Masahiro Shinoda (Japan, 1931)
Killers on Parade (1961)
Kawaita Hana/ Pale Flower (1964) is a yakuza noir.
Ansatsu/ Assassination (1964)
With Beauty and Sorrow (1965)
Ibun Sarutobi Sasuke/ The Strange Story of Sarutobi Sasuke/ Samurai Spy (1965)
Samurai Spy (1965), based on Koji Nakada's novel "Ten Heroes of Sanada",
is a historical costume drama set in 1614, after
Tokugawa seized power. The samurai is no longer portrayed as the supernatural
hero of the early chanbara films, but as a case of psychological alienation.
The linear plot of the early epics has become a labyrinthine plot.
The samurai of this story does very little. Mostly he is passive. Mostly
he lets things happen to him. He is clueless about the whole conspiracy
Tokugawa set up a system of spies to control the empire he created and defend
it from the defeated Toyotomi clan.
A man is cornered in a dark alley and killed by
Tatewaki Koriyama, a Tokugawa spy.
A white-clad ninja named Sakon Takatani introduces himself in front of the
camera, also a Tokugawa spy but jealous of Tatewaki Koriyama.
The spies climb buildings like spiders in the dark of the night and kill
Shigeyuki Koremura is the
leader of the opposite spy system, the one faithful to the Toyotomi clan.
He is assisted by Takanosuke Nojiri. They are no less deadly: they slice the
ear of a victims with a smile on their faces.
The Sanada clan is neutral. One its spies is Sasuke.
All of them are unemployed samurai, now reduced to starvation if they don't
accept these demeaning jobs.
Sasuke meets an old acquaitance, Mitsuaki Inamura, a Toyotomi spy.
They reach the nearby town, where a Christian, Yashiro, is about to be sentenced to death.
Mitsuaki Inamura tells Sasuke that he turned the Christian in, so as to create
a diversion and be able to sneak through town unharmed.
The Tokugawa clan is trying to stop him because he knows the whereabouts of
Tatewaki Koriyama, who has decided to defect to the Toyotomi faction.
Sasuke can hardly believe the news, but later he finds
Mitsuaki Inamura surrounded by Tokugawa agents. Sasuke kills them all, except
the white-clad Sakon Takatani, who jumps from the bridge.
Mitsuaki Inamura is wounded but saved. The night, though, someone murders him
as they are sleeping in a brothel. The women see Sasuke near the corpse and
assume that he killed him.
Sasuke finds shelter in a Buddhist temple where he meets the beautiful
Omiyo. She tells him that Shigeyuki Koremura of the
Toyotomi clan would like to see him.
Sakon Takatani appears out of the blue, accusing Sasuke of having masterminded
Mitsuaki Inamura's plan and
demanding that Sasuke surrenders Tatewaki Koriyama.
Again suspected of a murder (this time of a dancing woman, Okiwa, he was in love with),
he is chased by the crowd
and saved by Sakon and (surprisingly) delivered unconscious to the house of
an old man, apparently a friend of Koremura and clearly a Christian (crucifixes
all over the house). Both Shigeyuki Koremura and
Takanosuke Nojiri are there to meet with him.
Because Sakon rescued him, they think that Sasuke is siding with
Tokugawa against Toyotomi. The very girl who was murdered was working for Sakon.
They think Sasuke did commit both murders and that he is trying to capture
Tatewaki Koriyama by himself. There is damning evidence: a letter written by
Tatewaki Koriyama in person to Sasuke asking for help.
They offer Sasuke money if he delivers Tatewaki Koriyama as
Mitsuaki Inamura was supposed to.
Takanosuke Nojiri are there to meet with him.
Sasuke instead suspects that Sakon killed both Mitsuaki Inamura and the
dancing girl Okiwa hoping that Sasuke would lead him to Tatewaki Koriyama.
Omiyo tells Sasuke that she has been enslaved by Takanosuke Nojiri, and Sasuke
advises her to leave as soon as possible, because Sakon may kill anyone.
Omiyo, jealous when she hears that Sasuke truly loved the dancing girl Okiwa,
runs away, but is kidnapped by the men of the magistrate who is trying to
arrest Sasuke. Sakon appears and helps Sasuke, but Omiyo has already
been spirited away. Sakon offers money for Tatewaki Koriyama. Sasuke simply
asks help to free the girl. Sakon laughs and gives him two men. In return
Sasuke gives him the letter that contains the name of the inn where
Tatewaki Koriyama is waiting. (Sakon also denies having killed
Sasuke frees Omiyo and also the Christian, Yashiro, who had been left to die
a horrible death. They then deliver the Christian to Jinnai, the old Christian
man. Yashiro asks the old man about his father. Sasuke asks who is Yashiro's
father. The old man replies that Yashiro is the son of Tatewaki Koriyama, who
is his (Jinnai's) son, although he reneged on his faith and became a spy.
Jinnai doesn't know where his son is.
Jinnai tells Sasuke that the magistrate tortured and killed the good priest of
the Buddhist temple in order to find out where he, Sasuke, went. Sasuke says
that now he knows on which side he is, presumably opposed to
Tokugawa and therefore with Toyotomi, i.e. on the same side as
Shigeyuki Koremura. Thus he helps Shigeyuki Koremura decode correctly
Tatewaki Koriyama's letter, using his son's name as the key, and figures out
the location where they can find him.
The location is the shrine where a festival is about to start.
Finding Tatewaki Koriyama is like a puzzle, especially in the big crowd
of the festival. But Sasuke manages to read all the clues and find the
has been wounded by Sakon's men when he escaped from
Tokugawa: that is the reason that he needs Sasuke's help.
The ghostly Sakon and his men appear. A fight breaks out, in the middle
of the colorful and noisy festival.
Finally Sakon and Shigeyuki Koremura, the leaders of the two armies of spies,
fight it out alone.
Sakon kills Koremura but Sasuke arrives in time to kill Sakon.
Sakon, the Christians and Omiyo leave town and try to reach the border.
Yashiro, who never recovered from the tortures, dies just when they pass it.
Sasuke asks Omiyo to marry him. But then
Takanosuke Nojiri, Omiyo's master, appears in the mist.
Sasuke accuses him of murdering both Okiwa and Mitsuaki Inamura.
Takanosuke Nojiri coldly declares that he wants to kill both Sasuke and
Omiyo. And that he has just killed Tatewaki Koriyama.
They duel in the fields. Sasuke is about to succumb when a friend appears
from the mist and kills Sakon.
Captive's Island (1966)
Clouds at Sunset (1967)
Shinju Ten no Amijima/ Amijima Effaced to Heaven by Lovers' Suicide/ Double Suicide (1969), based on Monzaemon Chikamatsu's "The Love Suicides at Amijima" (1703),
mixed kabuki theater and cinema. The story is performed by human actors, wearing
it is frequently interrupted by "backstage" scenes that reveal the stage
and sometimes physically show how the stage is being set up for the scene.
"Kurokos" (men dressed entirely in black) wander silently among the actors
helping them perform actions or simply following them
(a Japanese theatrical tradition).
Shinoda shoots the scenes from angles that maximize both the emotional
impact and the estrangement, for example from the top.
Toru Takemitsu's soundtrack is barely audible.
The film opens with an old puppeteer preparing his marionettes for a show.
Someone calls him on the phone and asks about the state of the script.
The puppeteer replies that he has found the ideal place for
the suicide scene: it will happen in a graveyard.
We see him walk over a bridge to explore a ravine.
The staff is getting the theater ready for the performance.
Notably, they have two lifesize marionettes of two women.
Human actors begin the film proper.
Koharu, a prostitute, and her lover Jihei are desperate: he is too poor
to redeem her paying the sum that she owes to her master.
Koharu contemplates suicide rather than continue to have sex with other men
The kurokos change the set.
Koharu works in a brothel where the wealthy Tahei wants her.
He makes fun that she fell in love with the poor samurai Jihei.
Jihei married his cousin Osan and started a
paper business, but they never made money.
A stranger walks by, his face hidden under a big hat.
Tahei follows him convinced that it must be a jealous Jihei.
However, when Tahei leaves, the stranger removes his hat and the women
realize that he is not Jihei: he's a new customer.
Meanwhile, Jihei overhears someone saying that Tahei wants to redeem Koharu
Koharu is in a terrible mood and her sadness offends the new customer who claims
to be a palace official who walked out of the palace incognito just to have
sex with her.
The brothel owner tries in vain to cheer her up. She is suicidal.
The stranger dissuades her from committing suicide and offers to help pay
her debt to the master.
She confesses to him the plan to commit double suicide, both Jihei and herself.
But she is the only child of her mother, who lives in a slum and would starve if
she stopped sending her money. She accepts his offer and is ready to elope
Jihei is eavesdropping outside and tries to kill the stranger,
but the stranger, also a samurai, is faster and
ties him to the gate while he goes upstairs to have sex with Koharu.
Tahei finds Jihei tied to the gate and spreads the false rumor that Jihei
was caught stealing and invites the crowd to beat up the thief.
The stranger stops him and let Jihei punish him. Tahei runs away
chased by the crowd.
The stranger now shows his face to Jihei and he recognizes his own brother
Magoemon, who pretended to be a new customer simply to unmask Koharu's
doublecrossing intentions: she is ready to elope with anyone who pays her
Jihei is ashamed that he was cheated so easily by Koharu.
He curses her.
Magoemon reminds him that he has a wife and two children to raise.
Magoemon discovers a letter sent by Osan to Koharu but Koharu begs him
to keep it from Jihei.
The action moves to the humble home and paper shop of Osan and Jihei,
ten days later.
Osan's mother and Jihei's brother come to visit the couple.
The old woman is furious because her husband (Osan's father) heard rumors
that someone is paying for Koharu's debt, and the family assumes that it is
Jihei denies it and explains that a rich merchant, Tahei, wants to marry her.
Jihei even puts it formally in writing, swearing to the gods.
When they leave, Jihei doesn't say a word to Osan and goes to sleep.
Osan is initially relieved and happy but then realizes that Jihei is crying,
and assumes that he is still in love with the prostitute.
(A kuroko lifts the blanket to show his tears).
Osan cries that it's now two years since he last made love to her.
Jihei is furious that Koharu let Tahei redeem her rather than committing
suicide as she always said she would do: he feels betrayed again.
Osan confesses that Koharu acted as a traitor
after she wrote a letter begging her to save Jihei.
By betraying Jihei, Koharu released him from the pledge of committing suicide
with her. Osan and Jihei realize that now Koharu will kill herself rather than
marry the man she hates, Tahei.
Osan shows Jihei the letter that Koharu sent her in reply to hers.
Osan is now hysterical: she feels responsible and wants to save Koharu's life.
Osan sends Jihei to redeem Koharu with her own secret savings and even
packs her kimonos to pawn.
Osan is willing to take her in as a cook.
Jihei is ashamed that he caused all this trouble.
Osan's father shows up and, finding Jihei dressed to go out in the evening,
assumes that he's heading for the brothel. Even worse when he discovers the
bundle with Osan's kimonos, ready to be pawned.
Osan's father demands a divorce.
Jihei almost kills himself but Osan stops him.
The father drags Osan away although she is screaming that she wants to stay
The children watch horrified.
Jihei, petrified, doesn't help her.
A kuroko takes the children away.
Five kurokos surround Jihei and get on their knees.
Jihei goes crazy and destroys the paper shop.
The action moves to the brothel.
Jihei has redeemed Koharu but doesn't want her to move in with him,
pretending to be leaving on a business trip.
Jihei's brother Magoemon comes looking for him with the children but
doesn't find him because Jihei and Koharu are eloping together.
They run over the bridge inspected by the puppeteer in the first scene.
It starts raining and she is exhausted.
They have decided to kill themselves and they kiss passionately.
A kuroko and his shadow follow them.
They make love in the graveyard.
He cuts his hair and she cuts hers, so they become priest and nun.
They wander in the marsh crying.
She begs him to kill her and he stabs her with his sword.
The kurokos have erected gallows on top of the hill and Jihei hangs himself
The two bodies are placed on a blanket next to each other.
The Scandalous Adventures of Buraikan (1970)
Chinmoku / Silence (1971) is an adaptation of
Shushaku Endo's historical novel "Silence" (1966).
Sapporo Winter Olympics (1972)
Kaseki no Mori/ The Petrified Forest (1973) is an adaptation of
a novel by Shintaro Ishihara.
Under the Blossoming Cherry Trees (1975)
Ballad of Orin (1977)
Demon Pond (1979)
Akuryo Island (1981)
MacArthur's Children (1984)
Yari No Gonza/ Gonza the Spearman (1986): dramma arcaico, cerimoniali sociali.
The Dancing Girl (1989)
Childhood Days (1990)
Setouchi Moonlight Serenade (1997)
Owls' Castle (1999)
Spy Sorge (2003)
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