Emile Cohl (France, 1857), a caricaturist and comic strip author who had been a member of both the Hydropathes and the Incoherents,
reverse engineered the technique of Stuart Blackton's The Haunted Hotel (1907) and became (at the age of 51) the animation specialist in Leon Gaumont's studio starting with the two-minute Fantasmagorie (1908), the first fully animated film, made up of 700 drawings,
Le Cauchemar du fantoche/ The Puppet's Nightmare (1908),
Un Drame chez les fantoches/ A Puppet Drama/ The Love Affair in Toyland (1908),
Les Joyeux Microbes/ The Joyous Microbes (1909),
Clair de lune espagnol/ Spanish Moonlight/ The Man in the Moon (1909),
the movie of puppet animation Le Tout Petit Faust/ The Little Faust/ The Beautiful Margaret (1910),
and especially Le Peintre Neo-impressionniste/ The Neo-Impressionistic Painter (1910).