A Timeline of Artificial Intelligence - The 1970s

by piero scaruffi | (contact)

Click here for the other decades | An appendix to the Bibliography on Mind
All of these events are explained in my book "Intelligence is not Artificial".

Slide presentation "AI and the Singularity"

TM, ®, Copyright © 1996-2017 Piero Scaruffi except pictures. All rights reserved.

1970: Albert Uttley's Informon for adaptive pattern recognition
1970: Hitachi demonstrates a robot that can build objects based on drawings
1970: Tom Martin founds Threshold Technology, the first commercial company for speech recognition
1970: William Woods' Augmented Transition Network (ATN) for natural language processing
1971: The "Stanford cart" autonomous outdoors vehicle
1971: Atsuo Takanishi's WL-5 (1971) and WL-10R (1983)
1971: Richard Fikes' and Nils Nilsson's STRIPS planner
1971: Noam Chomsky's article against Burrhus Skinner's behaviorism
1971: Ingo Rechenberg publishes his thesis "Evolution Strategies", a set of optimization methods for evolutionary computation
1971: University of Edinburgh's robot Freddy
1972: Alain Colmerauer's PROLOG programming language
1972: The first chatbot to chatbot conversation ever takes place over the Arpanet between Kenneth Colby's chatbot Parry at Stanford and Eliza at MIT
1972: Richard Karp shows there are many problems that can probably only be solved in exponential time
1972: Harry Klopf's "Brain Function and Adaptive Systems"
1972: William Woods' question-answering system LUNAR
1972: The SIRCH robotic arm at Nottingham University
1972: Bruce Buchanan's MYCIN
1972: Terry Winograd's Shrdlu
1972: Shigeo Hirose's snake-robot ACM III
1972: Petternella-Salinari hexapod robot
1973: "Artificial Intelligence: A General Survey" by James Lighthill criticizes Artificial Intelligence for over-promising
1973: Ichiro Kato's Wabot, the first real-size anthropomorphic walking robot
1973: Antal Bejczy's JPL Rover
1973: Jim Baker applies the Hidden Markov Model to speech recognition ("Machine-aided Labeling of Connected Speech")
1974: Marvin Minsky's frame
1974: Paul Werbos' backpropagation algorithm for neural networks
1975: Roger Schank's script
1975: Ben Skora's robot Arok
1975: Raj Reddy's team at Carnegie Mellon University develops three speech-recognition systems (Bruce Lowerre's Harpy, Hearsay-II and Jim Baker's Dragon)
1975: Hearsay-II's blackboard model by Rick Hayes-Roth, Lee Erman, Victor Lesser and Richard Fennell
1975: The first Artificial Intelligence in Medicine workshop at Rutgers University
1975: John Holland's genetic algorithms
1976: Richard Laing's paradigm of self-replication by self-inspection
1976: Stephen Grossberg's Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) for unsupervised learning
1976: Fred Jelinek's "Continuous Speech Recognition by Statistical Methods"
1976: Shigeo Hirose's Kumo-I (1976) and PV-II (1978)
1976: Masha hexapod
1977: Robert McGhee's Bionic Bug
1977: Georges Giralt's Hilare robot in France
1977: General Motors' computer-vision system Sight-I
1977: Ian Witten's actor-critic method
1977: David Marr's and Tomaso Poggio's "2 1/2 sketch"
1978: John McDermott's expert system R1/XCON
1978: Shunichi Amari publishes neural field equations
1978: Ryszard Michalski builds the first practical system that learns from examples, AQ11
1978: Lothar Rossol organizes at General Motors a symposium on computer vision
1979: Johan DeKleer's qualitative reasoning
1979: A factory worker named Robert Williams is the first human killed by a robot
1979: General Motors' Consight robot
1979: Tokuji Okada's robotic hand with three fingers
1979: William Clancey's Guidon
1979: Hans Berliner's BKG 9.8 at Carnegie-Mellon University (connected by satellite to the robot Gammonoid) beats the world champion of backgammon in Monte Carlo
1979: Drew McDermott's non-monotonic logic
1979: Kunihiko Fukushima's convolutional neural network ("Neocognitron - A Self-organizing Neural Network Model for a Mechanism of Pattern Recognition Unaffected by Shift in Position")

See also A Timeline of Androids and Automata (they have nothing to do with A.I. but they are increasingly popular)

Reading material:
TM, ®, Copyright © 1996-2017 Piero Scaruffi except pictures. All rights reserved.