John Coltrane
(Copyright © 2006 Piero Scaruffi | Terms of use )
Krentz Ratings:
Coltrane (1957), 5/10
Blue Trane (1957), 7/10
Soultrane (1957), 5/10
The Believer (1958), 6/10
Giant Steps (1959), 8/10
Coltrane Jazz (1959), 5/10
The Avant-Garde (1960), 5/10
My Favorite Things (1961), 7/10
Africa Brass (1961), 6/10
Ole (1961), 6/10
Live at the Village Vanguard (1961), 7.5/10
Impressions (1961), 8/10
Ballads (1962), 3/10
Live at Birdland (1963) 5/10
Complete Live in Stuttgart 1963, 5/10
John Coltrane (1963), 6/10
Crescent (1964), 7/10
A Love Supreme (1964), 9/10
Ascension (1965), 8.5/10
Sun Ship (1965), 6/10
Om (1965), 6/10
Kulu Se Mama (1965), 5.5/10
Meditations (1965), 7.5/10
Transitions (1965), 6/10
Cosmic Music (1966), 5.5/10
Expression (1966), 5.5/10
Interstellar Space (1967), 7/10
Expression (1967), 7/10

Tenor saxophonist John Coltrane (1926) honed his skills with Dizzy Gillespie (1949-51), with Miles Davis (1955-57) and briefly with Thelonious Monk (1957), refining a huge, vigorous, searing tone that competed with Sonny Rollins'. A drug addict, his career was far from linear. He debuted as a leader with Coltrane (may 1957), accompanied by trumpet, baritone saxophone, piano, bass, drums. Blue Train (september 1957), accompanied by trumpet (Lee Morgan), trombone (Chris Fuller), piano (Kenny Drew), bass and drums (Paul Chambers and Philly Joe Jones), was a confused collection, ranging from romantic ballads to hard bop. Four out of the five lengthy tracks were Coltrane originals: Blue Train, Moment's Notice, Locomotion and Lazy Bird. Equally uneven was Soultrane (february 1958), for a quartet with Chambers, Red Garland on piano and Art Taylor on drums, that had no Coltrane originals at all. That was to change soon, perhaps under the influence of the album that Coltrane was cutting with Miles Davis: Kind of Blue.

Other early performances were documented later on Traneing In (august 1957) with the Red Garland Trio, and Kenny Burrell & John Coltrane (march 1958) with Burrell on guitar, Tommy Flanagan on piano, and Paul Chambers and Jimmy Cobb on basses.

Cecil Taylor and Coltrane recorded together only the sessions of Stereo Drive (october 1958), also known as Hard Driving Jazz and Coltrane Time, in a quintet with trumpeter Kenny Dorham.

The Believer (january and december 1958) documents three sessions with Red Garland (piano), Paul Chambers (bass), three different drummers (Arthur Taylor, Larry Ritchie and Louis Hayes) and trumpetists Donald Byrd and Freddie Hubbard. It includes a 14-minute version of McCoy Tyner's The Believer and an 11-minute version of Cal Massey's Nakatini Serenade.

The original compositions of Giant Steps (may 1959) shared a common intent, but their intensity naturally depicted the transition in progress: Giant Steps (famous for its impossible chord changes), Syeeda's Song Flute, Mr P.C., Spiral and Cousin Mary featured a quartet with Chambers, Jones and pianist Tommy Flanagan, while the last track, Naima (recorded in december), Giant Steps, Syeeda's Song Flute, Mr P.C., Spiral and Cousin Mary featured a quartet with Chambers, Jones and pianist Tommy Flanagan, while the last track, Naima (recorded in december), featured pianist Wynton Kelly, Chambers amd drummer Jimmy Cobb, i.e. the line-up of Kind of Blue minus Davis. And Coltrane's mission was in a sense a continuation of Davis' mission: create an art made of poignant solos; except that Coltrane's were the antithesis of Davis' solos, being a torrential, seismic, volcanic outpour of emotion ("sheets of sound"). Coltrane learned from Monk as much as from Davis, though. The sublety of the pianist permeated his acrobatic multiphonics and his breakneck variations. Coltrane Jazz (october 1960) was mostly recorded by the same line-up of Giant Steps, but included several covers and was vastly inferior.

The quintet led by Miles Davis (trumpet) and John Coltrane (tenor sax) with Paul Chambers (bass), Jimmy Cobb (drums) and Wynton Kelly (piano) si documented on Copenhagen March 24th 1960, including Davis' So What (14:20) and All Blues-The Theme (15:30).

John Coltrane also collaborated with trumpeter Don Cherry on The Avant-Garde (july 1960), the result of a session with Charlie Haden on bass and Ed Blackwell on drums. The title was prophetic, but the music was still acerbic, although more faithful to Davis' modal dogma.

By further increasing the role of the solo, and alternating between chord-based and mode-based improvisation, My Favorite Things (october 1960), recorded with a quartet that featured pianist McCoy Tyner and drummer Elvin Jones, inaugurated his brand of pseudo-free jazz (a 13-minute "modal" version of Rodgers' My Favorite Things, an eleven-minute version of Gershwin's Summertime, a nine-minute version of Gershwin's But Not for Me). Africa Brass (june 1961) was a detour of sort: three lengthy jams, arranged by Eric Dolphy, for a much larger ensemble (Coltrane's 16-minute Africa, a 10-minute version of the traditional Greensleeves, Coltrane's seven-minute Blues Minor).

Subsequent recordings continued the progression towards a more uncompromising rejection of structure. Ole (may 1961), recorded two days after Africa Brass by a subset of that ensemble (Freddie Hubbard on trumpet, Eric Dolphy on flute and alto, McCoy Tyner on piano, Art Davis and Reggie Workman on bass, Elvin Jones on drums), was a festival of creative solos, not just Coltrane's but everybody's. The 18-minute Ole and the eleven-minute Dahomey Dance were the tours de force, but Tyner's Aisha acted as the emotional center of mass.

Evenings At The Village Gate (september 1961) contains sessions with Eric Dolphy (alto sax, flute and clarinet), McCoy Tyner (piano), Reggie Workman and Art Davis (basses), and Elvin Jones (drums), including a 16-minute version of My Favorite Things , a 15-minute version of Benny Carter's When Lights Are Low, a ten-minute version of Impressions, a 16-minute version of the traditional Greensleeves and a 23-minute version of Africa.

Live at the Village Vanguard (november 1961), in quintet with Dolphy, Tyner, Workman and Jones, was the crowning achievemet of this period, particularly the two colossal improvisations: the 16-minute Chasin' the Trane and the 15-minute Spiritual. That feat was repeated on the two centerpieces of Impressions (november 1961), Impressions and India, performed by Coltrane, Dolphy, Tyner, Workman, second bassist Jimmy Garrison and Jones.

The 1962 Graz Concert (november 1962) contained his version of Miles Davis' Autumn Leaves played by the classic lineup of McCoy Tyner (piano), Jimmy Garrison (bass) and Elvin Jones (drums).

Both Directions At Once (march 1963) released after 55 years, documents the quartet with Garrison, Jones and McCoy Tyner performing versions of Impressions and Nature Boy. The same quartet is documented on Blue World (june 1964), released only 55 years later.

A terrible collection of Ballads (november 1962) was followed by Live At Birdland (november 1963) with Tyner, Garrison and Jones (impeccable interpretations but no revolution), later complemented by Complete Live in Stuttgart 1963 (november 1963), that documents a performance of that classic line-up with lengthy versions of My Favorite Things, Impressions and Mr. P.C.. Three live Copenaghen radio broadcasts were documented on The Complete Copenaghen Concert (november 1961), by a quintet with Eric Dolphy, McCoy Tyner, Elvin Jones and Reggie Workman, The Copenaghen Concerts (november 1962), by the same line-up, and John Coltrane (october 1963), with Tyner, Garrison and Jones, containing a 14-minute version of Harold Arlen's & Johnny Mercer's Out Of This World, and three Coltrane compositions (The Inch Worm, Tunji and Miles' Mode ).

Live At The Jazz Gallery 1960 (may 1960) features his first quartet as a leader, with McCoy Tyner, Steve Davis and Pete La Roca, . Unissued German Concerts 1961 features the quintet with Eric Dolphy, McCoy Tyner, Reggie Workman, and Elvin Jones. The boootleg 1962 Milan Concert documents the quartet with McCoy Tyner, Jimmy Garrison and Elvin Jones. More Live At The Showboat, Philadelphia 1963 documents the trio & quartet with Jimmy Garrison, Roy Haynes and McCoy Tyner.

Copenhagen, Denmark, October 25, 1963 (october 1963) contains live performances of the classic lineup with McCoy Tyner, Jimmy Garrison and Elvin Jones with extended versions of Impressions, Naima, Afro Blue, My Favorite Things, etc.

Coltrane's quartet (Tyner, Jones and Garrison) delivered the goods on the five Coltrane compositions of Crescent (june 1964), including Crescent, Wise One, Lonnie's Lament and The Drum Thing.

It was the prelude to Coltrane's masterpiece, and perhaps the masterpiece of the entire history of jazz music: A Love Supreme (december 1964). Coltrane, Tyner, Garrison and Jones concocted a multi-ethnic stew (African nationalism, Indian spirituality, western rationality) cast in the format of a four-movement mass.

The double-disc One Down, One Up, reissued as Song Of Praise (may 1965), documents live performances by the Quartet (with Tyner-Garrison-Jones): the 20-minute Song Of Praise, a 23-minute version of My Favorite Things, a 13-minute version of Afro Blue, and a 28-minute version of One Up, One Down.

Coltrane continued to push the boundaries with Ascension (june 1965), a free-form improvisation (although not as "free" as Ornette Coleman's Free Jazz) for a large ensemble that boasted three tenor saxophonists (Pharoah Sanders and Archie Shepp besides Coltrane), two alto saxophonists (Marion Brown, John Tchicai), two trumpeters (Freddie Hubbard, Dewey Johnson), two bassists (Art Davis, Jimmy Garrison), McCoy Tyner on piano and Elvin Jones on drums. The horns improvise together in Albert Ayler's manner: an exaggerated, manic timbral orgy. This continuous 40-minute stream of consciousness was a cathartic work, a work of both freedom and subversion, affirming the artist's shamanic power while carrying out the exorcism from his sociopolitical frustration.

Sun Ship (august 1965), the last album with the classic quartet, emulated the religious ecstasy of Ascension with Amen, Attaining and Ascent.

The Unissued Seattle Broadcast (september 1965) documents a live radio performance with Pharoah Sanders, McCoy Tyner, Donald Rafael Garrett, Jimmy Garrison, and Elvin Jones and is mainly devoted to an untitled 30-minute original.

Om (october 1965), was Ascension's little brother, a 28-minute excursus featuring flute and bass clarinet plus the usual cohorts (Sanders, Tyner, Garrison, Jones).

The experiment continued, albeit with less tumult, on Kulu Se Mama (october 1965), particularly the side-long jam Kulu Se Mama with Sanders, a vocalist, a bass clarinetist and an enhanced rhythm section.

A Love Supreme - Live In Seattle (october 1965) documents a live concert by a septet comprising Pharoah Sanders (tenor sax), Carlos Ward (alto sax), McCoy Tyner (piano), Jimmy Garrison and Donald Garrett (basses) and Elvin Jones (drums).

Compared with the cacophony of Om and Kulu Se Mama, the five Meditations (november 1965) with Sanders, Tyner, Garrison, Jones and second drummer Rashied Ali were more disciplined and somewhat rational (particularly The Father and the Son and the Holy Ghost, Love and Consequences).

Several material of the time surfaced only years later: Transition and the 21-minute Suite, off Transition (june 1965), released in 1970, with Tyner, Garrison and Jones; Peace On Earth and Leo, off Infinity (february 1966), released in 1972, with Sanders, Rashied Ali on drums, Alice Coltrane on keyboards and posthumous string arrangements by Alice Coltrane; Manifestation and Reverend King, off Cosmic Music (february 1966), released in 1968, again with Sanders, keyboardist Alice Coltrane, Ali and Garrison; To Be, off Expression (march 1967), another mesmerizing dialogue between Coltrane and Sanders assisted by Alice Coltrane, Ali and Garrison.

At Temple University 1966 (november 1966) documents live performances of a quintet that featured Pharoah Sanders on tenor sax, his wife Alice on piano, and the rhythm section of Jimmy Garrison and Rashied Ali.

Interstellar Space (february 1967), released in 1974, consists of four "cosmic" duets between John Coltrane and Rashied Ali (Mars, Venus, Jupiter and Saturn). To the last day, Coltrane's range of experiments was unbound. His career was an impressive catalog of liberating techniques. Coltrane introduced elements of Indian philosophy (if not music) into jazz, as well as a much stronger and deeper spiritual dimension.

The Olatunji Concert (april 1967) collects his last live recording, a performance of Ogunde and My Favorite Things at the Olatunji Center of African Culture in New York with Pharoah Sanders on tenor saxophone, Alice Coltrane on piano, Jimmy Garrison on double bass, Rashied Ali on drums, and two other percussionists.

The Garrison-Jones-McCoy Tyner is documented also on Living Space (june 1965). New Thing At Newport (july 1965) documents a live performance by his classic quartet (Garrison-Jones-McCoy Tyner) with Archie Shepp (tenor sax), Bobby Hutcherson (vibraphone), Barre Phillips (bass) and Joe Chambers (drums). Stellar Regions (february 1967) features the rhythm section of Jimmy Garrison and Rashied Ali, and Alice Coltrane on piano.

Coltrane died in 1967, at the age of 40. Like Beethoven in classical music and Jimi Hendrix in rock music, he was so influential that very few musicians tried to imitate him.

(Translation by/ Tradotto da Alessandro Taccari)

Il tenorsassofonista John Coltrane (1926) affinò le sue abilità con Dizzy Gillespie (1949-51), con Miles Davis (1955-57) e, per breve tempo, con Thelonious Monk (1957), raffinando un timbro sonoro enorme, vigoroso, e bruciante, in grado di competere con quello di Sonny Rollins. Tossicodipendente, la sua carriera fu molto altalenante. Debuttò come leader con l’album Coltrane (maggio 1957), con l’accompagnamento di tromba, sax baritono, piano, contrabbasso, e batteria. Blue Train (settembre 1957), inciso con tromba (Lee Morgan), trombone (Chris Fuller), piano (Kenny Drew), contrabbasso e batteria (Paul Chambers e Philly Joe Jones), era una confusa raccolta di materiali, spaziando dalle ballate romantiche all’hard bop. Quattro delle lunghe tracce erano originali di Coltrane: Blue Train, Moment's Notice, Locomotion e Lazy Bird. Altrettanto diseguale fu Soultrane (febbraio 1958), per un quartetto formato da Chambers, Red Garland al piano e Art Taylor alla batteria, ma a differenza di Blue Train non conteneva brani scritti da Coltrane. Le cose sarebbero cambiate presto, forse grazie all’influenza dell’album che Coltrane stava incidendo insieme a Miles Davis: Kind of Blue.


Altre esecuzioni dei primi tempi sono documentate nei dischi Traneing In (agosto 1957) con il Red Garland Trio, e Kenny Burrell & John Coltrane (marzo 1958) con Burrell alla chitarra, Tommy Flanagan al pianoforte, e Paul Chambers & Jimmy Cobb al contrabbasso.


Cecil Taylor e Coltrane registrarono insieme solo in occasione delle sessioni per l’album Stereo Drive (ottobre 1958), conosciuto anche con i titoli Hard Driving Jazz e Coltrane Time, in quintetto con il trombettista Kenny Dorham.


Le composizioni originali presenti in Giant Steps (maggio 1959) mostrano un intento comune, ma la loro intensità mostra chiaramente il momento di transizione e cambiamento stilistico: Giant Steps (celebre per i suoi impossibili cambi di accordo), Syeeda's Song Flute, Mr P.C., Spiral e Cousin Mary vedono l’apporto di un quartetto composto da Coltrane, Chambers, Jones e il pianista Tommy Flanagan, mentre l’ultima traccia, Naima (incisa a dicembre), vede la partecipazione di Wynton Kelly, Chambers e del batterista Jimmy Cobb, l’identica line-up di Kind of Blue tranne Davis. E la missione di Coltrane era da intendersi come la continuazione di quella di Davis: creare un’arte costituita da assoli toccanti; con la differenza che gli assoli di Coltrane erano l’antitesi di quelli di Miles Davis, essendo delle torrenziali, sismiche, vulcaniche eruzioni di emozione ("sheets of sound"). Comunque, Coltrane apprese da Monk tanto quanto da Davis. La sottolineatura da parte del pianista permeava le sue acrobazie polifoniche e le sue variazioni spericolate. Coltrane Jazz (ottobre 1960) venne inciso principalmente dalla stessa formazione di Giant Steps, ma includeva anche numerose cover e si rivelò ampiamente inferiore.


John Coltrane, inoltre, collaborò con il trombettista Don Cherry sull’album The Avant-Garde (luglio 1960), risultato di una sessione con Charlie Haden al basso e Ed Blackwell alla batteria. Il titolo del disco era profetico, ma la musica in esso contenuta era ancora acerba, sebbene maggiormente fedele al dogma modale di Davis.


Aumentando ulteriormente il ruolo del solista, e alternando l'improvvisazione basata sugli accordi a quella sullo stile modale, My Favorite Things (ottobre 1960), inciso con un quartetto comprendente il pianista McCoy Tyner ed il batterista Elvin Jones, inaugurò il suo periodo di pseudo-free jazz (una versione lunga tredici minuti di My Favorite Things di Rodgers, undici minuti di Summertime, e una versione da nove minuti di But Not for Me, entrambe di Gershwin). Africa Brass (giugno 1961) fu una sorta di deviazione: tre lunghe jam, arrangiate da Eric Dolphy, per un ensemble allargato (Africa di Coltrane dura 16 minuti, 10 minuti il traditional Greensleeves, e Blues Minor 7 minuti).

Le successive registrazioni continuano la progressione verso un maggior rifiuto senza compromessi della struttura. Olé (maggio 1961), inciso due giorni dopo Africa Brass da una parte di quell’ensemble (Freddie Hubbard alla tromba, Eric Dolphy al flauto e al sax alto, McCoy Tyner al piano, Art Davis e Reggie Workman al basso, Elvin Jones alla batteria), era un festival di assoli creativi non solo da parte di Coltrane, ma di tutti. La versione da diciotto minuti di Olé e quella da undici di Dahomey Dance sono dei veri e propri tour de force, ma è Aisha di Tyner a fungere da vero centro emozionale dell’album.

Live at the Village Vanguard (novembre 1961), in quintetto con Dolphy, Tyner, Workman e Jones, fu il traguardo principale a coronamento del periodo, particolarmente grazie a due colossali improvvisazioni: Chasin' the Trane (16 minuti) e Spiritual (15 minuti). L’impresa venne ripetuta con i due pezzi centrali presenti sull’album Impressions (novembre 1961), Impressions ed India, eseguiti da Coltrane, Dolphy, Tyner, Workman, il secondo bassista Jimmy Garrison, e Jones.


The 1962 Graz Concert (novembre 1962) contiene la sua versione di Autumn Leaves di Miles Davis suonata dalla formazione classica McCoy Tyner (piano), Jimmy Garrison (contrabbasso) e Elvin Jones (batteria).


Alla terribile collezione di Ballads (novembre1962) fece seguito Live At Birdland (novembre 1963) con Tyner, Garrison & Jones (interpretazioni impeccabili ma nessuna rivoluzione), completato in seguito da Complete Live in Stuttgart 1963 (novembre 1963), che documenta la performance della line-up classica con estese versioni di My Favorite Things, Impressions e Mr. P.C.. Tre esibizioni live trasmesse dalla radio di Copenaghen furono documentate in The Complete Copenaghen Concert (novembre 1961), dal quintetto formato da Eric Dolphy, McCoy Tyner, Elvin Jones & Reggie Workman, The Copenaghen Concerts (novembre 1962), stessa line-up, e John Coltrane (ottobre 1963), con Tyner, Garrison & Jones.


Live At The Jazz Gallery 1960 (maggio 1960) comprende il debutto del suo primo quartetto da leader, con McCoy Tyner, Steve Davis e Pete La Roca. Unissued German Concerts 1961 vede la presenza invece del quintetto con Eric Dolphy, McCoy Tyner, Reggie Workman, e Elvin Jones. Il bootleg 1962 Milan Concert documenta il quartetto con McCoy Tyner, Jimmy Garrison e Elvin Jones. In More Live At The Showboat, Philadelphia 1963 si può invece ascoltare Coltrane in trio & quartetto con Jimmy Garrison, Roy Haynes e McCoy Tyner.


Il quartetto classico di Coltrane (Tyner, Jones & Garrison) è responsabile delle cinque composizioni a firma Coltrane contenute in Crescent (giugno 1964): Crescent, Wise One, Lonnie's Lament e The Drum Thing.


Questo fu il preludio al capolavoro di Coltrane, e forse dell’intera storia della musica jazz: A Love Supreme (dicembre 1964). Coltrane, Tyner, Garrison e Jones architettarono uno stufato multi-etnico (nazionalismo africano, spiritualità indiana, razionalità occidentale) espresso nel formato di una messa sacra in quattro movimenti.

Coltrane continuò a spingersi oltre con Ascension (giugno 1965), un’improvvisazione free-form (anche se non "free" tanto quanto Free Jazz di Ornette Coleman) concepita per un ensemble esteso che comprendeva tre tenorsassofonisti (Pharoah Sanders e Archie Shepp oltre a Coltrane), due sax contralto (Marion Brown, John Tchicai), due trombettisti (Freddie Hubbard, Dewey Johnson), due contrabbassisti (Art Davis, Jimmy Garrison), McCoy Tyner al pianoforte e Elvin Jones alla batteria. Gli strumenti a fiato improvvisano insieme alla maniera di Albert Ayler: un’esagerata, maniacale orgia timbrica. Questo continuo flusso di coscienza della durata di 40 minuti fu un lavoro catartico, un’opera sia libera che sovversiva, affermando lo sciamanico potere dell’artista mentre portava avanti l’esorcismo della sua frustrazione sociopolitica.

Sun Ship (agosto 1965), l’ultimo album con il quartetto classico, emula l’estasi religiosa di Ascension con i brani Amen, Attaining e Ascent.


The Unissued Seattle Broadcast (settembre 1965) documenta un’esibizione radiofonica dal vivo insieme a Pharoah Sanders, McCoy Tyner, Donald Rafael Garrett, Jimmy Garrison, e Elvin Jones, principalmente dedicata a un originale senza titolo della durata di trenta minuti.


Om (ottobre 1965), era il fratello minore di Ascension, un excursus di 28 minuti nel caos sonoro comprendente flauto e clarinetto basso più gli abituali collaboratori (Sanders, Tyner, Garrison, Jones).


L’esperimento continuò, anche se con minore clamore, sull’album Kulu Se Mama (ottobre 1965), in particolare nella lunga jam session Kulu Se Mama che occupa un’intera facciata del disco con Sanders, un cantante, un clarinetto basso ed una sezione ritmica potenziata.

Messe a confronto con la cacofonia di Om e Kulu Se Mama, le cinque tracce presenti su Meditations (novembre 1965) inciso con Sanders, Tyner, Garrison, Jones e un secondo batterista, Rashied Ali, sembrano maggiormente disciplinate e in qualche modo razionali (particolarmente The Father and the Son and the Holy Ghost, Love e Consequences).

Svariato materiale dell’epoca tornò alla luce solo dieci anni dopo in svariati dischi postumi: Transition e la Suite da 21 minuti, furono incluse in Transition (giugno 1965), pubblicato nel 1970, con Tyner, Garrison e Jones; Peace On Earth e Leo, su Infinity (febbraio 1966), pubblicato nel 1972, con Sanders, Rashied Ali alla batteria, Alice Coltrane alle tastiere e arrangiamento d’archi postumo opera della stessa Alice; Manifestation e Reverend King, in Cosmic Music (febbraio 1966), pubblicato nel 1968, ancora in formazione con Sanders, Alice Coltrane, Ali e Garrison; To Be, su Expression (marzo 1967), altro ipnotico dialogo tra Coltrane e Sanders assistiti da Alice Coltrane, Ali e Garrison.


At Temple University 1966 (novembre 1966) documenta l’esibizione live del quintetto comprendente Coltrane, sua moglie Alice al piano, Pharoah Sanders al sax tenore, e la sezione ritmica composta da Jimmy Garrison e Rashied Ali.


Interstellar Space (febbraio 1967), pubblicato nel 1974, consiste di quattro duetti "cosmici" fra John Coltrane e Rashied Ali (Mars, Venus, Jupiter e Saturn). Fino all’ultimo giorno, la voglia di sperimentare di Coltrane rimase senza freni. La sua carriera fu un impressionante catalogo di tecniche liberatorie. Coltrane introdusse elementi di filosofia indiana (se non di musica) nel jazz, come anche una più forte e profonda dimensione spirituale.

Coltrane morì nel 1967, all’età di quarant’anni. Come Beethoven nella musica classica e Jimi Hendrix nella musica rock, egli fu così influente che pochissimi musicisti ebbero l’ardire di cercare di imitarlo.

(Copyright © 2006 Piero Scaruffi | Terms of use )
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