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A time-line of World War II

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(Copyright © 2011 Piero Scaruffi)

18/9/1931: The Japanese army provokes an incident (at Mukden) and invades Manchuria without consulting with the Wakatsuki government
10/5/1933: Students of the University of Berlin burn thousands of books by Jewish authors
May 1933: Germany sends general Hans von Seeckt as a military advisor to China
Apr 1934: Germany sends general Alexander von Falkenhausen as a military advisor to China
Apr 1934: Germany sends general Alexander von Falkenhausen as a military advisor to China
3/10/1935: Mussolini invades Ethiopia
31/8/1935: The US Congress passes a "neutrality act" that outlaws sales of arms to all parties in a war
15/10/1936: Hitler and Mussolini sign a treaty of friendship and form the "Axis"
25/11/1936: Germany and Japan form the anti-Cominterm Pact to protect against communism
7/7/1937: A clash between Chinese and Japanese troops ("Marco Polo Incident") lead to a general war
10/7/1937: Japan invades Beijing
14/8/1937: Kai-shek Chiang's nationalist Chinese troops attack the Japanese garrison in Shanghai
13/12/1937: Japan invades Nanjing (350,000 Chinese are killed and 100,000 women are raped during the "rape of Nanking" in revenge for the Shanghai attack) and the Chinese nationalists move their capital to Chungking/ Chongqing
1937: Mao moves the headquarters of the communist government to Yan'an / Yenan, where the opium trade triggers high inflation
8/1937: Japanese general Shiro Ishii sets up Unit 731 near the Chinese city of Harbin to conducts biological experiments on Chinese prisoners, including live vivisections and amputations
12/3/1938: Germany annexes Austria ("Anschluss")
21/5/1938: Japan conquers Suchow
6/6/1938: the Japanese capture Kaifeng, the capital of Henan, in China
7/6/1938: To stop the Japanese invasion, Chiang's Chinese army causes a flood in Henan, Anhui, and Jiangsu provinces that kills 800,000 people
26/7/1938: Japan conquers Kiukiang and carries out another massacre of Chinese civilians
21/10/1938: Japan captures Guangzhou/Canton
Dec 1938: Germany annexes the Sudeten from Czechoslovakia
1938: Synagogues and Jewish shops are destroyed by Nazist mobs in Germany ("Kristallnacht")
12/1938: German scientists split the uranium atom
10/1/1939: Hitler promises the extermination of the Jews if they cause another world war
1939: Shiro Ishii carries out biological experiments in Harbin, China (10,000 prisoners will die)
Mar 1939: Germany invades Czechoslovakia, creates the protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, turns Slovakia into a fascist state under Jozef Tiso, and occupies the Lithuanian port of Memel
27/3/1939: Japan conquers Kiangsi's capital Nanchang from the Chinese
7/4/1939: Italy invades and annexes Albania
25/7/1939: Hitler orders the first euthanasia on a German "unworthy of life", the beginning of program T4 ("Tiergartenstrasse 4 4")to eliminate all physical and mentally handicapped citizens
31/8/1939: Georgii Zhukov leads the Soviet Union and Mongolia to victory against Japan at the battle of Khalkhin Gol ("Nomonthan Incident")
23/8/1939: The Soviet Union and Germany sign a non-aggression pact including the partition of Poland (and assigns Latvia, Estonia, Finland and Romania's Bessarabia to the Soviet Union, and Lithuania to Germany)
1/9/1939: Germany invades Poland, whose population is 10% Jewish
2/9/1939: The cruise ship Athenia is sunk by a German submarine
3/9/1939: Britain, France, Australia, New Zealand, India and South Africa declare war on Germany
3/9/1939: Polish people attack ethnic Germans killing about 6,000 in a few weeks
6/9/1939: Germany conquers Krakow in Poland
10/9/1939: Canada declares war on Germany
17/9/1939: the Soviet Union invades Poland, ostensibly to defend Belorussian and Ukrainian minorities from Polish persecution
28/9/1939: Germany and the Soviet Union sign another treaty granting the Soviet Union the Baltis and Romania's Bessarabia
1/10/1939: Germany conquers Poland's capital Warsaw after more than 30,000 Poles have been killed
24/10/1939: Western Ukraine asks to become part of the Soviet Union
27/9/1939: Germany appoints Reinhard Heydrich governor of the protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, and he begins deporting the 100,000 Czech Jews
9/1939: Alan Turing arrives at Bletchley Park and designs a "bombe machine" to help decipher German coded messages
9/1939: Germany opens an extermination camp at Soldau in Poland
28/10/1939: German troops kill 9 students during anti-German demonstrations
Oct 1939: Ethnic German militias (Selbstschutz) murder 10,000 Poles and Jews in Mniszek, Poland
Nov 1939: Ethnic German militias (Selbstschutz) and the Gestapo have murdered 6,000 Poles and Jews in Fordon, Poland
4/11/1939: The USA Congress passes a new neutrality act but legalizes the sale of arms to France and Britain
8/11/1939: and assassination attempt on Adolf Hitler in Munich fails
30/11/1939: the Soviet Union invades Finland, a one-million men army against a 150,000 men army
6/12/1939: Heisenberg reports on the possibility of building an atomic bomb for Germany
14/12/1939: The Soviet Union is expelled from the League of Nations
31/12/1939: 65,000 Polish civilians have been killed by German troops, mostly Jews, intellectuals, priests and aristocrats
?/1940: Japan bombs the Chinese city of Ningbo with fleas carrying the bubonic plague
1/1940: 250 gypsies (mostly children) are killed in the Buchenwald concentration camp
25/1/1940: Germany creates a Jewish ghetto in Lodz, Poland
1/1940: The Czech resistance unites in the Central Leadership of Home Resistance (UVOD)
1/2/1940: Stalin appoints Semyon Konstantinovich Timoshenko in charge of the Finnish front after Finland enters Soviet territory
21/2/1940: the Soviet Union bombs Sweden
12/3/1940: Finland surrenders to the Soviet Union after the Soviet Union lost 84,000 soldiers and Finland 25,000
23/3/1940: Finland signs a peace treaty with the Soviet Union ceding Karelia
March 1940: Japan establishes the puppet regime of Ching-wei Wang over China
9/4/1940: Germany invades Denmark and Norway ("Operation Weseruebung")
16/4/1940: the Soviet Union begin massacring 22,000 Polish soldiers and civilians in the woods of Katyn
28/4/1940: British, French and Polish troops land in NorwaBritish, French and Polish troops land in Norway
10/5/1940: Germany invades Belgium and Holland
10/5/1940: British prime minister Neville Chamberlain resigns and is replaced by Winston Churchill
11/5/1940: Britain bombs the region of Westphalia in Germany
12/5/1940: Germany invades France
14/5/1940: Holland surrenders
19/5/1940: Britain bombs Bremen and Hamburg
20/5/1940: the German army reaches the English Channel
21/5/1940: Soldau's extermination camp under Herbert Lange experiments with gas vans (an original Soviet invention used during Stalin's purges) killing more than a thousand East Prussian and Pomeranian mental patients
24/5/1940: Hilter halts German troops that have surrounded British troops in Dunkerquee
26/5/1940: Britain evacuates more than 300,000 surrounded British and French troops from Dunkerque ("Operation Dynamo")
26/5/1940: Germany establishes the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp under Rudolph Hoss/Hoess
27/5/1940: Belgium surrenders
4/6/1940: Germany enters Paris
27/6/1940: Romania is forced by Stalin to surrender Bessarabia (Moldova) to the Soviet Union
10/6/1940: Norway surrenders
10/6/1940: Italy declares war on Britain and France and invades France
14/6/1940: German troops enter Paris
17/6/1940: Charles de Gaulle flees to Britain
18/6/1940: Churchill delivers his "Their Finest Hour" speech to the House of Commons while Charles de Gaulle broadcasts a radio message from the BBC to France
18/6/1940: the Soviet Union invades Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania
18/6/1940: Sweden allows Germany passage through its territory
22/6/1940: France surrenders to Germany after 92,000 French soldiers have been killed and two million have been taken prisoners, and a new government, led by Philippe Petain, moves the capital to Vichy, leaving Germany in control of 3/5th of the country but preserving the colonies
28/6/1940: Britain recognizes the French government in exile of general Charles de Gaulle while Hitler tours Paris
28/6/1940: The Soviet Union seizes Bessarabia and northern Bukovina from Romania
3/7/1940: Britain attacks the French fleet at Mers-el-Kebir killing 1,297 French sailors
10/7/1940: Germany bombs Britain
10/7/1940: France gives Petain full dictatorial powers, ending the Third Republic
?/7/1940: Italy invades British Sudan from Ethiopia
3/8/1940: Italy invades British Somaliland with 250,000 soldiers
3/8/1940: The Soviet Union admits Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia
13/8/1940: German warplanes raid British airfields and a British naval base
15/8/1940: 1,790 German warplanes bomb Britain from northern France, Norway and Denmark
17/8/1940: the German navy blockades the British Isles
20/8/1940: Mao launches the Hundred Regiments Offensive against Japan
24/8/1940: German warplanes bomb London, probably by mistake
25/8/1940: Britain bombs Berlin
6/9/1940: Ion Antonescu stages a coup in Romania and turns the kingdom into a fascist dictatorship
7/9/1940: the German Luftwaffe launches 652 bombers on London (the "blitz"), dropping one million bombs in two months and killing 23,000 civilians in four months
27/9/1940: Germany, Italy and Japan sign the "Tripartite Treaty"
29/9/1940: Britain begins shipping war materials to China from Burma
7/10/1940: Germany invades Romania
28/10/1940: Italy invades Greece

  • 10/1940: Japan carries out air bombing of Chinese villages with germs of bubonic plague (Quzhou), cholera (Yunnan), anthrax, etc (200,000 will die)
    13/11/1940: Britain bombs Berlin while the Soviet foreign minister Molotov is discussing with Hitler about joining the tripartite pact and attacking British India
    14/11/1940: Greece launches a counteroffensive against the Italian invaders and invades Italian Albania
    20/11/1940: Hungary enters the war on Germany's side
    23/11/1940: Romania enters the war on Germany's side
    23/11/1940: Slovakia enters the war on Germany's side
    26/11/1940: Germany creates a walled ghetto for the 500,000 Jews of Warszaw, Poland
    9/12/1940: Britain launches a counteroffensive in Egypt
    31/12/1940: Britain has placed orders for arms to the USA totaling about $4.5 billion, thereby generating an economic boom in the USA
    1941: Ho Chi Minh leads a guerrilla force, the Viet Minh, against Japan
    6/1/1941: Britain invades Italian Libya, capturing more than 100,000 prisoners
    19/1/1941: Britain invades Italian Ethiopia
    29/1/1941: The USA deploys troops in Greenland
    7/2/1941: The Italians surrender to Britain in Lybia
    11/2/1941: Britain invades Italian Somalia
    12/2/1941: Hitler appoints Erwin Rommel commander of the German army in Africa to recapture Lybia lost by Italy
    15/2/1941: Britain begins supplying the Polish partisans fighting Germany
    16/2/1941: 10,000 jews are deported from Wien (Vienna)
    2/1941: Hitler dispatches Erwin Rommel to Africa (the Afrika Corps)
    2/1941: Germans round up and deport thousands of Jews from Belgium and the Netherlands (140,000)
    1/3/1941: Bulgaria enters the war on Germany's side
    1/3/1941: The Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp has more than 10,000 prisoners
    11/3/1941: The US Congress passes the "Lend-Lease Act" authorizing the president to sell arms to Britain, China and the Soviet Union
    25/3/1941: Germany forces Yugoslavia to join the Tripartite Pact
    27/3/1941: A coup ousts the king of Yugoslavia
    30/3/1941: Hitler tells his generals that "this is a war of extermination"
    4/1941: The USA organizes mercenary pilots, the Flying Tigers, under the command of Claire Chennault, to defend the Burma Road into China against the Japanese
    3/4/1941: Rasch Ali Gailani seizes power in Iraq and enters the war on Germany's side
    4/4/1941: Britain reaches Addis Abeda, Ethiopia
    4/1941: In just one month the Allies have lost 688,000 tons of shipping to the German U-boats
    5/4/1941: Yugoslavia signs a treaty of friendship with the Soviet Union
    6/4/1941: Germany bombs Yugoslavia's capital Belgrade and kills more than 10,000 civilians in two days and invades Yugoslavia with help from Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria
    6/4/1941: Germany invades Greece (mainly to protect the oilfields of Ploesti in Romania) after 40,000 Italian soldiers have died fighting the Greeks
    10/4/1941: Croatia declares its independence from Yugoslavia and enters the war on Germany's side
    13/4/1941: The Soviet Union and Japan sign a non-aggression pact
    17/4/1941: Yugoslavia surrenders and Germany establishes a puppet state in Serbia, Croatia becomes a fascist state under Italian protectorate, Italy annexes most of Slovenia, Dalmatia and Kosovo, and Montenegro becomes an Italian protectorate
    18/4/1941: The Greek prime minister Alexandros Koryzis commits suicide
    19/4/1941: Bulgaria invades Yugoslavia's Macedonia
    26/4/1941: Greece surrenders and Germany enters Athens while Britain has to evacuate more than 40,000 soldiers
    4/1941: IG Farben begins the construction of the giant Buna Werke factory at Monowitz to make synthetic rubber and oil using slave labor from the Auschwitz concentration camp on land confiscated from Polish families
    2/5/1941: Britain attacks Iraq
    4/5/1941: Hitler tells the Reichstag that Nazi state will last one thousand years
    10/5/1941: The French police begin to round up thousands of Jews
    20/5/1941: Germany launches an airborne invasion of Crete, the first time in history that an invasion relies mainly on paratroopers
    27/5/1941: Britain sinks the Bismarck, the largest battleships ever built by Germany
    1/6/1941: Crete surrenders but the Germans have suffered huge casualties due to civilian resistance and the British cracking of the Enigma code
    2/5/1941: Herbert Backe devises the Hunger Plan to kill by starvation 30 million Soviet citizens and free land for German colonizers
    16/5/1941: Italy surrenders in Africa and Ethiopia regains its independence
    31/5/1941: Britain enters Bagdad
    8/6/1941: Britain invades Syria and Lebanon, colonies of Vichy France allied with Germany
    14/6/1941: The Soviet Union deports 60,000 Estonians, 34,000 Latvians and 38,000 Lithuanians to Siberia
    22/6/1941: Germany, Finland, Romania and Hungary (3.6 million soldiers) launch a surprise invasion of the Soviet Union ("Operation Barbarossa") from East Prussia (north, into the Baltic states), Poland (center, into Belarussia) and Romania (south, into Ukraine), and Italy too declares war on the Soviet Union
    6/1941: Communist partisans led by Josip Broz ("Tito") begin a guerrilla war in Serbia, and the Germans retaliate by killing 100 Serbs (usually Jews) for each German killed
    6/1941: Communist partisans led by Enver Hoxha begin a guerrilla warfare in Albania against the Italians
    24/6/1941: The retreating Soviet Union massacres prisoners, including 10,000 Polish prisoners and 10,000 prisoners in Bessarabia and the Baltic states
    26/6/1941: Finland and Hungary declare war on the Soviet Union
    30/6/1941: The Ukrainian militia allied with Germany kills 4,000 Jews in Lviv
    1/7/1941: Viktors Arajs establishes the Arajs Kommando to help Germany kill Jews in Latvia
    7/7/1941: US troops replace British and Canadian troops in Iceland
    8/7/1941: Germany and Finland lay siege to Leningrad, the beginning of the longest siege in centuries
    9/7/1941: Germany conquers Belarus from the Soviet Union
    12/7/1941: The Vichy French surrender in Syria and Britain transfers Syria to the French government in exile
    7/1941: the USA declares an oil embargo against Japan
    16/7/1941: Germany conquers Smolensk from the Soviet Union and captures 700,000 prisoners
    21/7/1941: Germany bombs Moscow
    24/7/1941: Japan invades Indochina, a French colony
    8/1941: The Ustasha of Croatia open the concentration camp at Jasenovac, one of the several in which more than 300,000 Serbs, Bosnians and Jews will be killed
    4/8/1941: The Soviet Union releases 200,000 Polish prisorners of war to form an allied army
    25/8/1941: Britain and the Soviet Union invade Iran, that becomes the main transit point for supplies going to the Soviet Union
    31/8/1941: More than 70,000 German citizens have been killed in German gas chambers during program T4
    8/1941: The Soviet Union recognizes the government in exile of Poland
    3/9/1941: The insecticide Zyklon B, manufactured by IG Farben, is used to kill Soviet and Polish prisoners at Auschwitz
    9/1941: The Soviet Union begins the deportation of 375,000 Volga Germans to Siberia and Kazakhstan
    15/9/1941: German troops and Ukrainian militias kill more than 20,000 Jews at Berdichev
    18/9/1941: Germany captures Kiev, the capital of Ukraine
    29/9/1941: German troops and Ukrainian militias kill 33,771 Jews at the Babi Yar ravine in the Ukrainian capital Kiev
    30/9/1941: Germany launches the first attack on Moscow
    10/10/1941: Stalin appoints Zhukov in charge of the western front
    10/1941: 10,000 Russian prisoners are dispatched to join the slaves working at IG Farben's Buna Werke factory
    10/1941: The German military governor of Serbia, Franz Bohme, orders the execution of 2,100 Serbs (mostly Jews) in retaliation for the killing of 21 Germans by Tito's communist partisans, the first massacre of Jews outside Poland and the Soviet Union
    14/10/1941: German troops are 100 kms from Moscow
    15/10/1941: The Soviet Union evacuates the government from Moscow to Kuibyshev as panic spreads in the streets of Moscow
    15/10/1941: Romanian troops conquer Odessa after a long siege
    17/10/1941: general Hideki Tojo is appointed prime minister of Japan
    22/10/1941: German and Romanian troops (mostly the Romanians) begin killing about 30,000 Jews and 15,000 gypsies in Ukraine (the "Odessa massacre")
    31/10/1941: Germany has already captured 3 million Soviet prisoners
    25/11/1941: Germany lays siege to Moscow
    30/11/1941: German troops and Latvian militias kill 25,000 Jews in ten days in the Rumbula forest of Latvia
    11/1941: Japan drops crop contaminated with plague germs on China
    3/12/1941: Yasuji Okamura enacts the "Three Alls Policy" against the communist-held Chinese regions: "kill all, burn all, loot all" that cause the population to decline from 44 million to 25 million
    5/12/1941: Soviet troops begin a counteroffensive against German troops about to enter Moscow
    6/12/1941: Britain declares war on Finland
    7/12/1941: the Japanese navy attacks the USA fleet at Pearl Harbor
    7/12/1941: Japan invades Thailand and Malaysia
    8/12/1941: Japan attacks Kota Bahru in Malaysia
    8/12/1941: Japan bombs Singapore
    8/12/1941: Britain and the USA declare war on Japan
    8/12/1941: Japan invades Shanghai
    8/12/1941: Japan invades the Phillipines
    8/12/1941: The Germans set up the Chelmno/ Kulmhof extermination camp north of Lodz in Poland
    9/12/1941: Egypt, Mexico, Panama and Cuba declare war on Japan, soon followed by New Zealand, South Africa, India, Bolivia, etc.
    10/12/1941: The Japanese land in the island of Guam in the Pacific
    11/12/1941: Germany and Italy declare war on the USA
    13/12/1941: Bulgaria, Hungary, Croatia, Slovakia and Romania declare war on the USA
    14/12/1941: The USA appoints Chester Nimitz as Commander in Chief of the Pacific Fleet
    22/12/1941: Japan invades the Philippines
    23/12/1941: Japan attacks Burma/Myanmar to cut off supplies to the Chinese nationalists
    25/12/1941: Japan captures Hong Kong
    12/1941: German troops kill 30,000 people, half of them Jews, bury them in a mass grave at Drobitsky Yar near Kharkov in Ukraine
    1/1942: At the Wannsee Conference Germany approves the "final solution" to exterminate the Jews
    2/1/1942: Japanese troops enter Manila in the Philippines
    1/1942: More than 4,000 gypsies are gassed at Chelmno
    10/1/1942: Japan invades Indonesia
    12/1/1942: Japan invades Burma
    13/1/1942: German U-boats attack the USA
    20/1/1942: Reinhard Heydrich plans a "final solution" for the Jews, with Adolf Eichmann in charge of rounding up all Jews outside Poland, and Jews executed upon arrival in Minsk, Kaunas and Riga
    21/1/1942: The USA dispatches Joseph Stilwell to become Chiang's chief of staff in China
    23/1/1942: Japan invades New Guinea
    26/1/1942: the USA sends the first troops to Britain
    2/1942: The Soviet Union starts a project for an atomic bomb led by Igor Vasilievich Kurchatov
    15/2/1942: Japan captures Singapore
    2/1942: Arthur Harris is appointed to carry out area bombing of German cities to affect the "morale of the enemy civil population"
    13/9/1940: Italy invades Egypt from Libya, 215,000 Italian soldiers versus 36,000 Egyptian soldiers
    16/2/1942: The National Liberation Front (EAM) formed by the Greek Communist Party creates a People's Liberation Army (ELAS) under the command of Athanasios Klaras/ Aris Velouchiotis to fight the German occupation
    17/2/1942: Japan kills thousands of ethnic Chinese in Singapore
    19/2/1942: Japan bombs Darwin in Australia
    23/2/1942: A Soviet submarine sinks the ramshackle ship Struma, killing 768 Jews that are escaping from Romania towards British Palestine
    24/2/1942: The "Struma", a ship full of Jewish emigrants and denied entry in Turkey under British pressure, is accidentally torpedoed by a Soviet submarine killing all 769 passengers
    28/2/1942: About 60% of the 3.5 million Soviet prisoners held in German camps have died of starvation or disease
    1/3/1942: Japan conquers Rangoon in Burma/Myanmar
    3/3/1942: Harris' campaign of area bombing begins with the mass bombing of a Renault factory in France, killing 367 French civilians
    17/3/1942: Belzec is the first concentration camp to adopt gas chambers for exterminating Jews
    20/3/1942: Auschwitz inaugurates its gas chamber
    28/3/1942: Harris' bombers destroy old Luebeck
    31/3/1942: in the first three months of 1942 the German U-boats (submarines) sink more oil tanks than the USA builds
    3/1942: Germany begins the annihilation of the Jews of Serbia mostly through the Sajmiste/Semlin concentration camp
    18/4/1942: USA bombers drop bombs on Tokyo, Yokohama, Osaka-Kobe and Nagoya
    ?/4/1942: to punish Chinese villages who helped the USA airmen who bombed Tokyo, Japanese troops kill 250,000 Chinese civilians ("operation Sei-Go")
    14/2/1942: Japan invades Sumatra in Indonesia and seizes its oilfields
    9/3/1942: Japan conquers Java from an allied force of Dutch, US, Australian and British ships
    11/3/1942: US general Douglas MacArthur abandons the Philippines
    12/4/1942: Japanese troops massacre 400 Filipino officers at Batanga
    18/4/1942: The USA appoints Douglas MacArthur as supreme commander of Allied Forces in the Southwest Pacific Area
  • 18/4/1942: Japan murders 250,000 Chinese civilians in retaliation for Chinese help to USA airmen
    4/1942: Japan drops cholera germs over Chekiang province to avenge the first US bombing of Japan
    3/5/1942: Japan invades the Solomon Islands
    4/5/1942: Germany shoots 72 members of the Dutch resistance
    5/5/1942: Britain attacks the Vichy French controlling Madagascar
    6/5/1942: The last US and Filipino soldiers surrender and Japan completes the invasion of the Philippines, taking 76,000 US and Filipino prisoners
    7/5/1942: The Germans defeat the Soviet troops at Kerch, destroying 400 aircraft and 347 tanks
    8/5/1942: The USA repels a Japanese advance from the Solomon Islands ("Coral Sea battle")
    5/1942: Rommel launches an assault against the British in North Africa
    12/5/1942: The Germans defeat Soviet troops at Kharkov, taking 240,000 prisoners
    15/5/1942: Britain abandons Burma to Japan
    22/5/1942: Mexico declares war on Germany and Italy
    26/5/1942: German and Italian troops under Rommel's command attack British, French, New Zealander and South African troops in Egypt
    27/5/1942: An assassination attempt against Reinhard Heydrich fails in Prague
    30/5/1942: Harris' bombers attack Koln, 1,000 planes killing 480 people
    30/5/1942: Japanese submarines attack British warships in Madagascar, the only case when the Japanese helped their German ally during the war
    6/1942: Hitler moves his headquarters to Vinnytsia in Ukraine ("Werwolf")
    2/6/1942: The Germans attack the Crimean port of Sebastopol
    4/6/1942: The USA navy defeats the Japanese navy in the Midway battle, which ends with the sinking of five aircraft carriers (one USA and four Japanese) and the destruction of 250 Japanese aircrafts
    17/6/1942: US president Roosevelt authorizes a project to develop an atomic bomb
    21/6/1942: German and Italian troops take Tobruk in Egypt
    28/6/1942: Germany and Hungary begin a summer offensive against the Soviet Union in the south ("Operation Blue") including the battle of Voronezh on the Don river
    9/7/1942: The Germans conquer the Crimean port of Sebastopol
    16/7/1942: The Paris police (9,000 officers) rounds up and deports 28,000 Jews
    17/7/1942: Himmler visits Auschwitz and witnesses a mass gas-chamber execution
    21/7/1942: Japanese troops land on New Guinea's north coast and are confronted by Australian troops
    22/7/1942: Jews are deported from Warsaw to the Treblinka concentration camp
    23/7/1942: The Germans conquer Roston-on-Don, the gateway to the Caucasus, from the Soviet Union
    28/7/1942: Stalin issues the "Not one step back" order to the Soviet troops which entails killing any soldiers or officer who retreats from the German offensive
    7/8/1942: The USA attack the Japanese in the islands of Guadalcanal and Tulagi in the Solomon Islands
    8/8/1942: Gandhi calls for Britain to leave India and Britain arrests him
    8/1942: Japanese troops kill and eat Australian prisoners, the first cases of what would become a common practice in the Pacific
    9/8/1942: Shostakovich's 7th Symphony is performed in Leningrad, to lift morale in a city where a million people have died during the winter
    11/8/1942: The USA launches the Manhattan Project to develop an atomic bomb
    12/8/1942: Churchill, a staunch anti-communist, travels for the first time to the Soviet Union and meets Stalin in Moscow who wants him to launch a "second front" against Germany in France
    13/8/1942: Britain appoints Bernard Montgomery as commander of its operations in North Africa (Operation Torch)
    19/8/1942: British, Canadian and French troops fail to invade the port of Dieppe in France
    19/8/1942: The Soviet Union launches the "Sinyavino Offensive" to avoid that German and Finnish forces link up near Leningrad, and succeeds despite the death of 40,000 soldiers
    22/8/1942: Brazil declares war on Germany and Italy
    23/8/1942: 1200 German aircraft carpet-bomb Stalingrad allowing German troops to advance in just one day from the Don to the Volga
    30/8/1942: Rommel's troops are stopped by the British in Egypt
    9/9/1942: Germany lays siege to Stalingrad
    1/9/1942: French volunteers join the Soviet Union in Azerbaijan
    15/9/1942: Japan begins the construction of the Burma railway employing British prisoners of war and forced local workers
    14/10/1942: Germany carries out a mass execution of Jews from the Mizocz ghetto, Ukraine
    10/1942: Britain counterattacks in North Africa
    29/10/1942: British sailors find an Enigma machine on a sinking German submarine and mathematicians at Bletchley Park set out to decipher the secret German code
    3/11/1942: Rommel's German troops are defeated by the British at Al Alamein and start retreating to Lybia
    11/1942: The USA appoints Dwight Eisenhower as commarder of its operations in North Africa (Operation Torch)
    11/1942: Tito sets up at Bihac a communist government for Yugoslavia, the Anti-Fascist Council for Yugoslavia (AVNOJ)
    8/11/1942: The Vichy French surrender in Madagascar to the British who install a new governor under DeGaulle
    8/11/1942: British and US troops invade Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria, still held by Vichy France ("Operation Torch")
    9/11/1942: Germany appoints Erik Scavenius as prime minister of Denmark and Denmark joins the Anti-Comintern Pact while most Danish Jews flee to Sweden
    10/11/1942: French general Francois Darlan, a former German collaborator, orders all North African troops to switch side and join the Allies
    16/11/1942: Australia and the USA attack the Japanese at Buna in New Guinea
    19/11/1942: The Soviet Union repulses the German invasion of Caucasus and the Romanians in the north
    23/11/1942: The Soviet Union surrounds the troops that are laying the Stalingrad siege (225,000 German, Romanian, Italian and German soldiers including including 40,000 Soviet volunteers fighting for the Germans)
    25/11/1942: Greek Resistance groups destroy the Gorgopotamos bridge in Greece
    2/12/1942: Fermi achieves a nuclear reaction in Chicago
    12/1942: A famine caused by Japan's seizure of Burma's rice fields kills 1.5 million in one year in India's Bengal region and diseases kill another million
    2/1943: The USA appoints Dwight Eisenhower as commarder of its operations in the entire Mediterranean
    17/12/1942: Britain attacks the Japanese in Burma ("Arakan campaign")
  • 23/12/1943 - 14/2/1944: Rape of Manila by the Japanese (all male Filipinos 14 and older condemmed to die, 100,000 killed)
    24/12/1942: Francois Darlan is assassinated by a young antifascist
    31/12/1942: More than 4 million Jews have been killed in German extermination camps and 1.35 million Jews have been killed in the Soviet Union by either German troops or allied militias
    31/12/1942: More than 1,100 ships have been sunk in 1942
    1942: Nazi doctor Helmut Vetter begins medical experiments at Auschwitz's concentration camp using prisoners, most of which eventually die
    1943: Nazi doctor Josef Mengele begins experimenting on twins (and later on midgits, dwarfs, hunchbacks) at Auschwitz's concentration camp (3000 between 1943 and 1944)
    8/1/1943: The Jews of Warsaw stage an uprising
    10/1/1943: The Soviet Union launches "Operation Ring" against the German troops surrounding Stalingrad
    12/1/1943: The Soviet Union launches an operation, led by Zhukov, to break the siege of Leningrad
    14/1/1943: Churchill and Roosevelt hold a conference at Casablanca, Morocco and decide to aim for the unconditional surrender of Germany and Japan
    16/1/1943: Harris' bombers carry out the first raid on Berlin
    18/1/1943: The Soviet breaks the siege of Leningrad and Stalin promotes Zhukov to marshal of the Soviet Union
    22/1/1943: Australia and the USA crush the last Japanese resistance at Buna in New Guinea, ending the myth of Japanese invincibility
    23/1/1943: British troops conquer Lybia's capital Tripoli from Italy
    31/1/1943: The main German forces in Stalingrad surrender to the Soviet Union, the first major defeat of Germany in World War II, thus ending a six-month battle that has killed 2 million people, including 500,000 civilians
    8/2/1943: the USA captures Guadalcanal from Japan
    18/2/1943: Goebbels delivers the speech "Total war"
    21/2/1943: general Hideki Tojo becomes military dictator of Japan
    22/2/1943: the Soviet Union bombs Sweden
    26/2/1943: the Soviet Union bombds Finland
    27/2/1943: Norwegian partisans destroy Germany's heavy water factory in Norway, thus killing German hopes for an atomic bomb
    28/2/1943: Norwegian partisans blow up a German atomic facility in Norway's Vermork
    3/1943: Germany begins deporting the 60,000 remaining Jews of Greece, mostly from Salonika
    3/1943: An article in Time magazine reveals the extent of the Chinese famine, mainly in Henan province, that has killed 3 million people
    2/3/1943: US and Australian troops attack the Japanese in New Guinea, beginning the Battle of the Bismarck Sea
    9/3/1943: Rommel abandons North Africa and retires to Germany
    15/3/1943: Robert Oppenheimer is appointed director of the Los Alamos center (Manhattan Project)
    3/1943: Wilhelm Canaris, an admiral, plans an assassination attempt on Hitler
    31/3/1943: German U-boats sink 108 ships in the month of march alone
    3/4/1943: Japan repels the British invasion of Burma in Arakan
    7/4/1943: Bolivia declares war on Germany and Italy
    13/4/1943: Germany discovers the mass graves of Katyn in Poland where thousands of Polish officers were secretely killed by the Soviet Union
    17/4/1943: The Japanese bomb Guadalcanal in the largest air strike since Pearl Harbor
    18/4/1943: The USA assassinate Isoroku Yamamoto, commander in chief of the Japanese navy, in the Solomon Islands
    4/1943: Germany organizes Slavic volunteers (mainly from Ukraine) in the "Galician Division" to fight the Soviet Union
    25/4/1943: 16,000 POws and 80,000 Asian slave labourers die during the construction of a 415 km Japanese railway between Thailand and Burma (till 24/6/1944)
    7/5/1943: Britain conquers Tunis
    12/5/1943: German troops in the Crimea surrender to the Soviet Union
    13/5/1943: German and Italian troops in North Africa surrender to Britain and the USA, a total of more than 200,000 soldiers, ending the war in North Africa
    16/5/1943: German troops destroy the Warsaw ghetto after quelling the rebellion and killing thousands of Jews
    27/5/1943: Jean Moulin sets up National Council of the Resistance (CNR) in France reporting to DeGaulle in England
    29/5/1943: Harris' bombers create the first firestorm in a raid on Wuppertal, killing 3,400 people
    30/5/1943: DeGaulle arrives in liberated Algeria
    31/5/1943: The USA and Britain destroy 30% of Germany's U-boats in may alone
    3/6/1943: DeGaulle sets up the French Committee of National Liberation (CFLN), basically a French government in exile
    23/6/1943: Jean Moulin and other members of the National Council of the Resistance (CNR) are arrested and tortured by the Germans
    29/6/1943: Harris' bombers attack Koln with firestorms, killing 4,377 civilians
    5/7/1943: Germany is defeated by the Soviet Union at Kursk, the largest tank battle of the war
    9/7/1943: the USA and Britain under general Patton land in Sicily, and Patton writes that the Sicilians "are the most destitute and God-forgotten people I have ever seen"
    10/7/1943: Britain and the USA land in Sicily
    17/7/1943: The USA and Britain complete the conquest of Sicily, thereby granting the Allies virtual control of the Mediterranean Sea, while 110,000 Italian and German troops evacuate to the continent
    19/7/1943: Hitler and Mussolini meet at Feltre in northern Italy while the USA begins bombing Rome
    25/7/1943: Mussolini is overthrown in Italy, arrested and secretely kept at a prison in Gran Sasso, while Pietro Badoglio is appointed prime minister, pledging to continue the war on the side of Hitler's Germany
    27/7/1943: Harris' bombers attack Hamburg, killing 40,000 people
    27/7/1943: a British bombing erases 6 sq kms of downtown Hamburg killing 40,000 civilians in two hours
    8/1943: The 25 Germans and 100 Ukrainian volunteers running the Treblinka camp have killed 800,000 Jews and gypsies in 13 months since July 1942
    8/1943: Britain appoints Louis Mountbatten as Supreme Allied Commander in South East Asia (the Indian subcontinent)
    1/8/1943: For the first time Stalin visits the front (to congratulate the troops that won at Kursk)
    2/8/1943: Zelo Bloch leads a revolt by Jews in the Treblinka extermination camp
    8/1943: The USA introduces the Grumman F6F Hellcat, a carrier-based fighter aircraft
    3/8/1943: The Soviet Union launches a campaign with a million troops to regain Ukraine
    18/8/1943: The Soviet Union recaptures Orel (southwest of Moscow) despite the Germans killing 112,000 of its troops
    23/8/1943: The Soviet Union liberates Kharkov, the second largest city in Ukraine, despite massive casualties
    4/9/1943: Australian and US troops land in the Japanese-held part of New Guinea
    8/9/1943: The new Italian government surrenders to the USA and Britain, and US troops land in Salerno, near Naples, while Germany invades northern Italy all the way down to Rome, disarming one million Italian soldiers, takes over Italian zones of occupation in the Balkans and southern France, and the Italian government flees to Puglia
    8/9/1943: Hitler visits German-occupied Soviet Union for the last time
    9/9/1943: Germany bombs the Italian fleet that is heading to Malta to surrender to the British and kills 1300 sailors
    10/9/1943: Germany invades Italy, enters Rome and frees Mussolini who sets up a republic in nothern Italy
    12/9/1943: German troops liberate Mussolini, who is appointed leader of a German-controlled republic in northern Italy
    14/9/1943: In three days the Germans kill more than 500 people in Crete (massacres of Viannos and Kondomari) in retaliation for the civilian resistance
    9/1943: John von Neumann joins the Los Alamos team
    21/9/1943: 4,500 Italian troops that resisted the Germans on the Greek island of Cephalonia are summarily executed
    22/9/1943: The Soviet Union crosses the Dnepr river
    25/9/1943: The Soviet Union recaptures Smolensk
    13/10/1943: the new government of Italy declares war on Germany
    3/11/1943: German troops kill 43,000 Jews at the Majdanek concentration camp
    6/11/1943: The Soviet Union liberates Ukraine's capital Kiev and discovers the mass graves of Babi Yar that now contain more than 100,000 bodies
    23/11/1943: The USA conquers Tarawa (Kiribati) from the Japanese, at the cost of more than 1,000 killed
    22/11/1943: Churchill and Roosevelt meet in Cairo, and Roosevelt invites China's Kai-Shek Chiang too to discuss the end of Western imperialism in Asia
    28/11/1943: Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin hold a conference in Teheran, Iran, where they decide to launch the invasion of northern France and the new borders of Poland (that de facto leaves Poland under Soviet control)
    12/1943: British scientists join the Los Alamos team
    12/1943: The USA appoints Dwight Eisenhower as Supreme Allied Commander in Europe
  • 13/12/1943: The Germans kill 496 men in Kalavryta, Greece
    18/12/1943: Chiang appoints the US general Joseph Stilwell in charge of Chinese troops in Burma and India
    31/12/1943: Six million Poles (including three million Jews) have been killed in Nazist death camps at Maidanek, Birkenau, and Auschwitz
    12/1943: The Soviet Union deports 200,000 Crimean Tartars to Uzbekistan
    12/1943: German scientist Rudolf Spanner begins to produce soap and leather from the corpses of dead Russian and Polish prisoners in Danzig
    16/1/1944: Dwight Eisenhower is appointed commander of the allied forces in Europe
    22/1/1944: the Allies land in Anzio, Italy ("Operation Shingle")
    1/1944: The German armed forces consist of 9.6 million men plus 700,000 allied troops in the Soviet Union
    24/1/1944: Japan launches a campaign to destroy US airfields in China
    27/1/1944: Leningrad is liberated by the Soviet Union after 880 days of siege
    31/1/1944: The USA takes Japanese-held Marshall Islands
    2/1944: Rudolf Spanner at the Danzig Anatomical Institute uses the bodies of prisoners of war for making soap and leather
    15/2/1944: The Allies bomb Monte Cassino
    20/2/1944: Norwegian partisans attack the convoy that is carrying Vermork's atomic material from Norway to Germany
    23/2/1944: The Soviet Union deports 300,000 Chechens to Siberia and Kazakhstan
    8/3/1944: The Japanese try to invade India via Imphal
    19/3/1944: Germany invades Hungary and begins to deport its 750,000 Jews to Auschwitz
    24/3/1944: Germans shoot 335 Italian partisans at the Ardeatine Caves near Rome in retaliation for the killing of German police officers
    15/4/1944: Soviet general Nikolai Vatutin is assassinated by Ukrainian partisans of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA)
    19/4/1944: Japan launches the Ichi-go Offensive against the Chiang's Chinese army to open a land route to French Indochina and to destroy the air bases of the USA in southeast China (which are under Chennault's command), the largest military operation in the history of Japan (510,000 soldiers), but Japan has only 100 aircraft versus the USA's 230 and Chiang's 170
    8/5/1944: The USA introduces the Boeing B-29 Superfortress
    11/5/1944: Chinese nationalists invade northern Burma to meet with US troops
    12/5/1944: the Allies bomb German factories of synthetic fuel
    12/5/1944: The Soviet Union liberates Crimea from German and Romanian occupation
    18/5/1944: Polish troops capture Monte Cassino from Germany (the "Gustav Line") with help from US, British and French troops
    27/5/1944: The Japanese invade Hunan province in China Changsha
    4/6/1944: The US troops enter Rome
    6/6/1944: The Allies (156,000 troops from the USA, Britain, Canada, Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, Poland, France, Czechoslovakia, Norway, Belgium, Netherlands and Denmark) land in Normandy and begin the invasion of France ("D-Day") in the largest amphibious operation of all times, involving more than 5,000 ships and 8,000 aircraft
    13/6/1944: Germany begins bombing Britain with V1 "flying" bombs
    15/6/1944: The USA, having assembled the largest fleet in the world, consisting of 535 warships, attacks the Japanese-held island of Saipan in the Marianas
    9/7/1944: The USA conquers Saipan from Japan, after 14,000 US soldiers and all of the 40,000 Japanese soldiers have died (many committing suicide), and now has an air base from which bomb Japan
    22/6/1944: The Soviet Union attacks the German positions in the Baltics and Belarus ("Operation Bagration")
    3/7/1944: The Soviet Union liberates Belarus' capital Minks, the greatest defeat of Germany yet ("Operation Bagration")
    3/7/1944: The Japanese withdraw from India, having suffered more than 17,000 dead (many from disease and starvation) trying to invade it, the largest defeat yet in Japanese history
    13/7/1944: The Soviet Union liberates Vilnius
    19/7/1944: Kuniaka Koiso, a general, becomes prime minister of Japan
    20/7/1944: Hitler narrowly escapes another assassination attempt, planned by Claus von Stauffenberg
    21/7/1944: The Polish resistance stages an uprising in Lviv
    23/7/1944: The German guards kill all remaining prisoners at Treblinka and only one survives, Max Levit
    24/7/1944: The Soviet Union liberates the extermination camp of Majdanek, where about 80,000 people have been killed by the Germans, mostly Jews
    25/7/1944: The Soviet Union conquers Lviv
    26/7/1944: The Soviet Union reaches the Vistula river
    29/7/1944: The USA conquers Guam from Japan and completes the conquest of the Marianas
    1944: A famine caused by Japanese policies kills 2 million people in Vietnam's Tonkin region
    1/8/1944: Polish partisans led by Tadeusz Bor-Komorowski stage an insurrection in Warsaw but the Soviet Union does not help
    3/8/1944: US and Chinese troops conquer Myitkyina in Burma from the Japanese, which allows the USA to double the supplies to Chiang's Chinese army
    15/8/1944: The Allies land on the French Riviera
    16/8/1944: The Soviet Union liberates Treblinka's extermination camp, where more than 700,000 Jews have been killed
    19/8/1944: More than 400,000 German soldiers have been killed in just 3 months on the eastern (Soviet) front during "Operation Bagration"
    20/8/1944: the Soviet Union invades Romania
    20/8/1944: For the first time the USA bombs the railway to Auschwitz, but only to isolate the IG Farben factory
    20/8/1944: French partisans start an uprising in Paris against the Germans
    25/8/1944: US troops enter Paris, the occupying Germans surrender and DeGaulle's government in exile installs itself in Paris
    26/8/1944: Romania switches sides allying with the Allies, cedes Bessarabia to the Soviet Union and attacks Hungary
    8/1944: The Polish resistance attacks the Germans
    2/9/1944: The Soviet Union conquers Romania's capital Bucharest and the Ploesti oilfields that are the main source of oil for Germany
    3/9/1944: British troops enter Brussells in Belgium
    5/9/1944: The Soviet Union declares war on Bulgaria and invades it
    8/9/1944: Germany begins bombing Britain with V2 rockets, the world's first long-range ballistic missile
    9/9/1944: Kimon Georgiev overthrows prime minister Konstantin Muraviev in Bulgaria and switches side allying with the Allies
    11/9/1944: the Allies invade Germany
    17/9/1944: British, US and Polish troops try to cross the Rhine river but are defeated
    24/9/1944: the Soviet Union invades Czechoslovakia
    1/10/1944: the Soviet Union invades Yugoslavia
    2/10/1944: Tadeusz Bor-Komorowski surrenders to the Germans in Warsaw after 200,000 people have been killed (mostly civilians) and the city is destroyed while the Soviet Union refuses to help
    2/10/1944: The US troops attach Aachen, the first German city to come under threat of invasion
    14/10/1944: Erwin Rommel is forced to commit suicide after a failed coup against Hitler
    15/10/1944: Hungary's dictator Horthy surrenders to the Soviet Union, Germany removes Horthy and replaces him with a puppet government led by the fascist Ferenc Szalasi
    21/10/1944: US troops conquer the ancient German imperial capital of Aachen
    23/10/1944: the Soviet Union invades Germany
    25/10/1944: The Soviet Union completes the liberation of Romania
    10/1944: Rommel is forced to commit suicide
    20/10/1944: The USA attacks Japanese-held Philippines and MacArthur returns to the Philippines, as he had promised
    25/10/1944: The Japanese launch suicide air attacks on the Philippines, the "kamikaze"
    10/1944: Albert Wedemeyer replaces Joseph Stilwell as Chiang's chief of staff and begins retraining and rearming the Chinese troops
    4/11/1944: the allies liberate Greece
    14/11/1944: Andrey Vlasov creates the Russian Liberation Army fighting alongside the Germans against the Soviet Union
    23/11/1944: French troops enter Strasbourg
    2/12/1944: DeGaulle meets Stalin for the first time and signs an agreement that recognizes DeGaulle (and not the French communists) as the leader of France
    4/12/1944: civil war erupts in Greece
    8/12/1944: Japan's Ichi-go Offensive conquers 8 provinces from Chiang's Chinese army and destroys all the main US airfields in China
    12/12/1944: The last German troops leave Greece
    17/12/1944: German troops launch an offensive in the Ardennes
    26/12/1944: Russian troops surround Hungary's capital Budapest trapping 79,000 German and Hungarian troops
    1/1/1945: The Soviet Union is the only country to recognize the Polish Committee of National Liberation (the communists) as the legitimate government of Poland
    11/1/1945: Soviet troops enter Budapest, with indiscriminate looting and raping
    12/1/1945: The USA completes the Ledo Road connecting Ledo in India to Kunming in China to transport supplies to Chiang's Chinese army
    13/1/1945: The Soviet Union invades East Prussia, raping German women indiscriminately
    14/1/1945: Hungarian fascists slaughter 170 patients and nurses in Budapest's Jewish hospital
    17/1/1945: the Soviet Union liberates Poland's capital Warsaw and begin deporting the Polish citizens of Lviv towards western Poland and 91,000 members of the Polish resistance are arrested and deported to the Soviet Union
    19/1/1945: Soviet troops in Hungary arrest and deport Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg, a hero who saved thousands of Jewish lives
    27/1/1945: The Soviet army liberates the Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp
    30/1/1945: Hitler makes his last radio broadcast
    31/1/1945: In the month of january 450,000 German troops are killed
    3/2/1945: the USA conducts the first firebombing on Japan (Kobe)
    3/2/1945: the USA bombs Berlin killing 3,000 civilians
    3/2/1945: The Soviet Union reaches the Oder river
    3/2/1945: US troops enter the Philippines' capital Manila
    4/2/1945: Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin hold a conference in Yalta, where Roosevelt de facto allows Stalin to occupy Poland against Churchill's will in return for the Soviet Union to accept the United Nations while Stalin accepts the British occupation of Greece and Stalin accepts to declare war on Japan in return for control of Mongolia, and Churchill and Roosevelt consent to the repatriation of Soviet "prisoners of war" (mostly traitors) to the Soviet Union even knowing that Stalin was likely to kill all one million of them
    13/2/1945: Two waves of British and US bombers annihilate downtown Dresden, a city of no military importance full of refugees, killing between 25,000 and 135,000 civilians (Gobbels claims 250,000), the 63th German city destroyed by British air force's commander-in-chief Arthur Harris
    13/2/1945: Germans launch an offensive in Hungary trying to protect the oil fields of Lake Balaton
    16/2/1945: Klaus Fuchs gives the Soviet Union secrets about the atomic bomb
    19/2/1945: The USA land on Iwo Jima, an island 1,200 kms south of mainland Tokyo
    19/2/1945: 8.5 million German refugees are fleeing the invading Soviet troops
    23/2/1945: the USA conducts the first firebombing on Tokyo
    3/3/1945: Finland declares war on Germany
    3/3/1945: The last Japanese troops surrender in Manila after around 100,000 Filipino civilians have been killed in the battle and after the Japanese have raped and killed thousands of women
    6/3/1945: The Soviet Union installs a communist government in Romania
    7/3/1945: The USA crosses the Rhein and enters Germany from the west
    9/3/1945: The USA conducts its second firebombing, this time on Tokyo, destroying most of the city (25 sq kms) and killing about 83,000 civilians
    9/3/1945: Japan launches the Meigo Offensive against French colonial troops in Vietnam after the pro-German government of France has collapsed
    17/3/1945: The Soviet Union bans Western representatives from Poland
    19/3/1945: Hitler issues the "Nero order" to destroy all bridges and factories that might fall into enemy's hands
    20/3/1945: Britain reconquers Mandalay in Burma/Myanmar
    25/3/1945: The USA conquers Iwo Jima after 6,800 US soldiers and all 21,000 Japanese soldiers have been killed
    27/3/1945: Britain and the USA firebomb Danzig
    28/3/1945: The leader of the Polish resistance against Germany, Leopold Okulicki, is arrested and deported by the Soviet Union
    30/3/1945: Russian and Polish troops "liberate" Danzig, destroying the city and raping indiscriminately, and Poland takes control of Danzig
    1/4/1945: The USA lands in Okinawa
    1/4/1945: The USA lands in Okinawa
    4/4/1945: The USA discovers the concentration camp of Buchenwald
    5/4/1945: admiral Suzuki is appointed prime minister of Japan
    5/4/1945: The Soviet Union and Tito's Yugoslavia sign a friendship treaty
    8/4/1945: Hitler orders the execution of German political prisoners
    9/4/1945: The USA and Britain, with troops from Canada, South Africa, Poland, India and New Zealand, launches an offensive to capture northern Italy, still in the hands of the fascists
    10/4/1945: The Soviet Union conquers Konigsberg, completing the East Prussia campaign
    11/4/1945: The USA liberates the Buchenwald concentration camp
    11/4/1945: US troops reach the Elbe river
    12/4/1945: Roosevelt dies and Harry Truman becomes president of the USA, while Eisenhower, against Churchill's advice, stops the US troops that are about to reach Berlin, thus allowing the Soviet Union to catch up
    13/4/1945: the Soviet Union enters Vienna
    13/4/1945: German troops and civilians burn more than 1,000 prisoners alive in Gardelegen
    16/4/1945: The Soviet Union lays siege to Berlin with 2.5 million troops
    21/4/1945: the Soviet Union and the communist government of Poland (only recognized by the Soviet Union and France) sign a treaty of mutual assistance
    21/4/1945: Britain and the USA carry out the last air raid on Berlin
    23/4/1945: the Soviet Union enters Berlin, where Soviet soldiers will rape about 100,000 women, 10,000 of which will die
    25/4/1945: Soviet and USA troops meet on the Elbe river, thus de facto partitioning Germany in two
    25/4/1945: Italian partisans liberate Milan
    25/4/1945: Chiang's Chinese army defeats the Japanese at Chih-kiang, the last major battle between the two armies
    27/4/1945: The founding conference of the United Nations is held in San Francisco
    27/4/1945: The Soviet Union sets up a provisional government in Austria
    28/4/1945: Mussolini is captured and hanged by Italian partisans
    28/4/1945: The USA liberates the Dachau concentration camp, where 30,000 prisoners are still alive
    29/4/1945: Britain begins "Operation Manna" to drop food on the Netherlands, where people are starving to death
    30/4/1945: As Soviet troops are closing in on his bunker, Adolf Hitler commits suicide together with Joseph Goebbels
    2/5/1945: Soviet troops complete the conquest of Berlin that has cost 100,000 Soviet lives
    2/5/1945: British troops conquer Luebeck, following Churchill's secret orders to prevent the Soviet Union from invading Denmark
    2/5/1945: German troops surrender in northern Italy and southern Austria
    3/5/1945: Britain reconquers Rangoon/Yangoon in Burma/Myanmar
    4/5/1945: German troops surrender in the Netherlands, Denmark and northwest Germany
    5/5/1945: Soviet troops discover the charred corpse of Hitler but Stalin keeps it secret even to general Zhukov
    7/5/1945: Germany surrenders to Britain, France and the USA, including 400,000 German troops still in Norway
    8/5/1945: Churchill plans an invasion of Soviet-occupied Eastern Europe to liberate Poland, "Operation Unthinkable"
    9/5/1945: Hermann Goering is captured by the USA
    9/5/1945: The Soviet Union enters Prague and Germany surrenders to the Soviet Union
    23/5/1945: Heinrich Himmler commits suicide
    26/5/1945: the USA conducts a third firebombing on Tokyo
    29/5/1945: France bombs its former colony Syria and tries to arrest its democratically elected leaders
    5/1945: Tito's communists kill more than 100,000 people in Yugoslavia's civil war
    5/1945: out of the 90,000 German soldiers who surrendered in Stalingrad, only 5,000 return to Germany alive
    6/1945: The USA prepares a plan for the invasion of Japan
    22/6/1945: The last Japanese soldiers commit suicide in Okinawa after 1,465 kamikaze attacks have sunk 29 US ships and killed 5,000 US sailors, and more than 100,000 Japanese soldiers and 100,000 civilians have died
    1/7/1945: USA, Britain and France enter Berlin
    5/7/1945: Britain and the USA recognize the Soviet-imposed Polish government and liquidate the British-supported exiled Polish government
    16/7/1945: The USA tests the first atomic bomb
    16/7/1945: Truman, Stalin and Churchill meet at the Potsdam Conference to discuss post-war Europe, and they all recognize Poland's new borders
    22/7/1945: the USA wins the battle of Okinawa, the last major island battle, but with a casualty rate of 35%
    25/7/1945: Churchill is defeated at the elections by the Labour Party of Clement Attlee in the biggest landslide since 1906
    8/1945: The Viet Minh liberate Vietnam and Ho Chi Minh declares Vietnam's independence from France
    6/8/1945: the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima kills more than 100,000 civilians
    8/8/1945: The Soviet Union attacks Japan in China with more than 1.6 million soldiers killing 500,000 Japanese in two weeks, raping women indiscriminately and taking 674,000 prisoners (only half of which will survive the prison camps in Siberia)
    8/1945: Unit 731 is shut down after it has employed up to 3,000 Japanese scientists experimenting on thousands of Chinese prisoners
    9/8/1945: The nuclear bombing of Nagasaki kills more than 100,000 civilians
    14/8/1945: Japan surrenders to the USA after a coup of army officers led by Kenji Hatanaka has failed to overthrow the emperor
    15/8/1945: Japan's emperor broadcasts a message calling on all soldiers to surrender, the first time ever that the Japanese nation has heard his voice
    20/8/1945: The Soviet Union liberates the Japanese prison camp of Mukden where 1,485 Anglosaxon prisoners of war have been subjected to biological experiments
    27/8/1945: Japan sets up brothels with 20,000 women for the US soldiers who are about to occupy Japan
    30/8/1945: The USA lands at Yokohama beginning the occupation of Japan
    30/8/1945: Britain returns to Hong Kong
    2/9/1945: Japan signs the surrender to general McArthur and admiral Nimitz
    9/9/1945: Japan surrenders to China
    9/9/1945: British troops regain Burma/Myanmar
    11/9/1945: Tojo tries to kill himself but is arrested alive by the USA
    13/9/1945: Japan surrenders in Burma
    9/1945: US general Douglas MacArthur secretly grants immunity to the scientists of Unit 731 in exchange for obtaining the results of their research on biological warfare
    24/10/1945: The winning powers create the United Nations
    20/11/1945: The remnants of the Nazi regime are tried at the Nueremberg trial

  • Most frequently asked question: best book i've read on WWII? Answer: Antony Beevor's "The Second World War" (2012)

    Deaths in World War II

    Sources: Ragz, Gerhard Weinberg,, Wikipedia
    Country Military Deaths Civilian Deaths
    Due to War
    Total Deaths
    Australia 23,365 - 23,365
    Belgium 12,000 76,000 88,000
    Brazil 943 N/A 1,000
    Britain 264,443 92,673 357,000
    Canada 37,476 - 37,476
    China 2,000,000 7,750,000 9,750,000
    Czechoslovakia 10,000 215,000 225,000
    Denmark 1,800 2,000 4,000
    Estonia 15,000 6,000 21,000
    France 213,324 350,000 563,000
    Greece 88,300 325,000 413,000
    Gypsies - 350,000 350,000
    India 24,338 - 24,338
    Indonesia - 4,000,000 4,000,000
    Latvia - 70,000 70,000
    Lithuania 30,000 140,000 170,000
    Malaysia - 100,000 100,000
    Netherlands 7,900 200,000 208,000
    New Zealand 10,033 - 10,033
    Norway 3,000 7,000 10,000
    Philippines 27,000 91,000 118,000
    Poland 320,000 5,675,000 5,800,000
    South Africa 6,840 - 6,840
    Soviet Union (minus Ukraine) 12,000,000 3,000,000 15,000,000
    Ukraine 6,019,000 4,000,000 10,000,000
    USA 405,500 - 405,500
    Vietnam - 1,000,000 1,000,000
    Yugoslavia 305,000 1,200,000 1,505,000
    Bulgaria 10,000 10,000 20,000
    Finland 82,000 2,000 84,000
    Germany 3,500,000 780,000 4,200,000
    Hungary 200,000 640,000 840,000
    Italy 242,322 152,941 395,000
    Japan 1,300,000 953,000 2,253,000
    Romania 300,000 200,000 500,000
    Total 58,000,000

    These numbers include about six million Jews:
    • Austria 60,000
    • Belgium 25,000
    • Czechoslovakia 250,000
    • France 70,000
    • Germany 170,000
    • Holland 104,000
    • Hungary 550,000
    • Italy 8,000
    • Latvia 70,000
    • Lithuania 140,000
    • Poland 3,200,000
    • Romania 270,000
    • Soviet Union 1,000,000
    • Yugoslavia 55,000

    World News | Politics | History | Editor

    Sharing the responsibility

    • Britain: Britain had one of the largest crowds of Hitler sympathizers in the world
    • France: very few French volunteered to fight against Hitler
    • France: French agriculture and industry worked for the German army and people
    • Italy: there were no partisans fighting Mussolini before he started losing the war
    • Poland: anti-semitism was already rampant before Hitler invaded Poland
    • Romania: Romania was second only to Germany in killing Jews and Gypsies (200-300,000)
    • Soviet Union: many Soviet citizens (e.g., in Ukraine) welcomed Hitler's army and enrolled to fight Stalin
    • A million Soviet citizens served in the German army (including the Galician Division of the SS and general Andrey Vlasov's Russian Liberation Army)
    • Most European monarchies collaborated with Germany and Italy
    • Denmark provided 20% of Germany's needs in butter, pork and beef
    • Croatia: Ustasha killed more than 300,000 Serbs, Muslims and Jews
    • Sweden was told of the extermination camps in 1942 by Baron von Otter but decided to hide the information
    • Sweden and the Soviet Union kept supplying Germany even after the invasion of Poland
    • Soviet Union: unprovoked invasion of Poland (1939), Finland (1939), Lithuania (1940), Latvia (1940), Estonia (1940), Bulgaria (1944), Japan (1945)
    • Mao saw Chiang as his #1 enemy, not the Japanese
    • France: After the war, France did to Algeria and Vietnam what Germany wanted to do to France
    • Very few rebellions by Jews, who were mostly obedient
    • All of Europe: Poland was the only country in which very few people collaborated with the German occupation troops and from the beginning there was a strong anti-Nazi resistance movement
    • USA: opposition to the war against Hitler was always high
    • The USA did not condemn Japanese expansionism until 1939
    • Belgium and Holland remained neutral until invaded (Holland had been neutral also in WWI)

    Sharing the responsibility

    • Many corporations benefited from the war
    • IG Farben
      • used Auschwitz prisoners as slave labor for its Buna Werke
      • manufactured the poison gas used in concentration camps
      • employed doctor Helmut Vetter who conducted experiments on Auschwitz prisoners
      • launched a project to invent chemical castration of the conquered Slavs

    Sharing the responsibility

    • Europe did not forgive Hitler for "the fact that he applied to Europe the colonial practices that had previously only be applied to the Arabs of Algeria, the coolies of India, and the Negroes of Africa" (Aime Cesaire, "Discourse on Colonialism", 1951)

    Sharing the responsibility

    • The German invasion of France in 1940 caused minimal destruction to historical buildings and few civilian casualties, but the Allied invasion of Germany killed about one million German civilians and destroyed thousands of monuments
    • The German blitz on Britain of 1939-40 killed 40,000 civilians, but the Allied bombing offensive of 1943-45 killed about 500,000 German civilians (British concentrated on night-time carpet bombing of German cities, which killed mostly civilians, whereas Americans concentrated on daytime bombing of industrial and military targets)
    • Throughout the war, Stalin continued the purges he had begun in the 1930s, killing dissidents at the rate of one million per year (Robert Conquest's estimate, largely confirmed by the secret archives opened after the fall of the Soviet Union).
    • Needless to say, the countries that were "liberated" by the Soviet Union were not any better off after the war than they had been during the German occupation: many more Polish, Czech and Hungarian citizens were killed by the communist regimes than had been killed by the pro-Hitler regimes.
    • The Soviet Union lost 25 million people during the war, of which nine million were soldiers and 16 million were civilians; but that includes Russian civilians "as well as" non-Russian civilians of the other Soviet republics. Statistics tend to count the people killed by the Soviet Union inside the borders of the Soviet Union (i.e., Ukrainians, Lithuanians, etc) as if they had been killed by Hitler's troops, when they were in fact many of them were killed by Stalin's troops. For example, Ukraine (technically, a republic of the Soviet Union) suffered the greatest loss of human lives in the entire Europe (six million soldiers, four million civilians and 600,000 Jews), but many of them were killed by the Soviet army not by the German army. Both the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) and the Galicia Division (or Divizia) fought against both Hitler and Stalin: they are all counted as "Soviet casualties" of the war.
    • Another country that got away relatively easily from its war crimes is Japan. If one counts civilian casualties only, Japan's invasions were far more brutal than Germany's invasions. They killed, enslaved and raped millions of civilians. Japan was the only country to use chemical weapons, and it pioneered biological warfare by dropping plague, cholera and anthrax germs on Chinese villages. The number of people submitted to medical experiments in Japan's secret labs is much higher than the number of German prisoners who suffered the same fate. Nobody will ever know the number of "sex slaves" who were used (probably more than one million) and who died (sources say up to 90%). Prisoners of war in German camps were not mistreated (only 1% died) but prisoners of war in Japanese camps were used as slave labourers (and 31% died). If one includes China and all the occupied countries (Indonesia, Vietnam, Malaysia, etc), Japan caused the death of about 20 million civilians, far more than those caused by Germany.

    Sharing the responsibility: where are the innocents?

    • Italy: ally of Hitler
    • Finland: ally of Hitler
    • Hungary: ally of Hitler
    • Romania: ally of Hitler
    • Bulgaria: ally of Hitler
    • Slovakia: ally of Hitler
    • Croatia: ally of Hitler
    • France: ally of Hitler
    • Switzerland: banker of Hitler, deported thousands of Jews
    • Spain: did not participate, but supported Hitler
    • Portugal: did not participate, but supported Hitler
    • Sweden: let Germany use its territory to avoid an invasion
    • Ireland: declared netutrality after Germany started war
    • Soviet Union: secret pact with Hitler to split Poland
    • USA: declared netutrality after Germany started war

    Sharing the Responsibility: Japan's holocausts

    • 13/12/1937 - 3/1938: Rape of Nanking or "Nanjing Datusha" (369,366 Chinese killed, and 80,000 women raped)
    • 18/4/1942: 250,000 Chinese civilians murdered in retaliation for Chinese help to USA airmen
    • 23/12/1943 - 14/2/1944: Rape of Manila (all male Filipinos 14 and older condemmed to die, 100,000 killed)
    • 1937-45: Forced prostitution or "jugun ianfu" (400,000 Chinese women, 250,000 Korean women, 90% death rate, largest and most deadly mass rape recorded in history)
    • 1933: Shiro Ishii'ss medical experiments in Manchuria (victims vivisected while still alive)
    • 1939: Shiro Ishii's biological experiments in Harbin, China (10,000 prisoners died)
    • 1940: Air bombing of Chinese villages with germs of bubonic plague (october 1940, Quzhou), cholera (1940, Yunnan), anthrax, etc (200,000 die)
    • Only nation that used chemical weapons in WW II
    • POW camps
    • 10 million Asians were used as slaves and only 5,000 or so survivors may still be alive.
    • Death rate in Japanese prisoner camps: 38.2 %
    • 25/4/1943-6/44: 16,000 PoWs and 80,000 Asian slave labourers died constructing the Thai-Burma railway
  • Japan is responsible for the casualties of more than 20 millions in Asia
  • World News | Politics | History | Editor
    Pictures of the Manhattan Project (first atomic bomb)
    (Copyright © 2011 Piero Scaruffi)