newspapers that reprint ironic cartoons about the Islamic prophet Mohammed
2006: Russia authorizes the FSB to carry out assassinations abroad
Mar 2006: Chechen prime minister Ramzan Kadyrov introduces a law that mandates the Islamic headscarf for women in Chechnya
2006: the Uzbek government jails dissidents Sandjar Umarov and Mukhtabar Tojibayeva
2006: Russia starts building an oil pipeline near Lake Baikal, that holds more than 20% of the Earth's nonfrozen fresh water
Jun 2006: Prosecutor general Yury Chaika, an ally of Viktor Cherkesov, reopens the Three Whales case and arrests Sergey Zuev
2006: Chechen leader Shamil Basayev is killed
2006: Anna Politkovskaya, a journalist who was a critic of Russia's policies in Chechnya, is murdered
Dec 2006: Turkmenistan's president Saparmurat Niyazov dies and is succeeded by Gurbanguli Berdymukhamedov
Nov 2006: Alexander Litvinenko is poisoned in London, and the British authorities blame former FSB agent Andrey Lugovoy
2007: Ramzan Kadyrov, suspected of human-rights abuses and of involvement in the murder of Anna Politkovskaya, is elected president of Chechnya
2007: for the first time since the death of Czar Aleksandr III in 1894 the Orthodox church presides over the funeral of a state figure (former president Boris Yeltsin)
2007: ethnic Russians riot in Estonia to protest the removal of a Soviet monument
2007: Andranik Markarian dies of heart attack and Serzh Sarksyan is elected prime minister of Armenia
2007: Putin threatens to retaliate against a proposed USA anti-missile defense system in Europe
2007: Russian president Vladimir Putin appoints Victor Zubkov prime minister
2007: Driven down by AIDS, alcohol and suicide, the population of Russia declines by 700,000 people a year
2007: serial killer Aleksandr Pichushkin confesses to 61 people
2007: Putin is the first Russian leader to travel to Iran since 1943
2007: Vladimir Putin's party wins more than 60% of the vote in parliamentary elections
Sep 2007: Russia establishes the Investigative Committee under Alexander Bastrykin, an ally of deputy prime minister Igor Sechin, thereby reducing the power of prosecutor general Yury Chaika
Oct 2007: Several senior officers of the Federal Drug Control Service are arrested by agents of the FSB and the Investigative Committee in what is widely viewed as a feud of the clan of Viktor Cherkesov (and prosecutor general Yury Chaika) against the clan of debuty minister Igor Sechin (and the FSB)
2007: Russian scientists dive underneath the North Pole leading Russia to claim half of the Arctic seabed
Jan 2008: Russia uses supplies of natural gas as a political weapon against the Ukraine
March 2008: Dmitry Medvedev wins elections in Russia and succeeds Putin, who is appointed prime minister
May 2008: Cherkesov is removed from his post at the Federal Drug Control Service
August 2008: Russia sends tanks into Georgia and bombs Georgian air bases after Georgia launches a military offensive to retake the breakaway province of South Ossetia, and Russia de facto annexes South Ossetia and Abkhazia
September 2008: Russian stock markets lose more than 50% of their peak value of May 2008
October 2008: Russia's Supreme Court rules that the last czar, Nicholas II, should be rehabilitated as a victim of political persecution
Nov 2008: The attorney Sergei Magnitski, who had exposed police corruption, is arrested by the very police officers he accused of corruption
2008: Youstol Dispage dies
2008: Russia supplies 28% of Europe's natural gas
October 2008: A Russian military convoy is attacked by Muslim sepatarists in Ingushetia
Jan 2009: Russian patriarch Aleksy II dies and is succeeded by metropolitan Kirill of Smolensk
2009: Tsakhia Elbegdorj is elected president of Mongolia and presides over an economic boom tied to gold, silver and copper mining
Apr 2009: The counter-terrorism operation in Chechnya is officially ended
May 2009: Unemployment skyrockets in Lithuania (from 4.3% in 2008 to 16.8%), Latvia (6.1% to 17.4%) and Estonia (3.7% to 13.9%)
Jun 2009: A sniper kills the interior minister of Russia's Muslim region of Dagestan and a suicide car bomber tries to assassinate the president of Russia's Muslim region of Ingushetia
Jul 2009: Russian human rights activist Natalya Estemirova is assassinated in Chechnya, following the murders of human rights lawyer Stanislav Markelov (january, Moscow), former Kadyrov bodyguard Umar Israilov (january, Vienna), former Chechen commander Sulim Yamadayev (march, Dubai), and Yamadayev's brother Ruslan (september, Moscow)
Jul 2009: the Russian economy declines by 11% over the previous year
Aug 2009: 20 people are killed by a suicide bomber in Nazran, the capital of Ingushetia
Sep 2009: Yielding to Russian pressure, the USA cancels a missile defense system in Eastern Europe
Oct 2009: The verse "Be thankful or grateful to God" from the Quran mysteriously appears on the leg of a nine-month boy of Dagestan, Ali Yakubov
Nov 2009: The attorney Sergei Magnitski, who had exposed police corruption, is killed by the police in prison
Nov 2009: Islamic terrorists from Ingushetia bomb a train in Russia killing 27 people, the first deadly terrorist attack outside Chechnya since 2004
Nov 2009: A report from the New York Academy of Sciences estimates that, due to the Chernobyl disaster, almost one million people have died, mainly from cancer, between 1986 and 2004
Nov 2009: Police officer Aleksei Dymovsky reveals police corruption in two videos posted on the Internet and is immediately fired and arrested
Dec 2009: 112 people die of an explosion at a nightclub in Perm caused by fireworks
Dec 2009: Due to the world economic crisis, Russia's GDP contracts 7.9% in 2009
Dec 2009: Russia's economy contracts 7.8% in 2009, its worst recession since the end of the Soviet Union
2009: Russian cybercriminal Georgiy Avanesov starts the Bredolab network that will hijack tens of millions of computers around the world
Jan 2010: Russian police kill three Islamic fighters and a suicide bomber kills six police officers in Dagestan
Feb 2010: Viktor Yanukovich wins democratic elections in Ukraine against prime minister Yulia Tymoshenko
Mar 2010: Muslim women from the Caucasus stage a double suicide bombings on the Moscow metro that kills 39 people
Mar 2010: The Russian-backed opposition led by Roza Otunbayeva stages a coup in Kyrgyzstan and deposes president Kurmanbek Bakiyev
Mar 2010: In response to Aleksei Dymovsky's videos, the Russian parliament establishes harsh penalties for officers who criticize their superiors
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Jun 2010: Ethnic violence in Kyrgyzstan kills more about 2,000 people
Sep 2010: A suicide bomber kills three Russian soldiers in Dagestan
Sep 2010: A suicide bomber kills 17 people in Vladikavkaz, the capital of North Ossetia
Sep 2010: Islamic militants kill 23 soldiers in Tajikistan
Sep 2010: Moscow's flaglantry corrupt mayor Yuri Luzhkov is deposed by president Medvedev
Oct 2010: A report by Transparency International ranks Russia as the most corrupt country in Europe and one of the most corrupt in the world
Dec 2010: Riots in Moscow among football fans escalate into racial riots between ethnic Russians and North Caucasians
2010: Russia begins building the high-tech city of Skolkovo in a special economic zone
2010: Mainland China's trade with Central Asian countries exceed Russia's for the first time
Jan 2011: More than 30 people are killed by a suicide bomber at Moscow's Domodedovo airport and Chechen warlord Doku Umarov takes responsibility
Apr 2011: A subway bombing kills 12 people in Belarus' capital Minsk
Apr 2011: Russia and China allow the United Nations Security Council to vote a resolution which authorized NATO military attacks in Libya to protect anti-government protesters, but do not allow a similar resolution against Syria that is also killing hundreds of protesters
Jul 2011: Russia condemns to life in prison the members of Lev Molotkov's neo-Nazi gang who killed 27 people of Asian or African origins
2011: The USA has 413 billionaires, China has 115 billionaires, Russia 101, India 55, Germany 52, Britain 32, Brazil 30, and Japan 26
Aug 2011: Suicide bombers kill 8 people in Chechnya
Sep 2011: Russia and China are the only countries to support Syria's crackdown on dissidents while even Syria's ally Iran distances itself from Assad's regime
Sep 2011: Medvedev fires finance minister Alexei Kudrin who spoke up against excessive spending
Oct 2011: Former Ukraine's prime minister Yulia Tymoshenko is sentenced to seven years in jail
Oct 2011: Almazbek Atambayev wins presidential elections in Kyrgyzstan
Dec 2011: The biggest anti-Putin demonstration ever takes place in Moscow
Dec 2011: 11 people die in riots following a strike in Kazakhstan
Jan 2012: Russia joins the World Trade Organisation
2012: Former Mongolia's president Enkhbayar is sentenced to jail for corruption
Feb 2012: A Chechen plot to assassinate Putin is foiled in the Ukraine
Mar 2012: Putin is reelected president of Russia
May 2012: NATO activates a missile defence system in Europe despite strong Russian opposition, and in response Russia launches a program of rearmament
Jun 2012: Tens of thousands of people protest against Putin's rule
Jul 2012: A flood kills 172 people and devastates the town of Krymsk
Jul 2012: Russian anti-corruption activist Alexei Navalny is charged with embezzlement
Aug 2012: Russia joins the World Trade Organization
Oct 2012: Bidzina Ivanishvili, Georgia's richest man, wins parliamentary elections and becomes the new prime minister
Mar 2012: Two members of the Pussy Riot punk band are jailed for staging an anti-Putin protest
Feb 2013: A meteor injures more than 1000 people in Chelyabinsk
Aug 2013: Russia implements anti-gay legislation at the same time that many countries begin to recognize gay marriage
Sep 2013: The USA and Russia agree on a plan to remove Syria's chemical weapons after the USA threatened military intervention
Oct 2013: A female Islamic suicide bomber kills six people on a bus in the southern Russian city of Volgograd
Oct 2013: Giorgi Margvelashvilii of Ivanishvili's party wins presidential elections in Georgia as the country prepares to transition to a parliamentary system
Nov 2013: Russia pressures Ukraine to reject a trade deal with the European Union, but pro-EU protesters take to the streets
Dec 2013: Putin pardons ex-tycoon Mikhail Khodorkovsky, who then moves to Western Europe, and the Pussy Riot members
Dec 2013: Two Islamic suicide bombers from Dagestan kill 18 people at a train station and 16 on a trolley bus in the southern Russian city of Volgograd
2013: Ukraine's economy is smaller than it was in 1992, shortly after the collapse of the Soviet Union
2013: A quarter of all Russian men die before they are 55, mainly because of alcohol
2013: Oil and gas account for 75% of all Russian exports and 45% of what Russians buy is imported
Jan 2014: Latvia joins the eurozone
Feb 2014: Ukrainian president Viktor Yanukovych and opposition leaders Vitali Klitschko (UDAR/Democratic Alliance for Reform), Arseniy Yatsenyuk (Batkivshchyna/ Fatherland Party) and Oleh Tyahnibok (Svoboda/Freedom Party) agree to hold early presidential elections after 88 protesters are killed and soon afterwards Yulia Tymoshenko is freed from jail and parliament votes to remove Yanukovych from power and replace him with Oleksandr Turchynov, a close Tymoshenko ally
Feb 2014: Russia's defense minister Sergei Shoigu announces that Russia plans to increase its military presence abroad, including in Cuba, Venezuela and Nicaragua
Mar 2014: Russia annexes Ukraine's Crimea

Kiev


Rurik of Novogorod (862 - 879)
Oleg (879 - 912)
Igor (912 - 945)
Olga (945 - 955)
Sviatoslav (955 - 972)
Yaropolk (973 - 980)
Vladimir I (980 - 1015)
Sviatopolk (1015 - 1019)
Yaroslav I (1019 - 1054)
Izhaslav (1054 - 1073)
Sviatoslav (1073 - 1076)
Vsevolod (1078 - 1093)
Sviatopolk (1093 - 1113)
Vladimir II (1113 - 1125)
Mstislav (1125 - 1132)
Yaropolk (1132 - 1139)
Vsevolod (1139 - 1146)
Izhaslav (1146 - 1154)

Vladimir


Yuri I Dolgoruki (1154 - 1157)
Andrey Bogolyubski (1157 - 1175)
Ysevolod (1176 - 1212)
Konstanin (1212 - 1218)
Yuri II (1218 - 1238)
Yaroslav II (1238 - 1246)
Andrey (1246 - 1253)
Aleksandr Nevksy (1253 - 1263)
Taroslav of Tver (1263 - 1272)
Basil (1272 - 1276)
Demetrius (1276 - 1293)
Andrey (1293 - 1304)
Michael of Tver (1304 - 1318)
Yrui Danilovich (1318 - 1326)
Alexander of Tver (1326 - 1328)

Moscow


Daniil (1283-1303)
Yuriy (1303-1325)
Ivan I (1325 - 1341)
Simeon (1341 - 1353)
Ivan II (1353 - 1359)
Demetrius Donski (1359 - 1389)
Basil I (1389 - 1425)
Basil II (1425 - 1462)
Ivan III (1462 - 1505)
Basil III (1505 - 1533)
Ivan IV Grozny (1533 - 1552)

Czars


Ivan IV Grozny (1552 - 1584)
Fedor I (1584 - 1598)
Boris Godunov (1598 - 1605)
Fedor II (1605)
Dimitri I (1605 - 1606)
Basil IV Shuisky (1606 - 1610)
Dimitri II (1607 - 1610)
Wladyislaw of Poland (1610 - 1612)
Michael Romanov (1613 - 1645)
Aleksei (1645 - 1676)
Fedor III (1676 - 1682)
Ivan V (1682 - 1689)
Pyotr I (1682 - 1725)
Ekaterina I (1725 - 1727)
Pyotr II (1727 - 1730)
Anna (1730 - 1740)
Ivan VI (1740 - 1741)
Elizaveta Petrovna (1741 - 1762)
Pyotr III (1762)
Ekaterina II (1762 - 1796)
Pavel I (1796 - 1801)
Alexander I (1801 - 1825)
Nicholas I (1825 - 1855)
Alexander II (1855 - 1881)
Alexander III (1881 - 1894)
Nicholas II (1894 - 1917)

Communist Secretaries


Lenin (1917-1924)
Joseph Stalin (1924-1953)
Nikita Krushev (1953-1964)
Leonid Brezhnev (1964-1982)
Yuriy Andropov (1982-1984)
Konstantin Chernenko (1984-1985)
Mikhail Gorbachev (1985-1991)

Presidents of Russia


Boris Yeltsin (1991-1999)
Vladimir Putin (2000-2007)
Dmitri Medvedev (2008-2011)
Vladimir Putin (2012-)

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(Copyright © 2011 Piero Scaruffi)