Outline of Logos 8: New Arts of the 20th Century (lecture by Piero Scaruffi)

Eric Rhode: A History of the Cinema (1976)
Eileen Southern: The Music of Black Americans (1971)
Ted Gioia: A History of Jazz (1997)
Piero Scaruffi: A History of Rock Music (2003)

Cave paintings from Lascaux in France
Namer Palette from Egypt
The Admonitions Scroll from China

Rudolphe T”pffer's "Histoire de M. Vieux Bois/ The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck" (Switzerland, 1837)
Wilhelm Bush: "Max und Moritz" (Germany, 1865)
Richard Outcault's "Yellow Kid" (1895)
Entertainment for the family, targeting the audience that reads the newspaper
The comics parasite on the newspaper (strips)
Winsor McCay's "Little Nemo in Slumberland" (1905)
Popeye (1929, Elzie Crisler Segar)
Tintin (1929, Herge`)
Mickey Mouse (1930, Walt Disney & Ub Iwerks)
Soap opera
George McManus' "Bringing Up Father" (1913)
Blondie (1930, Chic Young)
Science Fiction
Buck Rogers (1929, Phil Nowlan & Dick Calkins)
Alley Oop (1933, Vincent Hamlin)
Brick Bradford (1933, Clarence Gray & William Ritt)
Flash Gordon (1934, Alex Raymond)

Science Fiction
Alley Oop (1933, Vincent Hamlin)
Flash Gordon (1934, Alex Raymond)

Adventure (detective, picaresque, exotic, spy)
Dick Tracy (1931, Chester Gould)
Li'l Abner (1934, Al Capp)
Terry Lee (1934, Milton Caniff)
Secret Agent X-9 (1934, Dashiell Hammett & Alex Raymond)
Superhero (secret identity)
Phantom (1936, Lee Falk & Ray Moore)
Superman (1938, Jerome Siegel/Joe Shuster)
Batman (1939, Bill Finger/Bob Kane)
Spirit (1940, Will Eisner)
Pogo (1943, Walt Kelly)
Lucky Luke (1946, Morris)
Charlie Brown (1950, Charles Schulz)
B.C. (1958, Johnny Hart)
Les Schtroumpfs (1958, Peyo)
Asterix (1959, Rene' Goscinny/Albert Uderzo)
Mafalda (1964, Quino)

Comic books
Transition from strips to books: there is a market just for the comics
The comic strips of newspapers were free of charge, the comic books are not free
Transition from comics for the family to comics for children and comics for teenagers
Humor becomes a separate business
Mad Magazine (1952)
Fantastic Four (1961, Stan Lee/Jack Kirby)
Barbarella (1962, Jean-Claude Forest)
Spiderman (1962, Stan Lee/Steve Ditko)
Valentina (1965, Guido Crepax)
Arzach (1974, Jean Giraud Moebius)
Graphic Novel
Maus (1980, Art Spiegelman)
No Nausicaa (1982, Hayao Miyazaki)
1895: the Lumiere brothers invent cinema
Georges Melies: "Le Voyage dans la lune" (1902)
Louis Feuillade: "Fant“mas" (1913)

Birth of the language
Griffith: The Birth of a Nation (1915)
Sjostrom: Phantom Chariot (1920)
Murnau: Nosferatu (1922)
Stroheim: Greed (1924)
Ejzenstein: Battleship Potemkin (1925)
Lang: Metropolis (1926)
Buster Keaton: The General (1927)
Birth of the genres
King Vidor: Hallelujah (1929)
Sternberg: Der Blaue Engel (1930)
Mervyn LeRoy: Little Caesar (1930)
Marx: Duck Soup (1933)
Charlie Chaplin: Modern Times (1936)
Hawks: Bringing Up Baby (1938)
John Ford: Stagecoach (1939)
Frank Capra: Meet John Doe (1941)
Individual language
Welles: Citizen Kane (1941)
Kurosawa: Rashomon (1950)
Wilder: Sunset Boulevard (1950)
DeSica: Miracolo a Milano (1951)
Kazan: On The Waterfront (1954)
Bergman: Seventh Seal (1956)
Hitchcock: North By Northwest (1959)
Nouvelle Vague
Godard: A Bout de Souffle (1959)
Fellini: La Dolce Vita (1960)
Antonioni: Blow-Up (1966)
Bunuel: Belle de Jour (1967)
Polansky: Rosemary's Baby (1968)
The genres revised
Aldrich: Hush Hush Sweet Charlotte (1965)
Kubrick: 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968)
Peckinpah: The Wild Bunch (1969)
Martin Scorsese: Mean Streets (1973)
Coppola: The Godfather (1974)
Robert Altman: Nashville (1975)
World cinema
Theodoros Anghelopulos: Traveling Players (1975)
Bernardo Bertolucci: 1900 (1976)
Andrej Tarkovskij: Stalker (1979)
Istvan Szabo: Mephisto (1981)
Peter Greenaway: The Draughtsman's Contract (1982)
Wim Wenders: Wings of Desire (1988)
Lars Von Trier: The Kingdom (1995)
Emir Kusturica: Underground (1995)

Pop Music
Napoli: the Aria
Vienna: the Waltz
Paris, Vienna, London: the Operetta
Paris: the Cabaret
Berlin: the Cabaret
Britain: the Music Hall
Roma: the Canzonetta
Pop Music
From publishing to recording
1877: Thomas Edison invents the phonograph that plays cylinders
1887, Emile Berliner builds a gramophone that plays sound recorded at 78 RPM on a flat record
1890: 100,000 pianos are sold in the USA
1892: Music publishing becomes big business on Tin Pan Alley
1894: the weekly Billboard magazine is founded, reporting "charts" of music sales
Music has a voice and a name (of the singer), not just a song title and a song composer
Pop Music
Thomas Edison and his phonograph (1877)
Pop Music
New distribution channels
1899: Edward Easton founds the first record label, Columbia
1901: Guglielmo Marconi conducts the first transatlantic radio transmission
1901: Melville Clark builds the first full 88-key player piano (music on demand, that does not depend on a performer)
1902: Enrico Caruso's Vesti la Giubba becomes the first record to sell a million copies
1910: 350,000 pianos are manufactured, many of them equipped to play "player-piano rolls"
1920: Westinghouse Electric sets up a commercial radio station, "KDKA"
Pop Music
New distribution channels
Player pianos and radios
Pop Music
Tin Pan Alley in the 1920s
1921: 106 million records are sold yearly in the USA
1929: there are more than 10 million radios in the USA alone
The songwriter
Hoagy Carmichael
Walter Donaldson
Fred Ahlert
The singer
Al Jolson (1910s)
Bing Crosby (1930s)
Pop Music
The Minstrel Show
Christy Minstrels
Virginia Minstrels (1830s)
Georgia Minstrels, the first black minstrel troupe (1865)
Cakewalk (syncopated) dance
Tap dancing
Coon (syncopated) song
Pop Music
The Revue
The Burlesque (1860s)
The Vaudeville (1880s): the USA's version of the British music hall
"Ziegfeld Follies" (1907)
Lee and Jacob Shubert's extravaganzas (1910s)
Pop Music
The Musical
1890s in Europe: Gilbert and Sullivan's operettas
1890s in the USA: musical farce
Black musical comedy
Bob Cole's A Trip to Coontown (1898)
Will-Marion Cook's ragtime-tinged Clorindy the Origin of the Cakewalk (1898)
Will-Marion Cook's In Dahomey (1902)
Pop Music
The Musical
George Cohan's musical melodramas (1900s)
Irving Berlin (1910s)
Eubie Blake's "Shuffle Along" (1921), entirely composed and sung by blacks
Jerome Kern's "Showboat" (1927)
Richard Rodgers (1930s)
Golden age of the musical during the Great Depression
Decline caused by the competition of television variety shows, that catered to the same audience, and by rock music
Pop Music
The Night Club
"Sans-Souci" (1915), first cabaret in New York
"Cotton Club" (1923), only black entertainers
Pop Music
Ballroom dancing
Cakewalk (1900s), the first negro dance to be adopted by the white masses
Foxtrot (1913), generational rebellion
Charleston (1923)
The middle class does not want to sing: they want to dance
Shift from buying music sheets to spending money in a dance club
Black syncopated orchestras
Ernest Hogan's Memphis Students (1905)
James Europe's Hellfighters (1918)
Will-Marion Cook
Pop Music
African-American music
The fusion of European folk music with African folk music is the most important source of innovation for music in the western world after the Ars Nova
Pop Music
African-American music
1890s: Ragtime
1910s: Blues
1917: Jazz
1932: Gospel music
1942: Rhythm'n'blues
1951: Rock'n'roll
1955: Soul music
1960: Reggae (Jamaica)
1965: Funk music
1976: Hip-hop
1981: Techno
1984: House
Pop Music
African-American music
Ragtime (1890s)
Rag: originally the piano arrangement of a coon song and, later, any kind of syncopated piano instrumental
Ragtime transfers the syncopation of minstrel shows from a naive rural environment to a sophisticated urban environment
Scott Joplin
Eubie Blake
Ragtime mainly sold as tapes for player pianos
First recording only in 1917
Pop Music
African polyrhythm vs European linear rhythm
West-African pentatonic scale vs European chromatic scale
Call and response
Spontaneous improvisation
Work songs
The blues: a state of mind
The blues: a dialogue between a human being and his guitar
The blues: black music for blacks only
Spread by medicine shows (eg, TOBA circuit)
Pop Music
The Delta
New Orleans: Storyville (1897-1917)
Kansas City: Tom Pendergast's reign (1925-39)
Memphis: William Handy (1910s), twelve-bar structure
Mass migration to the North: 1916
Prohibition (1920-33)
New York: blues singers, classic blues
Mamie Smith's Crazy Blues (1920), the first blues to become a nation-wide hit
Bessie Smith
Ma Rainey
Pop Music
Country blues
Blind Lemon Jefferson (1926)
Robert Johnson (1936)
Chicago blues (1920s-1950s)
Boogie woogie (1927)
Rhythm'n'blues (1946)

Pop Music
African-American music
Gospel music
1871: the Jubilee Singers tour the USA
Thomas Dorsey (1920s)
Gospel quartets (1930s)
Mills Brothers, Ink Spots, Soul Stirrers
Doo wop (1950s)
Soul music (1955)
Pop Music
1917: Dixieland
1932: Swing
1945: Bebop
1950: Cool jazz
1960: Free jazz
1969: Fusion jazz
Pop Music
Minstrel shows: syncopation, banjo
Ragtime: syncopation, piano, instrumental, joy, 16-beat
Blues: improvisation, guitar, lyrics, sorrow, 12-beat
Jazz = ragtime's syncopation + blues' improvisation + marching band's instruments

Pop Music
Jazz vs European music
European music "trained" the voice to sound as perfect as the instruments, jazz music trained the instruments to sound as emotional as the human voice of the blues
Jazz as a stage in the ongoing process of black assimilation of white technology (most of the instruments were as "un-African" as possible)

Pop Music
Jazz vs Ragtime
Ragtime was written composition, distributed as sheets. Jazz was improvised music, distributed as records.
Jazz vs Blues
Blues was mainly vocal, jazz was mainly instrumental
Jazz was born as music to dance to, blues music was born as music to mourn to
Pop Music
The first musical genre to propagate thanks to the record and the radio
Pop Music
Dixieland jazz: syncopation, collective improvisation, instrumental
Jazz as a new form of entertainment for whites
Jelly Roll Morton: tonal variety, creative dynamics, solos
Louis Armstrong: the art of the solo, paraphrasing the melody, the instrumental counterpart to blues singing
Pop Music
Big bands and swing: composed jazz (Duke Ellington)
Chamber jazz (intimate, not for dancing) vs Swing orchestras (party music)
Bebop (Charlie Parker) and cool (Miles Davis): alienating the audience (the demise of jazz as entertainment)
The schism: free jazz for intellectuals and jazz-rock for the masses (no rhythm for free jazz and rock rhythm for jazz-rock)
Pop Music
1910: John Lomax's "Cowboy Songs and Other Frontier Ballads"
1916: Cecil Sharp's collection of folk songs from the Appalachian mountains
1922: Texan fiddler Eck Robertson cuts the first record of "old-time music"
1920s: String bands
1925: Carl Sprague becomes the first "singing cowboy"
"Hillbilly" (urban, led by the guitar) style vs "mountain" style (led by fiddle and banjo)
Comedians as much as artists
Pop Music
1927: Carter Family, Jimmie Rodgers
1931: honky-tonk style (Gene Autry)
1932: western swing (Bob Wills)
1934: bluegrass (Bill Monroe)
1936: Nashville (Roy Acuff)
Pop Music
1940s: The Nashville sound (Chet Atkins)
1950s: Hank Williams
1950s: female country singers
Protest folk song
1935: Woody Guthrie's "Dust Bowl Ballads"
1940: Pete Seeger's Almanac Singers
1950s: Politicized folk revival (Greenwich Movement)
Pop Music
The recording revolution
Until the 1940s: recordings limited to the capacity of the 78 RPM record, about three minutes
A set of several 78 RPM records (an "album") required to contain longer recordings
Pop Music
The recording revolution
The ASCAP ban of 1942-44 (no instrumental music recorded)
Pop music becomes mainly vocal (not instrumental) music
V-discs create a demand for longer songs
1948: the 12-inch 33-1/3 RPM long-playing vinyl record (the LP), that allows recordings of more than twenty minutes per side
Adolf Hitler: the portable electromagnetic recorder
1947: Ampex tape recorder copied from German technology
Enables recordings of lengthy performances of music
Pop Music
The recording revolution
The LP and the tape make the old cumbersome "album" (the set of several 78 RPM records) obsolete
The live performance less and less essential (after the sheet music, the piano roll, the radio and the 78 RPM record)
Yet another commercial revolution caused by distancing the listening experience from the actual performance
Pop Music
The recording revolution
Record labels rely on radio and tv stations (or musicals or films) to publicize their products
European television, controlled by government bureaucrats, has little motivation to change formats or contents
USA television, controlled by businessmen, has strong motivation to continuously try new formats and contents
In the USA, competition led to innovation.
Beginning of the American domination of popular music
Pop Music
African-American music
Independent radio stations and record labels
Fusion of rhythm'n'blues and country'n'western
Definition of rock'n'roll: white kids listening to black music
Social issues of young white people
The frustration of the white young person mirrors the frustration of the segregated black person
Soundtrack of the emancipation of a new social class: the youth
Rock becomes "the" popular music of the white Anglosaxon youth
Pop Music
African-American music
The masses (not the aristocracy or the scholars) determine who becomes famous and who survives
The masses are influenced by clubs, record labels, broadcasting and rock journalism
Pop Music
African-American music
The beat of rhythm'n'blues
The rhythm section of jazz (bass and drums)
The electric guitar as the lead instrument
The singer as the main soloist
Pop Music
African-American music
Rock music
Britain: merge with blues and folk revivals
USA: merge with singer-songwriters and hippies
Psychedelic rock (1965)
Progressive rock (1968)
Hard rock (1969)
Fusion with all existing genres (folk, blues, jazz, classical, electronic_) and adoption of all new technologies
Pop Music
Pop Music
African-American music
1960: Reggae and dub (Jamaica)
1970: Funk music: first dance mania since the early 1960s
1972: Disco music: electronic rhythm, first major gay genre
1976: Hip-hop: beatbox
Pop Music
Hip hop
Jamaica: toasting (talking in rhyme over the instrumental parts of a record)
Bronx, 1973: Toasting becomes rapping, itinerant sound systems for parties
Bronx, 1975: Jamaican dj Clive "Hercules" Campbell makes music out of breakbeats
Bronx, 1975: Theodore "Grand Wizard" Livingstone discovers the "skratching" sound of a turntable
Bronx, 1976: Joseph "Grandmaster Flash" Sadler introduces "cutting" (cutting a song on the beat), "phasing" (altering the speed of the turntable) and "back-spinning" (spinning a record counterclockwise)
1979: first hip-hop record (Sugarhill Gang)
Pop Music
Hip hop
"Deejays" engage in duels based on turntable skills
No instruments
The turntable is "the" instrument
"Messages" (sociopolitical commentary)
Afrika Bambaataa Asim (Kevin Donovan): collages of breakbeats, beatbox, sound effects and song fragments (electro-funk)
Pop Music
Hip hop
Facets of the hip-hop culture:
Dancing: b-boys (break dancers)
Spray-painted graffiti: tagging
Pop Music
African-American music
1981: Techno: sequencer, high-tech funk music, fast electronic beat
1984: House: electronic dance music built around drum-machines and soul vocals
Pop Music
Popular music of the white western youth
1971: Cosmic music (Germany)
1974: Punk-rock (UK)
1976: Disco-music (Germany)
1976: Industrial music (UK)
1978: Ambient music (UK)
1987: Grindcore (UK) and Death-metal
1989: Post-rock
1990: Doom-metal (UK)
1990: Drum'n'bass (UK)
1994: Glitch music (Germany)
Pop Music
Storytelling: Blues, Rock'n'Roll, Singer-songwriters, Soul, Rap, Punk
Musical expression of the philosophical, political and social issues of the century
Rhythm: Rhythm'n'Blues, Rock'n'Roll, Funk, Disco, Techno, Drum'n'Bass, World-music
Musical expression of acquired urban rhythms and of the lost rural rhythms
Pop Music
Pop music as a metaphor for the continuing sexual revolution (dance craze of the 1920s, blues, jazz, rock, disco, etc)
Pop Music
"No change in musical style will survive unless it is accompanied by a change in clothing style" (Frank Zappa)

Pop Music
Clothes styles
Pop Music
World music
Pop Music
The essence of popular music: transience (continuous innovation: yesterday's style is not classic but boring)
Rapid adoption of new technologies
The industry decides when a new genre is born and then artists have to fit into an existing genre to thrive
TV Shows
Variety show
Global (not local) vaudeville
"Kraft Television Theatre" (1947)
Ed Sullivan's "Toast of the Town" (1948)
"Perry Como Show" (1948)
"Texaco Star Theater" (1948)
Downplay the choreography and emphasize the star

TV Shows
1926: the success of comic strips prompts radio stations to create "situation comedies" (or "sitcoms"), the equivalent of a recurring comic strip without the pictures
"Mary Kay and Johnny" (1947), first sitcom on tv
"I Love Lucy" (1951)
TV Shows
Soap opera
The radio targets a new class of consumers: housewives
Daytime serial dramas aimed at an audience of housewives
Endless intricate adventures, usually of a romantic nature
Soundtrack performed by an organist, drawing from a wealth of melodramatic melodies
Marketing household products such as soap, thus "soap opera"
"The Guiding Light" (1937), the archetype of all future soap operas
TV Shows
Soap opera
"Faraway Hill" (1946), first one specifically designed for television
"Peyton Place" (1964), first prime-time soap opera (thus targeting a broader audience than just housewives)
The collective subconscious of the American youth
Chrysler Building, New York (1928)
Empire State Building, New York (1933)
Rockefeller Center, New York (1931-37)
William van Alen
Chrysler Building, New York (1928)
Empire State Building, New York (1933)
Taipei 101Taipei 509m 2003
World Financial Center Shangai 460m 2005
Petronas Towers Kuala Lumpur 452m 1998
Asia Plaza Kaoshiung Taipei 431m 2008
Jin Mao Tower Shanghai 421m 1998
CITIC Plaza Guangzhou 391m 1997
Shun Hing Square Shenzhen 384m 1996
Central Plaza Hong Kong 374m 1992
Bank of China Tower Hong Kong 369m 1989
Emirates Office Tower Dubai 355m 2000
The Centre Hong Kong 350m 1998
Tuntex & Chien-Tai Tower Kaohsiung 348m 1997
Taipei 101
Petronas Towers
Freedom Tower
1975: Atari Pong (Nolan Bushnell and Alan Alcorn)
1977: Atari 2600
1978: Space Invaders (Toshihiro Nishikado), first blockbuster videogame
1980: Pac-Man (Toru Iwatani)
1981: Nintendo's Donkey Kong Ditty (Shigeru Miyamoto)
1981: Atari Centipede (Ed Logg and Dona Bailey), first videogame to appeal to women
1982: Pole Position, first major photorealistic videogame
1983: Dragon's Lair (Rick Dyer and Don Bluth), an interactive animated film and first game on laserdisc
1985: Nintendo Entertainment System (Masayuki Uemura)
1986: Atari Lynx, first portable game system
1989: Sega Mega-Drive/Genesis
1993: Myst (Rand Miller), first "artistic" videogame
1995: Sony Playstation
1996: Nintendo Ultra 64
199: the Cyberathlete Professional League, the world's first videogame sports league
1998: Half Life (Gabe Newell & Marc Laidlaw), novel-level plot and characters
2000: The Sims (Will Wright), imitation of ordinary family life
2003: Katamari Damacy (Keita Takahashi), adventures in a surreal world