Intelligence is not Artificial

Why the Singularity is not Coming any Time Soon And Other Meditations on the Post-Human Condition and the Future of Intelligence

by piero scaruffi
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(These are excerpts from my book "Intelligence is not Artificial")

Footnote: What Didn't Use Neural Networks

Despite the theoretical progress in neural networks, the success stories of A.I. of those years did not use neural networks. In 1991 Thaddeus Beier of Silicon Graphics and Shawn Neely of Pacific Data Images invented a method to generate fake images (used in Michael Jackson's video "Black and White"). In 1994 Ernst Dickmanns' self-driving car drove more than 1,000 kms near the airport Charles-de-Gaulle in Paris. In May 1997 the IBM supercomputer "Deep Blue", programmed by Feng-hsiung Hsu (who had started building chess-playing programs in 1985 while at CMU) beat the world's chess champion, Garry Kasparov. In 1998 Hector Garcia-Molina's student Sergey Brin and Terry Winograd's student Larry Page at Stanford published the paper "The Anatomy of a Large-scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine" to document the search engine (and in particular their novel PageRank algorithm) developed for the digital-libraries project of the university, a search engine named "Google". And you can continue all the way to 2011, when IBM's Watson debuted on a TV show and Apple released Siri, without encountering neural networks in the headlines.

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