Additions to the Bibliography on Mind and Consciousness)
compiled by Piero Scaruffi
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Laird John, Rosenbloom Paul & Newell Allen: UNIVERSAL SUBGOALING AND CHUNKING (Kluwer Academics, 1986)
The book describes in detail an architecture (SOAR) for general intelligence. The universal weak method is an organizational framework whereby knowledge determines the weak methods employed to solve the problem, i.e. knowledge controls the behavior of the rational agent. Universal subgoaling is a scheme whereby goals can be created automatically to deal with the difficulties that the rational agent encounters during problem solving.
Lakoff George: PHILOSOPHY IN THE FLESH (Basic, 1998)
Lakoff George: METAPHORS WE LIVE BY (Chicago Univ Press, 1980)
Lakoff George: WOMEN, FIRE AND DANGEROUS THINGS (Univ of Chicago Press, 1987)
Lakoff George: MORE THAN COOL REASON (University of Chicago Press, 1989)
While studying poetic metaphors, Lakoff emphasizes that metaphor is not only a matter of words, but a matter of thought, that metaphor is central to our understanding of the world and the self. Poetry is simply the art of extending metaphors and therefore the mind's power of grasping concepts.
Richard Lane & Lynn Nadel: COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE OF EMOTION (Oxford Univ Press, 2000)
Langacker Ronald: CONCEPT, IMAGE AND SYMBOL (Mouton de Gruyter, 1991)
Langacker Ronald: FOUNDATIONS OF COGNITIVE GRAMMAR (Stanford Univ Press, 1986)
Langer, Susanne: "Philosophy in a New Key" (1942)
Langton Christopher: ARTIFICIAL LIFE (Addison-Wesley, 1989)
Proceedings of the first A-life workshop at the Santa Fe` Institute. Chris Langton pretty much invented the field (or, at least, gave it a name) in 1987.
Langton Christopher: ARTIFICIAL LIFE II (Addison-Wesley, 1992)
Proceedings of the second A-life workshop at the Santa Fe` Institute.
Langton Christopher: ARTIFICIAL LIFE (MIT Press, 1995)
A collection of articles by various authors originally published in the Artificial Life journal.
Larson Richard & Segal Gabriel: KNOWLEGDE OF MEANING (MIT Press, 1995)
A monumental introduction to truth-theoretic semantics for natural languages. Unlike most semantic studies, which are based on Montague's semantics, this one is from Davidson's perspective.
Lashley Karl Spencer: BRAIN MECHANISMS AND INTELLIGENCE (Dover, 1963)
This 1929 study set the standard for cognitive neurophysiology and psychology. The 1963 reissue comes with a preface by Donald Hebb that puts Lashley's achievements in perspective.
Laszlo, Ervin & Combs, Allan: CHANGING VISIONS (1996)
Laszlo, Ervin: INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEMS PHILOSOPHY (Gordon & Breach, 1972)
Laszlo, Ervin: SCIENCE AND THE AKASHIC FIELD (Inner Traditions, 2004)
Lavine Robert: NEUROPHYSIOLOGY (Collamore, 1983)
A comprehensive introduction to the neuron, the structure of the brain, senses and to higher cognitive functions.
Lavie Piretz: THE ENCHANTED WORLD OF SLEEP (Yale Univ Press, 1996)
Lavie studies sleep in animals and proves that birds display REM sleep while some mammals (notably the dolphin) do not.
Layzer David: COSMOGENESIS (Oxford University Press, 1990)
Lazarus Richard: EMOTION AND ADAPTATION (Oxford Univ Press, 1991)
Lazarus Richard & Lazarus Bernice: PASSION AND REASON (Oxford Univ Press, 1994)
Lazarus reiterates his point that emotions are as rational as anything can be in a language accessible to anybody.
Ledoux Joseph & William Hirst: MIND AND BRAIN (Cambridge Univ Press, 1986)
A collection of articles on perception, attention, memory and emotion that are organized as debates between psychologists and neurobiologists.
LeDoux Joseph: THE EMOTIONAL BRAIN (Simon & Schuster, 1996)
LeDoux Joseph: SYNAPTIC SELF (Penguin, 2002)
Lehnert Wendy: STRATEGIES FOR NATURAL LANGUAGE LANGUAGE (Lawrence Erlbaum, 1982)
A practical textbook on natural language processing in the conceptual dependency tradition. Each chapter is written by an authority of the field. Includes Steven Small's word-based parser, Gerald DeJong's FRUMP system, Wilensky's PAM system, Wendy Lehnert's plot units, Schank's MOPs. Jerry Hobbs writes about coherence in discourse. Yorick Wilks discusses procedural semantics.
Leiser David & Gillieron Christiane: COGNITIVE SCIENCE AND GENETIC EPISTEMOLOGY (Plenum Press, 1989)
The book analyzes the relations between procedures and structures from a Piagetian perspective and attempts to bridge a gap between cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence.
Lenat Douglas: BUILDING LARGE KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEMS (Addison-Wesley, 1990)
The book describes the CYC system, whose goal is to represent common knowledge (i.e., develop a global ontology) and perform common-sense reasoning (i.e., employ a set of reasoning methods as a set of first principles) on large knowledge bases. to explain
Lenneberg Eric: BIOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF LANGUAGE (Wiley, 1967)
Leonard, Andrew: BOTS (Penguin Books, 1998)
LePore Ernest: NEW DIRECTIONS IN SEMANTICS (Academic Press, 1987)
A collection of articles on semantics, including Hintikka's game-theoretical semantics, Gilbert Harman's conceptual role semantics (the ultimate source of meaning is the functional role that symbols play in thought) and dual aspect semantics (which contain one theory relating language to the world and one theory relating language to the mind).
Lesniewski Stanislaw: COLLECTED WORKS (Kluwer Academic, 1991)
In the Thirties the polish logician Lesniewski noted that in any language containing its semantics logical laws cannot hold consistently. A contradiction can be avoided only by reconstructing the object language through hierarchical levels, or metalanguages. This is similar to Russell's conclusion that some hierarchy is necessary for a system to be coherent. Lesniewski developed a hierarchy of categories (a grammar of semantic categories). Lesniewski's system consists of three axiomatic theories: protothetic (a calculus of equivalent propositional functions, with a single axiom), ontology (a calculus of classes in terms of a theory of nominal predication, with a single axiom) and mereology (based on the part-whole relation, containing rules to avoid paradoxes). Functorial categories can be generated from a set of basic categories (the propositions defined by the single axiom of protothetic and the nouns defined by the single axiom of ontology) and are categories of functions from certain arguments to certain values.
Levin Samuel: METAPHORIC WORLDS (Yale University Press, 1988)(Lawrence Erlbaum, 1991)
Levin argues that metaphors create metaphoric worlds in which they have literal and true referents. Metaphoric expressions, therefore, are to be taken literally.
Levine Daniel: INTRODUCTION TO NEURAL AND COGNITIVE MODELING (Lawrence Erlbaum, 1991)
A broad survey of cognitive science from a neuroscientific perspective. After a historical outline (McCulloch-Pitts neurons, Hebb's law, Rosenblatt's perceptron, etc), Levine details algorithms (and physiological justifications) for associative learning, competition, conditioning, categorization, representation. All the main connectionist models are surveyed. The book provides a detailed, technical compendium of data and ideas in the field.
Levine, Joseph: PURPLE HAZE (Oxford Univ Press, 2000)
Levinson Stephen: PRAGMATICS (Cambridge Univ Press, 1983)
An excellent and relatively accessible introduction to pragmatics.
Levy Steven: ARTIFICIAL LIFE (Pantheon, 1992)
An introduction for the wider audience to the world of artificial life. Includes history of the field (from Von Neumann to viruses), biographies of its visionaries (Kauffman, Holland, Hawkins, Ray, Brooks) and simplified presentations of their theories.
Lewin Roger: COMPLEXITY (Macmillan, 1992)
Complexity is presented as a discipline that can unify the laws of physical, chemical, biological, social and economic phenomena through the simple principle that all things in nature are driven to organize themselves into patterns. The book, written in conversational english, devotes much time to describing the protagonists of the field and relating interviews in a celebrity-centered fashion.
Lewis Clarence-Irving: SYMBOLIC LOGIC (Mineola, 1932)
In Lewis' modal logic a proposition is necessary if it is true in every possible world, it is possible if it is true in at least one possible world. "Necessity" and "possibility" are modal operators, i.e. they operate on logical expressions just like logical connectives. The two modal operators are dual (one can be expressed in terms of the other), thereby reflecting the dualism of the two corresponding quantificators (existential and universal). A modal logic is built by adding a few axioms containing the modal operators to the axioms of a non-modal logic.
Lewis David: COUNTERFACTUALS (Harvard Univ Press, 1973)
Lewis uses possible-world semantics in his theory of counterfactuals. Lewis defines a pair of conditional operators ("if it were the case that, then it would be the case that" and "if it were the case that, then it might be the case that"), which can be defined one in terms of the other. Counterfactuals are not strict conditionals (material conditionals preceded by a necessity operator), but rather "variably" strict conditionals (a counterfactual is as strict as it must be to escape vacuity and no stricter).
Lewis David: PHILOSOPHICAL PAPERS (Oxford Press, 1983)
Lewis David K.: ON THE PLURALITY OF WORLDS (Basil Blackwell, 1986)
Lewis advocates an indexical theory of actuality. Every possible world is actual from its own point of view, and every possible world is merely possible from the point of view of other worlds. Worlds are never causally related to other worlds. The isolation of possible worlds constitutes their being merely possible relative to each other.
Lewis-Williams, David & Pearce, David: "Inside the Neolithic Mind" (Thames & Hudson, 2005)
Lewontin Richard: THE GENETIC BASIS OF EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE (Columbia University Press, 1974)
It is not yet clear which percentage of evolutionary change is due to natural selection and which is due to random events. Modern evolutionary genetics stems from the merging of two traditions, the Darwinian and the Mendelian, both of which take variation as the crucial aspect of life. The Darwinian view can be summarized as "evolution is the conversion of variation between individuals into variation between populations and species in time and space". The paradox is that Mendelian theory dictates the frequencies of genotypes as the appropriate genetic description of a population, whereas variation is much more important. "What we can measure is uninteresting and what we are interested in is unmeasurable". Most theories of genetic variation in populations (allelic variation) are also theories of natural selection. Variation and selection turn out to be dual aspects of the same problem.
Lewontin Richard: HUMAN DIVERSITY (W.H.Freeman, 1981)
Each organism is the subject of continous development throughout its life and such development is driven by mutually interacting genes and environment. Genes per se cannot determine the phenotype, capacity or tendencies.
Leyton Michael: SYMMETRY, CAUSALITY, MIND (MIT Press, 1992)
Leyton's idea is that shape is used by the mind to recover the past. Shape is time. Shape equals the history that created it.
Li Ming & Vitanyi Paul: AN INTRODUCTION TO KOLMOGOROV COMPLEXITY (Springer-Verlag, 1993)
The second edition of the monumental manual on the subject.
Lieberman Phipip: THE BIOLOGY AND EVOLUTION OF LANGUAGE (Harvard Univ Press, 1984)
Language is found to be a by-product of the neural processes that underly cognition in general (unlike Chomsky's vision of separate "language organs"). The only language-specific processes are essentially those that contribute to speech, and they evolved from processes that are common to many animals. Speech, not syntax, is the fulcrum of language.
Lieberman Philip: UNIQUELY HUMAN (Harvard Univ Press, 1992)
Human language is a relatively recent evolutionary innovation that came about when speech and syntax were added to older communication systems. The function of speech and syntax is to enhance the speed of communication: speech allows humans to overcome the limitations of the mammalian auditory system and syntax allows them to overcome the limits of memory.
Lightfoot David: THE LANGUAGE LOTTERY (MIT Press, 1982)
The book is basically an introduction to Chomsky's theories of language with an emphasis on biological aspects. First and foremost, Lightfoot examines how children can learn a language without significant instruction and despite a deficiency of experiential data. The only rational explanation is that an innate structure, a "universal grammar", guides the learning process.
Llinas Rodolfo & Churchland Patricia: THE MIND-BRAIN CONTINUUM (MIT Press, 1996)
A collection of papers by specialists on brain functions,
Lockwood Michael: MIND, BRAIN AND THE QUANTUM (Basil Blackwell, 1989)
Drawing from quantum mechanics and from Bertrand Russell's idea that consciousness provides a kind of "window" onto the brain, Lockwood offers a theory of consciousness as a process of perception of brain states.
Loritz, Donald: HOW THE BRAIN EVOLVED LANGUAGE (Oxford Univ Press, 1999)
Lotka Alfred: ELEMENTS OF MATHEMATICAL BIOLOGY (Dover, 1925)
One of the very first studies that tried to formalize biosystems. His "maximum energy law" states that the survival of an organism depends on energetic output (as in growth and reproduction). Lotka also thought that biological evolution is a consequence of the second law of Thermodynamics.
James Lovelock: GAIA (Oxford University Press, 1979)
Lovelock views the entire surface of the Earth, including "inanimate" matter, as a living being (which in 1979 he named "Gaia").
Luger George: COMPUTATION AND INTELLIGENCE (MIT Press, 1995)
Seminal papers by Turing, Minsky, McCarthy, Newell, Schank, Brooks.
Luger George: COGNITIVE SCIENCE (Academic Press, 1993)
An introduction to the field.
Lukaszewicz Witold: NON-MONOTONIC REASONING (Ellis Harwood, 1990)
A formal survey of mathematical theories for nonmonotonic reasoning.
Lycan William: LOGICAL FORM IN NATURAL LANGUAGE (MIT Press, 1984)
Lycan's theory of linguistic meaning rests on truth conditions. All other aspects of semantics (verification conditions, use in language games, illocutionary force, etc) are derived from that notion. A sentence is meaningful in virtue of being true under certain conditions and not others.
Lycan William: CONSCIOUSNESS (MIT Press, 1987)
Lycan reviews behaviorist and dualist theories of the mind, then focuses on Dennett's homuncular functionalism and defends it against its critics.
Lycan William: MIND AND COGNITION (MIT Press, 1990)
A massive collection of articles on theories of the mind. Homuncular functionalism is championed by Dennett and Lycan. Eliminativism is presented by Churchland and Feyerabend. Language of thought (Fodor), folk psychology (Stich), qualia (Block) are also discussed.
Lycan William: MODALITY AND MEANING (Kluwer Academic, 1994)
Lycan presents a theory of possible individuals and possible worlds in which a world is viewed as a structured set of properties. A number of philosophical puzzles are examined from a very technical perspective.
Lycan William: CONSCIOUSNESS AND EXPERIENCE (MIT Press, 1996)
It is mainly a defense of the materialistic philosophy of mind and a reply to Colin McGinn's thesis that consciousness cannot be understood by beings with minds and bodies like ours. "Conscious awareness is internal monitoring" as proved by the fact that most of our mental life is unconscious, even if we are conscious of part of it. Following Locke, consciousness is a perception of our own psychological state, of what is going on in the mind (Kant's "inner sense"). Lycan defends his position against various attacks.
Michael Lynch: THE NATURE OF TRUTH (MIT Press, 2001)
Lynch, Michael: THE NATURE OF TRUTH (MIT Press, 2001)
Lyons, William: APPROACHES TO INTENTIONALITY (Oxford Univ Press, 1998)
Lyons John: SEMANTICS (Cambridge Univ Press, 1977)
A discussion of semantics within the framework of semiotics, i.e. taking language as a semiotic system.
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