Intelligence is not Artificial

by piero scaruffi

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(These are excerpts from my book "Intelligence is not Artificial")

Cultural Background: The Knowledge Society

The Austrian-born economist Peter Drucker of New York University coined the term "knowledge worker" in his 1959 book "Landmarks of Tomorrow". Note that this was written at a time when there were very few electronic computers in the world. Drucker emphasized the "pattern" over the linear cause-effect paradigm (and, last but not least, predicted the decline of government and the collapse of Eastern Asian culture).
Another Austrian-born economist, Fritz Machlup of Princeton University, referred to universities as “knowledge industries” in "The Production and Distribution of Knowledge in the United States" (1962), the book that popularized the expression "information society".
The expression "post-industrial society" was adopted by the Harvard University sociologist Daniel Bell, starting with the article "Notes on the Post-Industrial Society" (1967), to describe a society in which knowledge becomes the most valuable resource. Bell called it “knowledge society” in his 1973 book "The Coming of Post-Industrial Society" (page 212), a society that (quote) “is organized around knowledge".
In 1971 Japan adopted a national plan to become an "information society" by the year 2000. Coincidence or not, Japan never succeeded in software and services (the new knowledge economy) the way it did in cars and consumer electronics (the old physical industrial economy). Maybe there is a difference between information and knowledge, after all.

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