## A Timeline of Mathematics

by piero scaruffi
An appendix to the History of Knowledge
• Pythagoras' theorem (530 BC)
• Aristoteles' syllogism (350 BC)
• Euclid's "Elements" (300 BC)
• Archimedes' value of pi (260 BC)
• Hipparchus' trigonometry (120 BC)
• Aryabhata's algebra (499)
• Al-Khwarizmi's "Algebra" (820)
• Omar Khayyam's "Treatise on Demonstration of Problems of Algebra" (1070)
• Leonardo Fibonacci's "Liber Abaci" (1202)
• Raffaele Bombelli's "L'Algebra" (1572)
• John Napier's "Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Descriptio" (1614)
• Rene Descartes' analytic geometry (1637)
• Blaise Pascal's theory of probabilities (165x)
• Pierre de Fermat's "Methodus ad Disquirendam Maximam et Minima" (166x)
• Gottfried Leibniz's infinitesimal calculus (1684)
• Isaac Newton's infinitesimal calculus (1687)
• Gottfried Leibniz's binary arithmetic (1703)
• Leonhard Euler, to prove that the Konigsberg path does not exist, founds graph theory (1736)
• Leonhard Euler's formula and identity rule (e to the i times pi plus 1 euqales 0) (1748)
• Thomas Bayes' theorem of conditional probabilities (1761)
• Carl Friedrich Gauss' "Disquisitiones Arithmeticae" (1801)
• Pierre-Simon Laplace's "Analytic Theory of Probabilities" (1812)
• Joseph Fourier's analysis (1822)
• Augustin-Louis Cauchy's complex function theory (1825)
• August Moebius' "The Barycentric Calculus" (1827)
• Nikolai Lobachevsky's non-Euclidean geometry (1829)
• Janos Bolyai's "Absolute Science of Space" (1829)
• John Stuart Mill's "System of Logic" (1843)
• William Hamilton's "quaternions" (1843)
• Arthur Cayley's "Analytical Geometry of n Dimensions" (1843)
• Hermann Grassmann's "The Calculus of Extension" (1844)
• George Boole's "Mathematical Analysis of Logic" (1847)
• Bernhard Riemann's lecture "On the Hypotheses which lie at the Foundation of Geometry" (1854)
• August Moebius' strip (1858)
• Charles Babbage's "difference engine" (1859)
• Karl Weierstrass' course on "The General Theory of Analytic Functions" (1863)
• Hermann von Helmholtz's lecture "On the Origin and Significance of Geometrical Axioms" (1870)
• Georg Cantor's "On a Property of the Collection of All Real Algebraic Numbers" (1874)
• Gottlob Frege's "Begriffsschrift" (1879)
• John Venn's set diagrams (1880)
• Willard Gibbs's vector analysis (1881)
• Giuseppe Peano's "The principles of Arithmetic" (1889)
• Henri Poincare's chaos theory (188x)
• David Hilbert's "23 Problems" (1900)
• Hermann Minkowski's four-dimensional spacetime (1907)
• Bertus Brouwer's intuitionism (1907)
• Ernst Zermelo's set theory (1908)
• Bertrand Russell's Theory of Types (1908),
• Alfred Whitehead's and Bertrand Russell's "Principia Mathematica" (1913)
• John Maynard Keynes: "A Treatise on Probability" (1921)
• Thoralf Skolem's "Some Remarks on Axiomatized Set Theory" (1922)
• Frank Ramsey: "Truth and Probability" (1926)
• John von Neumann proves the "minimax theorem", the fundamental theorem of game theory (1928)
• David Hilbert's Entscheidungsproblem (1928)
• Andrey Kolmogorov: "Foundations of Probability Theory" (1933)
• Kurt Goedel's incompleteness theorem (1931)
• Alfred Tarski's theory of truth (1933)
• Alan Turing's universal machine (1936)
• Alonzo Church's lambda calculus (1936)
• Paul Erdos (193x)
• Emil Post's "Formal Reductions of the General Combinatorial Decision Problem" (1943)
• Samuel Eilenberg's and Saunders Mac Lane's theory of categories (1945)
• Stanislaw Ulam invents the Monte Carlo method for mathematical simulation (1946)
• Rudolf Carnap: "Logical Foundations of Probability" (1950)
• Jimmie Savage: "Foundations of Statistics" (1954)
• George Polya: "Mathematics and Plausible Reasoning" (1954)
• Andrey Kolmogorov's algorithmic complexity theory (1963)
• James Cronin and Val Fitch discover CP violation (1964)
• Lotfi Zadeh's fuzzy set theory (1965)
• Richard Karp's "Reducibility Among Combinatorial Problems" (1972)
• Per Martin-Lof's "An Intuitionistic Theory of Types" (1972)
• Benoit Mandelbrot's "Fractals" (1975)
• Kenneth Appel and Wolfgang Haken publish a computer-assisted proof of a theorem (1976)
• Jean Morlet's wavelet transform (1984)
• Connes' noncommutative Geometry Alain (1991)
• Andrew Wiles' proof of "Fermat's Last Theorem" (1994)
• Grigori Perelman's proof of the "Poincare Conjecture" (2002)
• Steve Awodey & Michael Warren's Homotopy Type Theory (2007)
Favorite math formulas
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