Click here for the other decades
| An appendix to the Bibliography on Mind
All of these events are explained in my book "Intelligence is not Artificial".
Slide presentation "AI and the Singularity"
TM, ®, Copyright © 1996-2017 Piero Scaruffi except pictures. All rights reserved.
1980: McCarthy's Circumscription
1980: John Searle's article "Minds, Brains, and Programs" on the "Chinese Room" that attacks Artificial Intelligence
1980: IntelliGenetics (Intellicorp), the first major start-up for Artificial Intelligence
1981: Automatix introduces the first commercial robot with a vision system
1981: Russell Andersson's robot SCIMR
1981: Danny Hillis' Connection Machine
1981: Hans Kamp`s Discourse Representation Theory
1981: Japan has 14,000 industrial robots versus the USA's 4,200 and West Germany 's 2,300
1981: Andrew Barto's and Richard Sutton's temporal-difference method of reinforcement learning
1982: The Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) research group at UC San Diego
1982: Shunichi Mizuno's cybot New Monroe
1982: Hans Moravec's CMU Rover
1982: Kenneth Salisbury (Stanford) & Jet Propulsion Laboratory's robotic hand
1982: John Hopfield describes a new generation of neural networks, based on recurrence
1982: The Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR) establishes Artificial Intelligence and Robotics as its very first program
1982: Bart Everett's robot Robart I
1982: Japan's Fifth Generation Computer Systems project
1982: Teuvo Kohonen's Self-Organized Maps (SOM) for unsupervised learning
1982: Judea Pearl's "Bayesian networks"
1982: David Parker rediscovers backpropagation
1982: Joseph Bosworth's personal robot RB5X
1983: Dainichi Kiko's waiter robot
1983: Scott Kirkpatrick's simulated annealing
1983: Mike Cohen's and Stephen Grossberg's continuous recurrent networks
1983: Yurii Nesterov's accelerated version of gradient descent ("Nesterov momentum")
1983: John Laird and Paul Rosenbloom's SOAR
1983: Geoffrey Hinton's and Terry Sejnowski's Boltzmann machine
1983: Gerard Salton and Michael McGill's "Introduction to Modern Information Retrieval" (the "bag-of-words model")
1983: Odetics' Odex
1984: Tomy's toy Omnibot 2000
1984: Mike Forino's personal robot Hubot
1984: Valentino Braitenberg's "Vehicles"
1984: Robotic hand by Stephen Jacobsen (Univ of Utah) & MIT
1984: Doug Lenat's "Cyc" to catalog common sense
1984: Barbara Hayes-Roth's general-purpose blackboard system BB1
1985: Ichiro Kato's Wasubot performs with a symphony orchestra
1985: Ross Quinlan's ID3 for decision trees analysis
1985: Piero Scaruffi opens the A.I. Center at Olivetti, the first major non-academic A.I. Center outside the USA
1985: Yann LeCun rediscovers backpropagation
1985: Rodney Brooks' subsumption architecture for robots
1986: Terrence Sejnowski's and Charles Rosenberg's NETtalk
1986: Hinton and Sejnowski organize the first "Connectionist Summer School" at CMU
1986: Jeanny Herault's and Christian Jutten's independent component analysis
1986: David Zipser's "autoencoder"
1986: David Rumelhart, Geoffrey Hinton and Ronald Williams rediscover Werbos' backpropagation algorithm
1986: David Rumelhart's and Jay McClelland's book "Parallel Distributed Processing"
1986: Paul Smolensky's Restricted Boltzmann machine
1986: Barbara Grosz's "Attention, Intentions, and the Structure of Discourse"
1987: Hinton moves to the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR)
1987: Dana Ballard uses unsupervised learning to build representations layer by layer
1987: Chris Langton coins the term "Artificial Life"
1987: Marvin Minsky's "Society of Mind"
1988: Hilary Putnam: "Has artificial intelligence taught us anything of importance about the mind?"
1988: Toshio Fukuda's self-reconfiguring robot CEBOT
1988: Dean Pomerleau's self-driving vehicle ALVINN
1988: Hans Moravec's book "Mind Children"
1988: Philip Agre builds the first "Heideggerian AI", Pengi, a system that plays the arcade videogame Pengo
1988: Fred Jelinek's team at IBM publishes "A Statistical Approach to Language Translation"
1989: Alex Waibel's "time-delay" neural network
1989: Chris Watkins' Q-learning
1989: Rodney Brooks' six-legged Genghis
1989: Yann LeCun applies backpropagation to convolutional networks for supervised learning.
1989: George Cybenko proves that neural networks can approximate continuous functions
1989: Yann LeCun's convolutional neural network for handwritten-digit recognition (LeNet-1)
1989: Kurt Hornik proves that neural networks are universal approximators