A Timeline of Artificial Intelligence - Part 1

by piero scaruffi | (contact)

Click here for the other decades | An appendix to the Bibliography on Mind
All of these events are explained in my book "Intelligence is not Artificial".

Slide presentation "AI and the Singularity"

TM, ®, Copyright © 1996-2017 Piero Scaruffi except pictures. All rights reserved.



1909: Adolph Whitman's "Occultus"
1914: Leonardo Torres y Quevedo demonstrates his electromechanical chess-playing automaton
1928: David Hilbert "Entscheidungsproblem" or "decision problem"
1931: Kurt Goedel's self-referential formulas
1935: Alonzo Church proves the undecidability of first order logic
1936: Alan Turing's Universal Machine ("On computable numbers, with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem")
1936: Alonzo Church's Lambda calculus
1941: Konrad Zuse's programmable computer
1943: Warren McCulloch's and Walter Pitts' binary neuron ("A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity")
1943: Emil Post's production rules
1943: Kenneth Craik's "The Nature of Explanation"
1943: "Behavior, Purpose and Teleology" co-written by mathematician Norbert Wiener, physiologist Arturo Rosenblueth and engineer Julian Bigelow
1945: John Von Neumann publicizes the notion of a computer that holds its own instructions, the "stored-program architecture"
1946: The ENIAC computer
1946: The first Macy Conference on Cybernetics
1947: John Von Neumann's self-reproducing automata
1948: Norbert Wiener's "Cybernetics"
1948: Alan Turing's "Intelligent Machinery"
1949: Leon Dostert founds Georgetown University's Institute of Languages and Linguistics
1949: The Ratio Club
1949: William Grey-Walter's Elmer and Elsie robots
1949: Warren Weaver's "Translation" memorandum
1950: Claude Shannon's "Programming a Computer for Playing Chess"
1950: Alan Turing's "Computing Machinery and Intelligence" (the "Turing Test")
1951: AI programs at Manchester on the Ferranti Mark: a draughts-playing program by Christopher Strachey; and a chess-playing program by Dietrich Prinz
1951: Herbert Robbins' "stochastic gradient descent" method for optimization
1951: Karl Lashley's "The problem of serial order in behavior"
1951: Claude Shannon's maze-solving robots ("electronic rats")
1952: First International Conference on Machine Translation organized by Yehoshua Bar-Hillel
1952: Louis Couffignal's book "Thinking Machines"
1952: Ross Ashby's "Design for a Brain"
1953: Marshall Rosenbluth invents the "Metropolis algorithm", implemented by his wife Arianna, the first Markov Chain Monte Carlo method
1953: Harvey Chapman's "Garco"
1954: Zellig Harris' "Distributional Structure" (1954)
1954: Minsky's thesis on reinforcement learning "Theory of neural-analog reinforcement systems and its application to the brain-model problem"
1954: Demonstration of a machine-translation system by Leon Dostert's team at Georgetown University and Cuthbert Hurd's team at IBM, possibly the first non-numerical application of a digital computer
1954: Wesley Clark and Belmont Farley build the first computer simulation of a neural network
1955: The Western Joint Computer Conference with papers by Newell, Selfridge, Clark, etc
1955: Arthur Samuel's Checkers, the world's first self-learning program, and the first implementation of the alpha-beta algorithm
1956: Ray Solomonoff's inductive inference engine
1956: Gordon Pask builds the special-purpose electro-mechanical automata SAKI and Eucrates
1956: Dartmouth conference on Artificial Intelligence


1956: Allen Newell and Herbert Simon demonstrate the "Logic Theorist"
1957: Newell & Simon's "General Problem Solver"
1957: Richard Bellman's "Dynamic Programming"
1957: Frank Rosenblatt's Perceptron
1957: Noam Chomsky's "Syntactic Structures" (transformational grammar)
1958: Claus Scholz's robot MM7
1958: Oliver Selfridge's Pandemonium
1958: John McCarthy's LISP programming language
1958: John McCarthy's "Programs with Common Sense" focuses on knowledge representation
1958: Yehoshua Bar-Hillel's "proof" that machine translation is impossible without common-sense knowledge
1959: John McCarthy and Marvin Minsky found the Artificial Intelligence Lab at the MIT
1959: Noam Chomsky's review of a book by Burrhus Skinner ends the domination of behaviorism and resurrects cognitivism
1959: Zellig Harris' team develops the first parser
1959: Bernard Widrow's and Ted Hoff's Adaline (Adaptive Linear Neuron or later Adaptive Linear Element) that uses the delta rule for neural networks
1959: The industrial robot Unimate, developed by George Devol and Joseph Engelberger, is deployed at General Motors


See also A Timeline of Androids and Automata (they have nothing to do with A.I. but they are increasingly popular)

Reading material:
TM, ®, Copyright © 1996-2017 Piero Scaruffi except pictures. All rights reserved.