Nikolai Ekk (1902) made both the first Soviet sound film,
Putevka v Zhizn/ The Road to Life (1931),
about reeducation of juvenile delinquents by training them in a commune of
apprentices, which mixed documentary (the gang roaming the streets of Moscow)
with didactic preaching (the daily schedule in the commune) and dramatic fiction (the educator's sacrifice),
and the first Soviet color film,
Grunia Kornakova/ The Little Nightingale (1936), about a heroine who
leads a fight by female workers against a corrupt capitalist.
He had already experimented with color in the documentary Karnaval Tsvetov/ Carnival of Colors (1935).
Ekk adapted Nikolai Gogol's stories in Sorochinskaia Iarmarka/ The Fair of Sorochinsk (1939) and Maiskaia noch/ May Night (1941).