A Timeline of Androids and Automata

by piero scaruffi

(Legends, i.e. imagined automata, are in italic)

Hephaistos' golden female servants, the Kourai Khryseai, in Homer's "Iliad" (8th century BC)
Hephaistos' android Pandora in Hesiod's "Theogony" (7th century BC)
Hephaistos' golden singers Keledones for the the second temple of Apollon at Delphoi, as related by Pindaros (5th century BC)
Talos, a giant killer robot made of bronze (in Greek coin and vase paintings of the 5th century BC)
Archytas of Tarentum's Mechanical Bird (350 BC)
The Talmud's Golem
The Bible's Adam
Ge-liang Zhu's Mu Niu Lu Ma (3rd century BC)
Heron of Alexandria's theatrical automata (1st century AD)
Huang Yueying's wooden kitchen attendants (3rd century AD)
Su Song's astronomical clock (1088)
The robots guarding Buddha's relics in "Lokapannatti" (12th century)
The golem in Eleazar ben Judah's "Sodei Razayya" (12th century)
Ismail Al-Jazari's music ensemble (1206)
Copper knights of "Lancelot du Lac" (13th c)
Giovanni de' Dondi's Astrarium (1364)
Hans Schlottheim's Mechanical Galleon (1585)
Bertha's groom in Giambattista Basile's tale (1635)
Strasbourg's clock (1350)
Johannes Muller's flying machines (15th c)
Leonardo DaVinci's knight (1495)
Leonardo da Vinci's self-propelled cart (16th c)
Leonardo da Vinci's lion (16th c)
Hans Bullmann's androids (152#)
Isaac Habrecht 's clocks (16th c)
Giannello Torriani's automata (155#)
Philipp Immser's clock (1555)
Juanelo Turriano's monk of 1560
Talus, the iron man, in Edmund Spenser's "The Faerie Queene" (1590)
Legend of Judah Lew ben Bezalel's "Golem" (16th century)
Christiaan Huygens' automata (17th c)
Tommaso Francini 's grottoes at Saint-Germain-en-Laye (17th c)
Jacques de Vaucanson's Duck and Flute Player" (1737)
Lorenz Rosenegge's mechanical theater at Hellbrunn (1725)
Japan's karakuri puppets (Edo period, 1603-1868)
Friedrich von Knauss's writer (1760)
Pierre Jaquet-Droz's dolls (1768-74)
John Joseph Merlin's "Silver Swan" (1773)
Hubert Martinet's musical elephant (1774)
Pierre Jaquet-Doz's Writer, Draughtsman and Musician (178#)
The karakuri in Yorinao "Hanzo" Hosokawa's "Karakuri Zui" (1796)
Henri Maillardet's Draughtsman-Writer (1800)
Calligraphy automaton (early 19th c)
Mary Shelley's "Frankenstein" (1818)
The golem in Berthold Auerbach's "Spinoza" (1837)
Joseph Faber's Euphonia (1840)
Alexandre Theroude's Mandarin Bird Trainer with Flute (1840s) and Waltzing Couple (1850s)
Pafnuty Chebyshev's walking device (1850)
Tanaka Hisashige's Mannendokei/ Ten-thousand Year Clock (1851)
Edward Ellis' "Steam Man of the Prairies" (1867)
Zadoc Dederick's and Isaac Grass' steam-powered Steam Man (1868)
Gustave Vichy's automata (1870s)
Jean Roullet's automata (1870s)
Blaise Bontems' Singing Bird Jardiniere (1880)
Jacques Offenbach's Olympia in "The Tales of Hoffmann" (1881)
Carlo Collodi`s "Pinocchio" (1883)
Lewis Rygg's mechanical horse (1893)
Georges Moore's Steam Man (1893)
Frank Baum's tin-man in "The Wonderful Wizard of Oz" (1900)
Adolph Whitman's "Occultus" (1909)
Paul Wegener's film "Golem" (1914)
Leonardo Torres y Quevedo's electromechanical chess-player (1914)
Burton King's and Harry Grossman's Automaton in the serial "The Master Mystery" (1920)
Karel Capek's theatrical play "R.U.R" (which stands for Rossum's Universal Robots) of 1920 introduces the term "robot"
Andre' Deed's "L'Uomo Meccanico/ The Mechanical Man" (1921)
Thea von Harbou's Futura in "Metropolis" (1925)
Roy Wensley's Herbert Televox, marketed by Westinghouse (1927)
William Richards' Eric Robot for London's Exhibition of the Society of Model Engineers (1928)
Freiin Von Bechtolsheim's walking car (1930)
Westinghouse's Katrina Van Televox (1930)
Joseph Barnett's Willie Vocalite for Westinghouse (1932)
Joseph Barnett's Elektro the Moto-Man (1937), marketed by Westinghouse
Gajo Sakamoto's manga Tanku Tankuro (1934)
Jam Handy's Roll-oh for General Motors at New York World's Fair (1940)

See also Robots in Cinema
See also A Timeline of Artificial Intelligence
Nocks, Lisa: "The Robot" (2007)
History of Industrial Robots (with pictures)
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