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| An appendix to the Bibliography on Mind
All of these events are explained in my book "Intelligence is not Artificial".
Slide presentation "AI and the Singularity"
TM, ®, Copyright © 1996-2017 Piero Scaruffi except pictures. All rights reserved.
1960: Henry Kelley and Arthur Bryson invent backpropagation
1960: Donald Michie's reinforcement-learning system MENACE
1960: Hilary Putnam's Computational Functionalism ("Minds and Machines")
1960: The backpropagation algorithm
1961: Melvin Maron's "Automatic Indexing"
1961: Karl Steinbuch's neural network Lernmatrix
1961: Leonard Scheer's and John Chubbuck's Mod I (1962) and Mod II (1964)
1961: Space General Corporation's lunar explorer
1962: IBM's "Shoebox" for speech recognition
1962: AMF's "VersaTran" robot
1963: John McCarthy moves to Stanford and founds the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (SAIL)
1963: Lawrence Roberts' "Machine Perception of Three Dimensional Solids", the birth of computer vision
1963: Jim Slagle writes a program for symbolic integration (calculus)
1963: Edward Feigenbaum's and Julian Feldman's "Computers and Thought"
1963: Vladimir Vapnik's "support-vector networks" (SVN)
1964: Peter Toma demonstrates the machine-translation system Systran
1965: Irving John Good (Isidore Jacob Gudak) speculates about "ultraintelligent machines" (the "singularity")
1965: The Case Institute of Technology builds the first computer-controlled robotic arm
1965: Ed Feigenbaum's Dendral expert system
1965: Gordon Moore's Law of exponential progress in integrated circuits ("Cramming more components into integrated circuits", 1965)
1965: Herbert Simon predicts that "Machines will be capable, within 20 years, of doing any work a man can do"
1965: Hubert Dreyfus's "Alchemy and Artificial Intelligence"
1965: Lotfi Zadeh's Fuzzy Logic
1965: Alexey Ivakhnenko publishes the first learning algorithms for multi-layered networks
1965: Bruce Lacey's robot Rosa Bosom at the Cybernetic Serendipity exhibition of computer art
1966: Robert McGhee's "Phony Pony" four-legged robot
1966: Leonard Baum popularizes the Hidden Markov Model ("Statistical Inference for Probabilistic Functions of Finite State Markov Chains")
1966: Ross Quillian's semantic networks
1966: Joe Weizenbaum's Eliza
1966: ALPAC report on Machine Translation
1967: Charles Fillmore's Case Frame Grammar
1968: Glenn Shafer's and Stuart Dempster's "Theory of Evidence"
1968: Jerry Feldman's Hand-eye system
1969: Christopher Longuet-Higgins' associative memory
1969: Marvin Minsky & Samuel Papert's "Perceptrons" kill neural networks
1969: First International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI) at Stanford
1969: Stanford Research Institute's Shakey the Robot (Nils Nilsson and others)
1969: Victor Scheinman's "Stanford arm"
1969: Roger Schank's Conceptual Dependency Theory for natural language processing
1969: Cordell Green's automatic synthesis of programs
1969: John McCarthy's "Some Philosophical Problems from the Standpoint of Artificial Intelligence" and the frame problem